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J ' 




• ' • 

JWalag— (JFttgUsjr. 


1 / ^^^ ^^ 








This Dictionary f on which the Authors have been engaged for the last six 
yearSf will take so long to complete and will make so bulky a work, that for those 
reasons and for others they have decided to issue it in Parts , of which this is the 

The letters from B to J inclusive are now ready for the press^ and will be 
published in as quick succession as possible. It is anticipated that the whole manu^ 
script will be completed by June, 1896, and thai the la^t part may be published 
before the end of 1898. 




J*ai fait un pen de bien ; c^est mon meiUeur ouvrage I — ^Voltaibb. 

In compiling the present Malay-English and English-Malay Dictionary, it has been 
the endeavour of the Authors to produce a work which shall be more complete than 
any of a like kind at present accessible to the average English student. 

The best Malay-English Dictionary available has hitherto been that of Mr. William 
Marsden, which was published as long ago as 1812. This work, in addition to being 
out of print, and consequently diflBcult to obtain, was written at a time when our 
knowledge of the Malays, and of their language and literature, was necessarily less 
advanced than it is at the present day. Having regard to the period at which it was 
produced, it is almost impossible to speak too highly of this book, but its most ardent 
admirers cannot fail to recognise the fact that, good as the work is, it admits of con- 
siderable improvement, addition and correction. 

Mr. John Crawford's Dictionary, published twenty-eight years later, though a 
valuable work in many respects, partakes more of the nature of a vocabulary 
than of the modern dictionary. It contains more words than are to be found in 
Mr. Marsden's Dictionary, but the native character is not given, while the system of 
transliteration is often puzzling to the modem student and does not always succeed 
in faithfully rendering the true value of Malay sounds. 

The Dictionary published by M. I*abb4 Favre in 1875-80 gives the Malay character 
and is more complete than either of the above-named works. In other respects it is 
less satisfactory. The work is often inaccurate, and the author's passion for the 
theory of Malay compound forms frequently betrays him into coining compound words 
which, though theoretically correct, are not in use among the Malays themselves, and 
would not be readily understood if used either in speaking or writing Malay. Moreover, 
M. Favre's book was, we believe, written after the author's return to Europe, and our 
experience in the same field of labour has convinced us that, without constant reference 
to and consultation with competent native scholars, it is impossible to form conclusions 
on many of the nicer points of Malay orthography which can aspire to have any per- 
manent value. By the peculiarly puzzling alphabetical arrangement of his Dictionary 
we cannot but think that M. Favre has done much to injure the value of his work as 
a book of reference. 

The Dutch dictionaries of Malay, which are admittedly the finest works of their 
kind in existence, are, unfortunately, for the most part sealed books to the average 
English student, in whose scheme of education Dutch but rarely plays a prominent 

In the present work the arrangement of the words follows the Roman alphabetical 
order, which, though perhaps not the most scholarly method, is the one which, in the 
opinion of the authors, is best calculated to render the work useful to the large 
majority of Europeans to whom the order of the native character is not familiar. In 


the same way, and for the same reasons, words are to be found in this Dictionary by 
means of their transliterated forms, and not by the aid of the native character, though 
the scheme of transliteration, which will be found at the beginning of this Dictionary, 
is, we trust, sufficiently explicit to enable easy reference to be made to any Malay word 
the meaning of which is required. 

This work will be found to contain some thousands of words never before inserted 
in any Malay dictionary. Where the use of a word is confined to the natives of any 
one or more localities, notes, where possible, have been inserted explaining and indi- 
cating its restricted use. Special attention has been paid to technical, colloquial, and 
synonymous terms, many of which are not to be met with in the written language. 

The uses of most words, both in the spoken and written languages, are fully 
illustrated by examples taken from standard Malay works, proverbial sayings, and 
colloquial expressions, especially when such phrases embrace idioms which are in 
use either in writing or in the colloquial. These examples, when coupled with the 
numerous grammatical and other notes which are to be found throughout the work, 
will act as a guide to the student in the formation of both a colloquial and a literary 
style in Malay. Each word is given both in the transliterated Malay and in the native 
character. No grammar of the language is at present included in the scheme of 
this work, but it is hoped that, when both parts of the Dictionary have been com- 
pleted, a full treatise on this subject, together with a dissertation dealing with 
the derivations of Malay words, and the terms which other languages have derived 
from Malay, may shortly follow as the joint work, or else as the separate labour 
of one, of the present authors. 

The Malay words contained in the pages of this Dictionary are most copious and 
complete where they form parts of the dialects of the Malay Peninsula, and in like 
manner the transliteration renders the values which the best educated Malays, who 
speak these dialects, attach to the sounds of their common language; at the same time, 
it has been the endeavour of the authors to include, in so far as their opportunities 
have permitted, words in use among the Malays of Sumatra, Borneo, and those other 
parts of the Archipelago in which Malay is spoken. 

The authors are fully sensible of the many respects in which this work falls short 
of their ideal, but the exigencies of their duties, apart from those of lexicographers, 
have precluded the possibility of that thorough and widespread research which, even if 
extended over a lifetime, could scarcely ensure the production of an absolutely complete 
Malay-English dictionary. It has been said, with some degree of truth, that Malay 
is a wordy rather than a rich lauguage ; but it is not until the study of Malay has been 
prosecuted with considerable thoroughness, that the full resource and pecuhar genius 
of the language is appreciated by the European scholar. It has been pointed out with 
irritating persistence that Malay is an imperfect speech medium for scientific and 
abstract reasonings ; this statement is entirely correct, but the genius of Malay, which 
is the language of an inaccurate, exclusive and illiterate people, lies in a wholly different 
direction. As a tongue which is capable of expressing, with admirable terseness, the 
most minute shades of difference between every physical action, and between many 
states of feeling — differences which are so slight as to be hardly perceptible to the 
European mind — Malay has probably few rivals. Like French, it is essentially a diplo- 
matic language, and one admirably adapted for concealing the feelings and cloaking 
the real thoughts. Not even in French is it possible to be so polite, or so rude, nor to 
say such rude things with every appearance of exaggerated courtesy, as is the case in 
Malay. In a language such as this, which is essentially idiomatic, and in which many 


words in themselves contain what in English would require a whole sentence to express, 
it is fatally easy to miss some of the more rarely used terms when collecting material 
for a dictionary. It is to be feared that this difficulty has not been altogether conquered, 
and that in spite of the greatest care many such words may even how have escaped 
observation. It is therefore as a work which is less incomplete than its predecessors, 
rather than one incapable of further improvement, that the authors now offer to the 
public the result of their joint labours. 

H. C. 

F. A. S. 
28th March, 1894. 




















*j^ & 



uu. I 


t Tha 





Th (as in "thick"). 







t Cha 







t Ha 





H (strong in back of throat). 

t Kha 







Kh (stronger than chin "loch"). 

t Dal 





t Thai 












t Zal 







. yJ* 





t Shin 






t Sod 





S (strong). 

t Thod 





Th (as in "the") or D. 

t Ta 





T (strong). 

t Tha 





Th (stronger than Thod). 

t Aain 





Aa or a. 

t Ehain 





:; Nga 







t Pa 






t Pa 


















t Ga 


























An, 0, U, W. 












Ai, B, Bi, I, Y. 

t Nya 







' which, when placed after a final vowel. 

• • • 

• • • 

has the effect of a final silent K. 

Lam -alif 


• • • 

• • • 


Note. — The Malay Alphabet is similar to the Arabic Alphabet with the exception 
of the six letters marked % which have been added. The letters marked t are 
only used in words of Arabic origin. 

Note. — The letters wau ^ and ya ^^ are supplemented by an initial alif \ in order to 
express the following sounds at the beginning of a word :- 

6 ^1 as in Orang 
ty ^1 as in tttat 

ti i\ as in l^lok 
i jit as in Inang 


Note. — ^When two alif \ occur in a word, or in a conjunction of words, the letter a/mzah "^ 
is used to express the second alif, which is suppressed — e.g., la-itu ^^^k 
ka-ampat 2UU*&. 

Note. — The letter adin ^ though usually represented by the sounds ad or a, has, on 
occasion, the sound of e, as in eUrrm, yi^ Science ; e as in Stdkad^ J^lo Faith ; i, as 
in ibdratj &j\^ Allegory ; o, as in dod, Ip^ Prayer; or tZ, as in umor, ykS> Age. 









&y .-ytj 

^1 .^1 

yU. .^U^ 

X^ .l^j .Loj 


«.^y .cr.i«^ 

s?o^ .^^» 

^^ .6^-—** 

1 • 


«u,/ .Sl^ 

^-*J -s?*^ 

^j'-a;-* .^ 

5^^ .S-ij 







S?**>^ -ttJ^*^ •O*"?' 

s^y -6^ 

eb -c^ 



C^ 'C »■ 

j^^ .^^ 










^ .Jt^\ 



^j .^^a .1»jla 

^gJ.M» ,«^iXx* .AtJI 

j/ .J-i 








eb -fcl) 

S?^ .v^^^a~J 

^J .j^ 







i/»>'i -o^^ 

o^b •a*/ 




















A»h o 




^ip .5Jl£> 

l»^ .lo^ 








^^U .^JJL» 



^^1 ,^ 

^j^ .\£>\£> 

dM .^ 




- s?^ 

<5^ -iS^ 




U— <! 

caV»i>- .<^li 




d» .t»yr) 

•-<»» .^^ 


J»<-» -Ji^^ 


j.A^ .^ .Aj 

J^ •> 



)^y .^.iU 

t^ •s?*'* 




s?;y -r^ 

^^ .,3^^ 

^^5UJ . ^1 




^y .^^ 

^-^ -/^ 



^\^ .«-*^i«> 

ejlX^ -U^ 

«>/ .<SJ 



««-ii .^1 

6^/ -^^ 

«^-H -s?^ 


^^^ -tS^^ 

^^\^ .pj,*-, 

«tf*^lH •idj-'* 









The Vowels a, e, i, O, U are pronounced as in Italian. The circumflex accent a or the 
short mark w when placed over any of these vowels, will lengthen or shorten it. 

These tonal marks do not always represent a long or short vowel in the Malay spelling, but 
are given to show the quantities of the various syllables of a word in pronunciation. 

Pronounce d as the a in soprano, or the vowel sound mfarm; example, Birang, Mibok. 

Pronounce a as the vowel sound in the English word some ; example, Sampei, Rangka. 

Pronounce a as the vowel sound in the English word cup; example, Krap, Bahan. 

Never give the sound of di in the English word man, to any Malay word. 

Pronounce S like the sound of ay in the English word may ; example, Elok, Hfemat. 

Pronounce e like the sound of e in the English word ten ; example, Hengga, Pileh, Pengsan. 

Pronounce e as short as possible, like the sound of re in the English word retire ; example, 
Menang, Tepi. The sound is so short that many persons have advocated its expression by a 
single apostrophe, thus, M*nang, but the e is preferable. 

Pronounce i long, as the ee in sleek ; example, Lthat, Pfleh. 

Pronounce i as in the preceding without laying quite so much stress upon it, as Budi, Kinchang. 
At the end of the word, when followed by a consonant, the sound of the i is shorter, like the sound 
of i in the English word tin; example, Lflin, Langit, Masjid. 

Pronounce i very short, as in the case of the e, only with the sound of i in gill ; example, JTlTd, 
Tiap, PTchat. The use of this tone is rare. 

Pronounce $ as in the vowel sound in the English go ; example, Ddsa, Orang. 

Pronounce o as the o in English ; example, Choreng. 

The pronunciation of o really depends on what follows it. Thus, o followed by n is pronounced 
like the English on^ example, Chontol and o alone or followed by an amzah, * has the sound of o in so, 
example, DAto*. Again, o followed by r is pronounced like the English or, thus Undor; whilst o 
before ng is pronounced more like the o in the Dutch yongkheer than in the English long, as 
Longgar, Gunong. 

is very seldom met with ; it should be pronounced with the vowel sound of the English knob ; 
example, Dosta, Pohun. 

Pronounce H like the vowel sound in the English too ; example, Gfinong, Lfika. 

Pronounce u rather shorter than the above, but with the same sound ; as Tikut, Muntah. 

li has the vowel sound of the English word took ; ejyimple, Gulita, Dunia. 

The sound is rare in Malay, but met with in Arabic words. 

Never pronounce u when met with in a Malay word like the u in but. 


Pronounce ae, ai, or ei, when met with, with the sound given by repeating these vowels one 
after the other, as above instructed ; example, Shaer, Semai, Sfingei. 
au has the sound oi ow in the English now ; example, Pfilau. 


As regards Consonants, it is only necessary to say that ng is always pronounced like ng in the 
English hang and never like ng in the English mangle. This last sound is given in Malay by adding 
another g, thus, Tanggong. 

The sound given by Malays to what is expressed by the letters ang is difficult to find in any 
English word. The sound of the first syllable of " hungry " is, however, near it. Never pronounce 
ang like the same letters in the English hang, 

g is always hard, as in go. The soft sound of g in the English gentle is invariably expressed 
byy in Malay, thus, Jtnak. 

ch is always pronounced like the ch in church, — and sh like the same letters in shine unless 
where specially instructed to the contrary. 

Always pronounce th like th in M^and not as in ^thin\ except when the letter Tha (J) occurs. 
kh should be pronounced like ch in Loch, but harder, as Khabar. 

Whenever a word, or the final syllable of a word of more than one syllable, ends with either h 
or k, that word or final syllable must be pronounced very short indeed, — ^whatever the vowel which 
precedes the h or k. When the word ends with h that letter should be slightly sounded, but when 
it ends with k, the k is always silent in the dialects spoken in the Peninsula, although it is pronounced 
by the natives of Borneo, Sumatra and other parts of the Archipelago. 

Lastly, the letter r is more guttural than that in English and more nearly resembles the sound 
of the r in the German word Berg than in any English word. It is a peculiarity of the people that 
they lay much stress on the r in pronunciation. It is difficult for an Englishman to pick up the 
practice, but it should be attempted. 


The local dialects of colloquial Malay form a subject of minor importance, and consist more in 
slight differences of pronunciation than in the variety of words employed. In no case are the 
local peculiarities of dialect so marked as to present any obstacle to mutual intercourse between 
the natives of different parts of the Peninsula, and if the rules for accurate pronunciation of Malay 
words, as above laid down, are carefully adhered to, and if these words are used in their proper 
sense the knowledge of Malay acquired wiH be found equally useful in all parts of the Malay 
Peninsula and in many of the islands of the Archipelago. 

Local Peculiarities. 

The following are some of the principal peculiarities of the dialects of the Malay Peninsula^ 
and they are, of course, more accentuated amongsjt the lower orders. 

In the States of Pfirak, SelAngcfr, Sfingei Ujong, Johor, Pahang and TrenggAnu final a is 
pronounced like the vowel sound in the English word " burP 

In Kedah and Malacca final a is pronounced like a final a in Italian. 

In PetAni and Kelantan the final a is pronounced like the final vowel sound in the English 
word saw. 

In some parts of the State of Pftrak final a is pronounced e with rather a drawl. 

The other chief peculiarities of the Kedah dialect are that the final syllable in words ending in 
/ is so altered that al is pronounced ^, ol is pronounced oi and ul is pronounced ui. Final j is pro- 
nounced like A, as in ntpis which is pronounced nipih^ and there is a very noticeable tendency to 
"clip" words wherever possible; /and j, in such words as bantal ^Xii hdbis^ are slurred in such a 
degree that they can hardly be said to be pronounced at all, while all words ending in ul are 
pronounced ui. This peculiarity to a minor extent is observable amOng the natives of P6rak 
and Pahang. 

In Pfirak u is sometimes changed into o^ as in rUmah^ which becomes rSmah, The final g in 
all words ending in ing is dropped. All words ending in r are pronounced as though they ended 
in OTy and a final au is pronounced in the same way. Initial and medial r is very guttural. 

By the natives of Trengg4nu final ng is replaced by final w, and final m by final ng. They 
also omit medial m and «, such words as kampong and gantang being pronounced kapom and gatam. 

In PetAni and Kelantan final ng becomes an «, which is very slightly sounded, and final n 
becomes ngy with a strong nasal sound. Final m also becomes ng, medial m and n are also omitted 
in a similar manner to that adopted by the natives of Trengg4nu. 

The natives of Menangkibau, Mendfeling and R4wa, and some other parts of Sumatra pronounce 
final a as do natives of KSlantan and Petini, and the Malays of B4tu B4ra pronounce it like ar. 
The chief peculiarity noticeable among the Malays of Sumatra is a tendency to lengthen those 
vowels, which, in the Peninsula, are pronounced short, thus bekas is pronounced bSkas, &c. 
A tendency to roll the letter r is also observable among the Malays of Sumatra. 

Many local words are in use in different parts of the Peninsula, and they will be found in the 
body of this work, so need not be enumerated here. Other words which may be used with propriety 
in one part of the Peninsula are held to be inelegant by the natives of other parts ; thus, the 
numeral co-efficient Biji must not be used in Pahang, Biitir being substituted for it, and the word 
Bfirong must be replaced by Ung^as in Rambau. In the same way, Gdlak is good Malay in Pferak 
but bears a coarse meaning in Kedah. 

The States of Petini and Kelantan are more rich in local words than any other places in the 
Peninsula, and there the lowest form of Malay is spoken, always excepting the grossly degenerate 
patois spoken in the Colony of the Straits Settlements, and which is rapidly spreading in all 
civilized districts populated by foreigners and Europeans. 

The so-called *' Malay" spoken in the Straits by Europeans, Tamils, Chinese and others would 
not be understood in those parts of the Peninsula as yet unpermeated by this " pidjin" Malay, and 
those foreigners who take their instructions from the books which teach this olla podrida of English, 
Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, Tamil, Hindustani and Malay, would certainly find themselves quite 
unable to understand Malays speaking in their own tongue. 

All authorities are agreed that the purest Malay is spoken at the present time by the natives of 
the Peninsula, especially in the States of P^rak, Kedah, Johor and Pahang, and it is here that the 
student should look for specimens of the language in its highest and most elegant forms. 









— — 

Malay of Batavia. 





Malay of Bencoolen. 


— ^ 



— , 








— : 







— — 











Telinga or Tamil. 

Note. — When any of the above abbreviations are placed after a Malay word, it does not necessarily denote that the 
term in question is a pure form in the language indicated, but that the word is derived from that language, or is an altered 
form of some word which it contains. 







A I. 

A I The Malays pronounce a (long) like 
the a in the Italian word soprano or the 
vowel sound in "calm"; a (medium) is 
pronounced like the vowel sound in 
**come/' and a (short) is pronounced a 
little more shortly than the vowel sound 
in the English word "but." The sounds d 
or a, when the expression of the vowel is 
notentirely suppressed, are represented in 
the Malay character by the letter I alify 
which is the first letter of the Arabic and 
Malay alphabets. Note : In colloquial 
Malay a final a is pronounced in a variety 
of ways, all of which are discribed in 
the foregoing notes on Local Peculiarities. 
The most usual is perhaps that which 
gives to a final a the vowel sound in the 
English word bur. 

Aabad, Ar., j^Ic> Good, worthy, polite, 
pleasant. Jangan-lah orang aabad ber- 
kampong dengan orang jahat, dLjL^Us 

^ir^ ^;jl ^^ ^y^^ ^^ ^^j' Let not 
good men consort with men who are 

Aabad i, Ab., v^^uo A bought slave, the 
descendant of a bought slave, a slave 
or the descendant of a slave who 
was not originally of the Muhammadan 
religion. Note : An Aabadi v^J-^c> can be 
bought or sold without his consent, 
which is not the case with the Hamba 
ber-Atang, ^^]y, *^y^ or slave debtors. 
Me-merdeh6ka-kan aabadi, ^^\SLgjt>^jA^ 
^^y^ To free a slave. Orang aabadi 
dan 6rang merdeh6ka, ^j\ ^1 J ^s^ &jj] 
IC^j^ Slaves and free men. Note: 

The term HurA ^^.^ is also used for free 
men — i.e., persons who are not slaves. 
Ada-pun zinah itu di-atas tiga bhagi 

Aiidat, Ak., 6jIc>. 

satu hurd sama hurA ka-dAa hurd sama 
aabadi, ka-tiga aabadi sama aabadi, ^3^lv3l 

l»L^ ^ yL-^ ^L^ «_<^" ^|j ui^l &Li^ 

^L^ ^^J<a£> i^JLgSS^ ^^J<a£> ^^Lmo j-^ \^jS jje»^ 

^^wUo This fornication is of three kinds 
(divisions), firstly those who are free with 
those who are free, secondly the free 
with slaves, and thirdly slaves with 
slaves. Tebus aabadi, v^wX^ o^j^ ^^ 
purchase a slave. Note : In colloquial 
Malay this word is commonly pro- 
nounced abdi or rbdi 

Aabarat, Ar., &j^ An allegory. (See 
Ibarat, 6;Lx>). 

Aadad, Ar., jjx> Numbers, numerals. 
Kitab iang ber-nama al-aadad, A~4, <-T^la^ 
jj^l |#l3^ The Book of Numbers. 

Aadalat, Ar., 2^\js> Justice, equity. Me- 
rosak-kan nama aiidalat raja, *»l3 ^^^S^^y^ 

gl^ dJ|jx> To defame the king's justice. 
Note : This word (pronounced Aadalah) 
is only met with in Malay books of purely 
Arabic origin, dealing with morals and 
ethics. Unlike its root Aadil, ^^^ it is 
not in common use among Malays. (See 
Aadil, Jab> Just, &c.) 

Aadat, As., 6jlc> Custom, usage, manner, 
habit, state, mode, fashion, rite, func- 
tions, ceremonies, rules of etiquette, of 
behaviour, or of law. Ada-pun aadat 
segala hdlubalang Malayu apa-bila nama 
tftan-nya di-b&wa' pada s'biiah negri 
maka handak-lah sangat-sangat meng- 
hermat-kan dan takut akan mem-bri aaib 
s'kali-kali ia tiada mau, JSL© &^\£> ^^^l^il 

/U ^LJ ^\ r^l5Lo HW^ls> ^j^ ^] s/is 
It is the custom of Malay warriors, when 

they support the reputation of their 
master in a foreign land, to treat his 
name with great respect and fear, and 
they will not on any account bring shame 
upon it. Aadat Malayu mem-bawa' sharat 
hMubalang apa-bila ia ka-sftngei mWut- 
nya tiada mau ber-kata-kata karana 
belum habis ka-s<ingei lagi, .^Lu^^X* &jlc> 

^i ^^ ^j^M f^^ ^j^ r^lO? It is 

the Malay custom for one who is skilled 
in warrior's knowledge, when he is reliev- 
ing himself, to refrain from speech until 
he has completed his ablutions. Maka 
ftpa-bila kita masok ka-dalam negri orang 
tentu-lah men-Arut ista-aadat raja-nya. 

^\j fijU::-^! &jy^ iJ^^xaJ Whenever one 
enters any foreign country one, of course, 
follows the customs of its ruler. Deri 
mana datang-nya dan handak ka-mana 
pergi-nya dan berapa 6rang di-dalam- 
nya dan apa barang mAat-an-nya dan 
Ma-kah ia ka-tahu-i ftkan aadat bhasa 
ugama 6rang di-laut ini, ,^\^ o^^*^ 
^;^l i^\j—^. ^b ^y ^^L^ jj^ ^b 

cH' ^-^^^ t>}^ '-^' u-Wi ^^^ v/' v^X^ 
Whence comes he, and whither goes he ? 

How many men are in the ship, and 

what is its cargo? and does he know 

the manners, customs, and religion of 

the inhabitants of this sea? Maka 

laksamana pun datang meng-adap ber- 

jalan sSperti aadat sedia-kala, ^UJi) tsA-» 

JKiJw^ 6jlo syLo J\c^ji «^jUl. ^b ^ 

The Admiral came to see the monarch, 
walking according to his customary habit. 

Sepcrtiaadats'hari-hari,t'^^^l^3Jlo syLo 
According to his daily habit. Patek itu 
handak meng-Map duli shah aalam, maka 
pS,tek itu handak mem-akei perentah 
scperti aadat raja-raja meng-adap, maka 
raja pun ber-titah baik-lah iang mana 
aadat segala 6rang tAa-tAa kita iang 
dahMu kala itu, tiada kita dbah-kan 
karana Tan Megat anak ka-pada kita, 

SjIp &^l^ iJLsJji ^^U^ <3^^^^ ^' "^K?^ 

a^ j^ ^1 aC. ^ ^^is ^y u^ agf m\ 

He (thy slave) wishes to come into thy 
presence, and he wishes to use the cere- 

Aadat, Ab., dJic>. 

monies customary when a prince seeks 
an interview. Then said the king, " It 
is well, we will not change the state 
ceremonials formerly in use among our 
ancestors because Tan Megat is to us as 
a son." Maka Baginda itu di-kahwin-kan 
6rang-lah dengan tAan Peteri Gemala 
Rakan Pelinggam, seperti aadat raja- 
raja iang men-anggong ka-raja-an iang 
besar-besar, ^j)\ ^^^ixi^*^ «:^l jjJ^ csA^ 

&^\s> &^ ^^X*U ^\j JU ^y^ ^\^ J>sS 

t>-A /W^l^ ^y^*^ t^ t'eb They 
married the monarch to the Princess 
Gemala Rakan Pelinggam according to 
the rites observed among princes who 
rule great monarchies. Biar mati anak 
jangan mati aadat, ^U ^j^^W^ ^1 ^JfL# ^ 
&*^\s> Let our children die rather than 
our customs. Prov. Ista-aadat ^aUx^l 
and Ista-aadat ka-raja-an ^^*^^'^ ^aljcuo) 
Customs, ceremonies, state functions,, 
rites, &c. Hukum aadat, Salc> ^^ The 
laws of custom, as opposed to the 
Hukum sharaa, p ^ ^♦^c^ or laws contained 

in the Khuran. Pada hukum aadat 6rang 
pem-bAnoh bWih di-denda-kan sampei 
tiijoh pAloh lima tfi,hil pfirak atau-pun di- 
htdor-kan ka-pada ka-raja-an, a^L^ A_i 

According to the laws of custom a mur- 
derer may be fined up to seventy-five 
ounces of silver, or become the slave of 
the ruling power. (See note under HAlor 
yyb). Note: a tahil p6rak, ^j^ X^\5 
(ounce of silver, 16 oz. to the kati, 1^ lbs.) 
is reckoned as being worth sixteen 
Mexican dollars. Tiada aadat s'kali-kali 
me-laku-kan iang damikian, 5jLc> ^L^ 
0«^^ S v//^ y^J^^ There is no form 
of usage which justifies such conduct. 
Liiar aiidat, SJlo j\^ or Salah pada aadat, 
&alo jj d3L) Contrary to the prescribed 
manner. Pegang aadat, 3Jlo *S^ To 

stand by the customs in force, to appeal 
to the laws of custom. Letak aadat, ^5^3 
SjIc> To lay down the law in accordance 
with custom. Minta aadat, &^\£> *Uju» 
To demand the penalty laid down by 
the law of custom, to demand redress. 
Langgar aadat, &jLc> jKi^ To behave 
with gross rudeness, to infringe the rules 
of etiquette or law. Aadat rdja be-kerja, 
&J^ sb ^^^ State ceremonies (conse- 
quenjb on the birth, circumcision, or 

Aildawat, Ae., SjIj^. 

marriage of a member of a royal family). 
See note under Kerja, g^ to work, &c. 
Maka aadat-nya pada tiap-tiap hari mS.ka 
&pa-bila sudah ia mem-basoh kain maka 
di-mAat-nya ka-atas kaldei itu, ^^^ <-s^ 

4*^1 ^^jJl^ ^*l^ ^Ir**^ *^^ O^^ ^* "^^s 
his daily custom, when he had washed 
the clothes, to put a load of them upon 
the ^ss. 
Aadiwat, Ar., &^]js> Enmity, hatred. 

Aadi, Ar., v^^^vo An enemy, a foreigner. 

Aadil, Ar., J«^lc> Just. Maka Sang Perte- 
dfiwa pun ka-raja-an-nya ter-lalu aadil dan 
pereksa-nya akan segala raayat-nya <-2^ 

^^^p-^^ yi 9 ^1 And Sang Perted6wa 

was most just in the government of his 
country, and he enquired into the con- 
dition of all his subjects. Ada raja iang 
aadil dan ada iang thalim, J»^^ ^ gb *^' 
A©3ll=> ^^ al ^b There are both just and 
unjust kings. 

Damikian-lah laku-nya sultan bestari, 
Men-jadi raja dAa bflah negri, 
Aadil dan mftrah tiada ter-pri, 
tTtus meng-Atus ka-sana ka-mari, 

^y^ jLJ &j^ ^b JjLs> 

Such was the conduct of the wise Sultan, 
who bad now become the ruler of two 
kingdoms. His justice and generosity 
were indescribable, and he held friendly 
intercourse with the neighbouring realms. 
Ka-aadil-an, ^jj-J^aU^ Justice. Dan ba- 
ginda pun me-laku-kan ka-aadil-an di- 
atas segala isi negri-nya, ^^,y Iju^ ^J^ 
^/^ ^ y:^^ ^j^\^ ^6\si ^^X. 
And the monarch behaved with justice 
to all the inhabitants of his country. 
Sepaya bMih-lah aku meng-a-tahu-i di- 
&tas akhtiar segala 6rang besar-besar iang 
mem-egang hukum-hukum-an dan ka- 
aadil-an, Jirfi^ ^jJflo K^yir^ ^^ ^^ s?l^ 
^aU^ ^U ^>tf^ ^ ^ l>^ ^^j' J^ 
In order that I may be aware of the 
intentions of those Chiefs who carry out 
the laws and administer justice. Hukum- 
an iang ka-aadil-an, ^^\»^ ^ — i ^^j*^ 
Just laws — t.6.,laws which ensure justice. 

Aafiat, Ar., 5<J^ Health, convalescence, 
recovery. Maka harap-lah kita ka-pMa 

Aaib, Ab., H-4*lc> 

TAhan sru sekelian aalam seperti sri 
paduka sehabat kita ada di-dalam s6hat 
wal-aafiat s'lama-lama-nya, db^Ljb csA^ 

^y-^ Sjiuo ^ l^ vjjfti^ )j-^ ^j^y "^^ «*-^ 

We trust in the Lord of all the universe 
that our friend is always well, and free 
from sickness. Aafiat deri-p^da ka- 
sakit-an dan semboh deri-pada peny- 
akit-nya, a^.-». ■■<> ^lj ^^ja-^L^jjjj R ^As> 
^^su$\^ j3^a Recovered from his disease, 
and healed as to his ailments. Aafiat 
di-kemia Tdhan, ^y U^a M^ Good 
health is granted by the Lord. 

Aaib, Ab., s-i*^ (or s---^). Shame, a 
reproach, an insult, a defect, a flaw. Mem- 
bri aaib, c^*lc> k^j^^a^ To shame or insult 

a person. Men-aroh aaib, h-A*^ ^^J^ 
To feel ashamed, to be ashamed. Ada-pun 
aadat segala hMubalang Malayu itu apa- 
bila nama tdan-nya di-bawa' pada s'bftah 
negri maka handak-lah sangat-sangat 
meng-hermat-kan dan takut dan mem-bri 
aaib s' kali-kali tiada ia mau, S^\s> ^^^\*^) 

/u s?i aL^J r^^i<^ -^^^ ^^ e)'^ ^/^ 

It is the custom of Malay warriors when 
they are sustaining the reputation of 
their master in a foreign land, to treat 
his name with great respect and fear, 
and they will not on any account bring 
shame upon it. Tiada p&tut di-bri nama 
hfilubalang dan peng-lima ka-pS,da 6rang 
iang tiada men-aroh malu dan aaib, i^Lj 

s,-^*lc> ^l^yU &^j^ ^^ It is not fitting 
that those should be called warriors and 
war-chiefs who are devoid of shame and 
impervious to insult. Aaib-kan, ^^^''\^ 
To insult, to shame. Jika di-aaib-kan 
kita baik mati deri-pada hidup dengan 

men-anggong malu, u:-^ ^jjC..i*lc>a csAa, 
yU ^y^Aj.* ^a cJJ^ JJ;;*^ ^U «^b If 

we be insulted it were better to die 
than to live disgraced. Aaip-an, ^^*t> 
Insult, shame. Bab iang ka-dfta pMoh 
lima pri hukum meng-embali-kan benda 
iang di-bli sebab aaib apa-bila mem-bli 
suatu benda ka-lihat-an fi-tas. benda itu 
aaib iang sedia di-kembali-kan-nya, 

IJjl) SI^ ^J^fA^ ^\ H-i*lc> c,..-^ ^ J ^ 

Aaidaty An., &Jw^ 

^^^jiX-<^l^a Chapter the twenty-fifth 
relating to the law referring to the return- 
ing of goods which have been bought 
on account of any defect. When any- 
thing has been purchased, if it is noticed 
that it has any defect (which it had at 
the time when it was sold) it should be 

Aaidat, Ait., &J^ Return, produce, tribute. 

Aain, p the letter p which is the twentieth 
letter of the Malay alphabet. English 
equivalent aa or a: sometimes this letter 
has the sound of e, as in elemu ^^ 
science ; 6, as in 6takad, JJl5lo Faith ; i, as 
in ibarat, 6;Lp Allegory; sometimes 6, 
as in doa, l^a Prayer ; or ii, as in imior, 
j^^£> Age. Note: The presence of this 
letter is almost invariably a sign of the 
word in which it occurs being of foreign, 
usually of Arabic, origin. 

Aaip-an, ^*l^ Shame, insult, a reproach. 
(See Aaib, c^*lc> Shame, &c.) 

Aajab, Ar., «--saO Oppression, injustice, 
misery, discomfort, to feel oppressed. 
This is a common Malay rendering of 
Aiizab, t^J^ 

Aajaib, Ae., c^/^p Wonder, surprise, 
wonderful, surprised, miracles, prodigies, 
to be surprised. Patek pun te-rasa 
ajijaib mem-andang rdpa-nya, ^^ csA-jU 
^[fijj ajuu- «n-i*l^ ^\j'S Thy slave felt 

wonder at beholding her. Aajaib-lah 
aku mCm-ikir-kan, ^^^.*j^ ^\ aL^'Up 
I am astonished when I reflect upon it. 
Jangan-lah men-jadi aiijaib dan taajub 
tflan hamba, ^^1^ ^-4*^^ ^^^\s,i^ aL^U. 
^...^Jb vly ^^^^ Be not surprised or 
astonished, oh my master (7.e., at any- 
thing which you may see.) Aiijaib 
khanah (Pers.) ajIcU hW*1<^ A museum 
(i.e., a place where wonders are collected 
together.) Apa-bila pfitek ada me-lihat 
satu aajaib bharu-lah patek datang meng- 
adap, c^^U^ yL^ B^ j| c^U J^l 

c-3jU^ ^b csJlJf^ ^}yit^ When thy slave 
has seen a prodigy then only does he 
come into thy presence. Maka apa-bila 
di-dengar Alih hakim akan per-kata-an 
itu ter-lalu-lah aajaib-nya karana pohun 
kayu tahu ber-kata-kata itu, J-«^l ^^^ 

^\^ dsyjy ail /usy ^1 ^5:^ d)ji^jj 

uu^l Y^^jk yblj^ls ^y ^y^ Now when 
the judge heard these words he was 

Aakal, Ar., J-fic>. 

exceedingly astonished in that a tree 
could speak. Mau-kah tAan-tAan men- 
dengar suatu hikayat iang amat aajaib, 

c^*^;o Will ye listen, oh master, to a 
very wonderful tale ? Maka kata anak 
raja itu bahwa sftnggoh-nya aajaib ini, 

Jii .^\^ ^^^y. 1^ ail eb ^1 5i^ csu 

Then quoth the Prince, "Now verily 
it is a miracle." H6 sehabat-ku iihat-lah 
barang aajaib dan khasiat di-dalam-nya, 

2L^i<5. ^ij c^'i^ ^^i? dk^y:«iU^ ^ 

^li^a Oh my friend, behold the peculi- 
arity and quality of the things which are 
within it. 

Aajam, Ar., f^^ Persian, BenAa aajam, 
f^^ \yA Persia. Crang aajam, (^^^j)^ 

A Persian. BAat-an aajam, f^^^ ^\^ 
Of Persian manufacture. Hampar-an 
bdat-an aajam, f^^^ ^\^ ^^y^-^^ Persian 

Aajibat, Ar., a?^ A miracle, a marvel; 
an astonishing, marvellous, or wonderful 
thing. Note : This word, unlike its root 
Aajaib, c^*Up is not generally under- 
stood among Malays. 

Aakad, Ak., JJi^ A concluded bargain; 
agreed, done. Note : The Avord Achi, 
^\ or Asi, ^\ is more commonly used 

to convey this meaning. 

Aakaid, Ar., Js^lfio Articles of faith. 
Aaktiid iang di-dalam kitab sharaa, J^Uo 
^y» ^U^ ^la J ^ The articles of Faith 
which are in the Scriptures. 

Aakal, Ar., Ja£> Intelligence, sagacity, 

acuteness, ingenuity, cunning, policy, 
judgment, understanding, stratagem, 
resource. He Setdbah jikalau aakal itu 
semperna neschaya sampei-lah barang ka- 
handak-nya itu, <s^\ Jfio ^^ 6iy;ua ^ 

c&Aii ^Joup ^jy^ dLJL«.%o ^^l^^ ^^♦^^ Oh 

Setflbah, if his sagacity is suflBcient, what- 
ever may be his desire it will surely come 
to pass. Mau-kah tAan-hamba men- 
dengar suatu hikayat bagei-mana aakal 
bftlih me-lepas-kan deri-pada bahia, 

L*^ J^ja ^jjCiU d3^ Jfif> Wilt thou, oh 

my master, listen to a tale of how 
acuteness can deliver one from danger ? 
Maka kata bdrong betina itu aakal apa- 
kah ttiBJi hamba kata-kan itu, <^i^ f^^ 
^Uf H-iJb ^]y d<il Jto «^l ^^ ^Jji 

Aakal, Ar., Jto 

ii) "Please," said the hen bird, "what 
manner of judgment is this of which 
my master speaks ? " Maka sebab aakal 
tAan-hamba sedikit sfi-ngat itu-lah maka 
di-bdat aniaya (dih benara itu pada tiap- 

tiap h^ri, 5<s<iJu^ ^--^ ^^V J^ *t— ^^ <^^ 

^g^b> t^^-M It is because your intelligence 
is so limited that that fuller oppresses 
youtiailv. Jikalau mau tftan-tflan men- 
Arut bechara haraba ada-lah satu aakal 
sepaya kita sekelian bftlih selamat, ^^^s^ 

jao s\j-^ d3bi c^-u^ ]j\c^ &jy^ r^'y y^ 

d)^ ^j:)<-^ ^^ v^li-^ If, my 

masters, ye will follow my advice 
there is a stratagem by which we may 
all be saved. Ber-aakal, y^ji Wise ; 
having intelligence, sagacity, acuteness, 
ingenuity, or cunning; resourceful, of 
sound judgment. Ada-lah be-berapa kias 
dan ibdrat, ia-itu akan men-jadi hald-an 
btlgei segala 6rang iang bijak-sana dan 

ber-aakal, S^L^ ^^lj ^^ <-*l>^? ^J'^' 

j^y. ci'"^ c)^*""*^ There are many hints 
and proverbs which will be as a gift to 
those who are wise and blest with under- 
standing. Maka ada ter-bhagi hikayat 
ini atas lima bhagi-an, ia-itu fi.kan men- 
jadi peng-ajar-an pada 6rang iang ber- 
aakal, ^ J.^] ^) i-iK-c. ^g^y ^' <^^ 

Jfi^^ This story is divided into five parts 
in order that it may be a series of lessons 
to those who possess understanding. 

Aakal balirh, ^b Jfii> and Aakil b^lirh, 

^l^ Jt^fi^ Adult, arrived at the age of 
puberty ; arrived at years of discretion. 
Panjang aakal, Jfis> ^^ Artful, cunning, 

ingenious, long-headed. Aakal ta' baik, 
i^\i ''iJ Jto Evil cunning, an evil idea, 

a wicked thought, an evil project. Deri- 
m&na terbit-nya aakal ta' baik itu, ^t^P^ 
4*^1 caiilj *lj Jfi^ 3^^ Whence came so 
evil a thought ? Aakal bMi, ^^a^ Jto 
Good sense. Timbang-kan dengan aakal 
iang sempema, ^^jlu^ ^ Jfif> ^^ ^jj^*^-^ 

To weigh with sound judgment. Pikir- 
kan-lah dengan aakal iang h^llus, ^jS^Lj 

^yb> ^ Jto ^j Reflect upon it with nice 
discrimination. M^sok aakal, Jflo ^U 
or Menesabah pada aakal, Jfi£> JJ 6i 

Aalaikum, Ar., ^■<^Jgv 

Credible, probable, reasonable, in accord- 
ance with reason, possible. Ta' mS^sok 
aakal, Jfio ^U "U, Tidak menes&bah 
pada aakal, Jfif> Jsi dj Lju* ^^ ; or Tidak 
ter-slluh pada aakal, Jfif> ^ &j^^ <3*^ 
Not to be accepted by the understanding 
or reason, not in accordance with reason, 
incredible, improbable, impossible, un- 
likely. Kdta aikal, Jfif> c»aI^ To suppose^ 
to guess, to think probable, to imagine, 
(lit., my reason tells me.) Cherdek ta' 

ber-aakal, y^y ^^ <5i^^ Cunning with- 
out discretion. (An expression often 
used in speaking of the action of 

AakTbat, Ar., 2^\s> Conclusion, reward. 

Aakik, Ar., ^^(fi£> Cornelian stone. 

Aaktkat, Ar., 4Ui.f/ir> The ceremony of 
shaving the head of a newly-born infant. 

Aakil, Ar., yfis> Years of discretion, the 
age to assume personal responsibility. 
MS,ka bftdi dan iang ber-bAdi bahwa 
aakal dan aakil n^ma ka-d{La-nya, <^^ 

r^ y^ o'^ J^ 'j^ s?^y^ 6 c>'^ ^"^^ 
^^)>)^ Intelligence, and those who are 
intelligent are rendered (in Arabic) by 
the two words aakal, jAc> and aakU 
JJio. Sampei aakil bfi-lirh, J->fis> ^JU^ 
^Ij. Arrived at years of discretion and 

the age of puberty. Note : This word, 
unlike its root Aakal, JSo is not in 
general use among Malays, and is only 
to be met with in writings of a purely 
Arabic origin, which deal with questions 
of morals and ethics. 

AakTIat, Ar., <LLfi^ The relation on the 
father's s.ide. Those who, according to 
Malay laws, are held responsible, in 
some instances, for the crimes committed 
by their relatives. Note : This word is 
only foimd in books of Arabic origin 
dealing with questions of morals and 

Aakas, Ar., ,j-^ Inversion, change. 

Aala, Ar., ^\s> High, on high, elevated, on, ^ 

upon. Allah taala, ^^UJ dUI God most 

high. Note: This word is only used 
among Malays in this and kindred 
expressions. % 

Aalaihi, As., ^^ Upon, against, with. , 

Aalaikum, Ar., ^^^J^ With you, upon you. 

Al-salam aalstikum, wa-aal&ikum sal&m. 

P^abe be with 

Note: This is 
and reply 


Aalam, ^1 

you, and upon you peace. 

the form of salutation 

use among those Malays who have 

some knowledge of Arabic manners and . 


Aalam, ^lo The world, the universe, the : 

earth and all that it contains. Ttihan sru ! 
sekelian aalam, f^\s> ^^^JC^^^^^ ^y The 

Lord of all the universe. Maka sembah 
segala aUun-nujum dan strawan,ya tflan- 
ku shah aalam patek m5hun-kan ampun 
be-ribu-ribu ampun dan kemia pada ka- 
bawah duli shah aalam, JC^ ^^j^^ <^^ 

^^LS jj Li/^)j ^^l Y^j^ ^51^' o^>^ 
^lc>aU8 ^ J Then all the astronomers and 

magicians made obeisance, saying, " D^ 
king of all the universe, we thy slaves 
crave pardon, thousands of pardons, and 
grace beneath thy feet, oh ruler of j 
the world." Note : Although the term ! 
T(ian-ku Shah aiilam, ^\s> &\£d ^]y 

Ruler of the universe, Duli Shah aiilam, 
^loesLto ^J King of the world, &c., are 

often met with in writing, they are 
phrases which do not form part of the 
colloquial terms of respect and politeness 
used in addressing a Raja, but Ka-bawah 
duli, ^J &jlS and DuU tuan-ku ^J 

yjJy are both commonly used to mean 
Your Highness or His Highness when 
speaking of the Ruler. Tiiida si-apa iang 
tolok banding-nya di-dalam dunia aalam 
ini, Ua ^»jj ^juj ^y ^. ^L-o aU 

^j-i\ ^ Lo There is no one who is a match 
or can compare with him in all this earth 
and universe. Plehera-kan-nya nyawa 
patek sepaya ter-meshahor-lah mima tiian- 
ku ka-pada segdla aalam ini, .^^j^t)^ 

^jil ^ t> Preserve my life that thy name, 
oh master, may be renowned throughout 
the universe. Ada-pun tftan iang mon- 
rang-kan segala aalam diiuia ini serta 
laut dan darat ia-itu bAlan, >^ ^ly ^y ^' 

^ji %M^\i The master who enlightens 
all the universe and the seu and the 
land, that is to say, the moon. Bahwa 
silnggoh-nya ka-hlku-an iang dauxikian 
ini ter-keji ka-pada segAla isi aulani, 

Aalamat, ^ 

Jl& -wjI J^H-*^ J^ Now, verily, such 
conduct will be a matter of reproach to 
us in the sight of all the people of the 

Aalam, Ab., fjs>) Most wise, all knowing. 
Note : This word is only used by Malavs 
in the expression Wallah waalam, dlll^ 
fJ^\x God is all-wise, God alone knows, 
God knows, &c. MaJca di-bri-n^ herta 
ter-l&lu banyak akan brahmana itu 
dengan tiada ter-kira-kira ada-nya wal- 
lah waalam, ^ ^l| ^ Sy i^j^ ^j^a csU 

^b ^b ^'^' H^y ^LJ J>^ «-i» ^^j^ 

He gave the Brahman great quantities 
of possessions, so many that they were 
innumerable. God knows the amount 
thereof. (See Aalim, ^*J^ Wise, in- 
structed, &c.) 
Aalam, Ar., f^\£> A flag, a standard, an 

ensign, jurisdiction. Aalam ka-raja-an 
^*l«^iy^lc> The Royal standard. Men- 

diri-kan bendera puteh aalam baginda, 
j^ ^U> ^Wy 'j4J^ v:5^j-i-^^*- T<> set 
up the white standard, the ensign of 
the conqueror. Note: The white flag, 
according to Malay customs, may only 
be used bv a monarch who bears the 
title of " Baginda," JjJ^ the yellow flag 
being appropriated to the use of a SMtan, 
^IkLa and the black flag to the use 
of a Bendahara,, ^l^Joj The Sultans of 
Pa hang and Perak, however, both fly a 
white flag, though they make no claim 
to the title of Baginda, J^ and in the 
latter State the yellow flag is used by 
the Raja MMa, la^ gl> who is also the 
heir to the throne. The Chiefs of the 
Councils of Four and Eight are entitled 
by Malay custom to fly the flag of their 
oflice, but the colours and devices of 
these banners differ in almost every 
State, as in many instances do the titles 
borne by the different Chiefs. It is, 
however, rather imusual for these Chiefs 
to use any special flag. (See Bendera, 
\jlJ^ and Panji-panji, t*^s^ Flags, &c.) 

Aal&mat, ^^ Sign, signal, token, mark, 
device, address, banners, flags. Tampil 
pftla mem-bakar segala meriam dan lela 
mem-bri aiUamat tanda ka-sflka-an mem- 
bi\ang bala negri Mandi Angin, Jji J-JUJ 

^1 v^Juu. ^/i Jli l\y^ ^'IS>^ Then 

they set to again and fired all the camion 
and swivel guns as a sign and token of 

Aalamat, 2^is> 

gladness in that the calamity to the land 
of Mandi Angin had been averted. 
Maka di-gertak-kan tArun ayer deri-pada 
mddut-nya tiga titek m&ka Raja Chamar 
laut ini men-angis karana sudah di-ka- 
tahu-i di-dalam aalamat-nya akan pe- 
prang-anhandakka-t^was-an, ^^j^^^ <-sA^ 

^1^ jjujb ^\^ ^] ^^^ ^\^^ He 

shook it (i.e., the cannon), and three 
drops of water came from its mouth. 
Then Raja Chamar Laut wept, for he 
knew that the sign was that his warfare 
would be unsuccessful. Maka ia-pun 
mem-bAat-lah. aalamat tftndok, ^^1 csA^ 
^jjy a^Ap ^\j.fM^ ^ Then he made a 
signal of surrender. Ada-pun ketika- 
nya datang lembu itu ta' dapat tiada 
aiilamat-nya tArun angin ribut dan hAjan 
lebat, jLj aib "U Jjl ^ ^b ^l5C^ ^y al 

^ d^^ c)'*^ ^^^ cJ^' iS>^J^ ^iT^^ ^* 

the time of the coming of the bull most 
certainly there will be a sign thereof in 
the coming of a storm of wind and 
heavy rain. Itu-lah aaUmat raja iang 
besar men-anggong ka-d{lka-an, <Oj-x-il 
^*l(j j^ ^/^^^ j-^ ^ eb ^^ That is 
the sign that a great prince is afflicted 
with sorrow. Mata aalamat, d-«Ao uoU 
The bull's-eye of a target. Note : In 
colloquial Malay this phrase is shortened 
into Matalamat,^^ uoU (See Men-embak 
sesar, j.^.^^ ^ ». » ^ To shoot at a target.) 

Note : The phrase Mata aalamat, i-^^U 
is also sometimes used to mean an omen. 
Aalamat sdrat ini barang di-sampei-kan 
Allah subahana-hu wa-taala apa-lah jda 
kira-nya datang ka-hadap-an mejelis sri 
paduka sehabat kita tflan iang ter-utama 
Gebcnor iang mem-erentah-kan tiga 
b{lah negri ia itu Singapftra Malaka dan 
PMau Pinang dengan segala taalok 
jajahan-nya, ^j<-JLi^ J^j Ij ^1 Sj^^^ 2u*^o 

^\j^ ^b ^]^ b^ dbl ^liJ^ ^U^ dUI 

r^^'y ^ ^^b^ a-^ a^l*^ ^^U ^j^ ^r-:^ 

uu^U s?j^ ^b^ *-^ o^>*^ C — i >*^ 

^yXi^^ .§iiJ This letter is addressed, that 
it may reach, by the power of God Most 
Bigli and worthy to be praised, the 
presence of our friend His Excellency 
the Grovemor who rules over the three 
countries of Singapore, Malacca and 
Penang and all their dependencies and 

Aalei, Ar., ^lc> 

districts. {More literally a sign placed 
in order that this letter may reach, &c.) 
Aalamat-kan, ^^^a^^£> To mark, to make 

a sign on anything. Aalfi.mat-kan siirat, 
Sjj^-u) ^^jCx^io To address a letter. 

Note: A sign or signal made with any 
part of the body to attract attention, &c., 
is called Isharat, SjUel and to make a 
signal by waving a flag, &c., is Lambei, 
Z^ Pada tengah naik aalamat baik 

gerda alah Mih Alar, ^b l^^ ^\S6^^ 

^^1 d)^l d)l b^ When the sun is half risen 

it is a lucky sign, the snake has the better 

of the gerda (a fabulous dragon-like 

. beast). Tdboh-nya aalamat kena senjata, 

uoUa^ L^ ^Ap ^y His body had a 

presentiment that it would be wounded 
by a weapon. 

Aalamtn, Ak., ^^^ Worlds, universes, 
hosts. (See Aalam, ^lc> The world, 
the universe, of which this is the dual or 
plural form.) Allah rabi al-aalamin, iOJI 
^^U3I<^I; God the Lord of the worlds, 
the Lord of hosts. 

Aalat, Ar., 2i\p A tool, an implement, an 
instrument, an utensil, materials, stores, 
ammunition, apparatus. Note: The form 
Alat,^) is also commonlv met with. Aalat 
senjata, cadUk^u* ^lc> Arms. Maka ber- 
jalan-jalan-lah ia di-dalam kapal itu me- 
lihat segala pel-bagei ka-lengkap-an dan 
aalat per-hias-an kapal itu, ^J^'^^k^ csA^ 

ail Jil^ vj-*Wv* ^^ y^ o'*^ ^® walked 
about the ship and saw all manner of 
furniture and ornamental materials be- 
longing to the vessel. Prahu iang ter- 
junjong apil-an dengan siap aalat ka- 
lengkap-an di-dalam nya, ^^s^^JS ^ y^ly 
^ba ^K^ dJls> ^i^ J>^ ^\ A 

boat with protecting bulwarks and fully 
furnished with tools and furniture. 
S'telah sudah chflkup lengkap segMa 

aalat senjata-nya, *-a^ •^-^^ ^^^^ ^^^^-^ 
^Ukju* 5JLs> jt>^ When it had been fully 
furnished with all sorts of ammunition 
and arms. 

Aalei, Ah., ^l£> Eminent, high, sublime, 
excellent. Laku-nya ter-aalei deripada 
segala raja-raja iang lain, ^J}p>J ^j^"^ 
A^ H fcb J^ ^-P^ -^^^ behaviour was 
more noble than that of all other rajas. 
Aalei-kulil-hal, JJ» J^ ^^ AH the better, 
so much tte better, better. 

Aalemu, Ar., f^ 

Aal6mu, Ar., ^ Science, knowledge, doc- 
trine, learning, culture. (See Elemu, f^) 

Aaliat, Ah., ^L^Uc^ Exaltation, grandeur, 
sublimity, exalted, sublime. Note : This 
word is uncommon, being only met with 
in translations of Arabic treatises dealing 
with questions of morals and ethics. It 
is derived from Aalei, ^Jlc> Eminent, 
high, &c. 

Aalim, Ar., ^lc> Wise, learned, initiated, 
instructed. Orang aalim, ^lc> $yl A 
theologian, one who is learned in the 
Muhammadan scriptures. Maka jikalau 
suami-nya aalim w&jib-lah ia men^-filjar 
istri-nya,dX«5r^l^ ^lc> ,^^lj_^y<-CK csA^ 

^^x^l ^ Uu ^^1 If the husband is learned 
it is incumbent on him to instruct his 
wife. Maka di-panggil segala 6rang 
aalim serta di-sftroh bflka kitab-nya, 

&jy^^ cttd^ /^^ ^JL^' y^ ^ J^*^ '^^ 

^ US' -*J^ He sent for all the wise men 
and ordered them to search in their 
books. Meng-aalim-kan, ^jjC-ijtA^ To give 
understanding to, to instruct. (See 
Aalam, ^J^l Most wise, all-knowing). 

AalTmun, Ar., ^^y^-^ Magic, an occult art. 

Aalit, Ar., iAc> Disease, calamity, occasion, 

pretence. Aalit peny-akit, ^L^^ ^Olp 
Distemper, disease. 

Aam, Ar., (•lc> Vulgar, common, general. 
Segala orang iang aam, f*^ ^ A^^' J^ 
The public, the common people, the 
multitude, profanum vidgm. Khas dan 
aam, r*^ ^^'^ j^^ People of quality and 
common people. 

Aam, Ar., ^\s> A year, time, a period. 

Note : This word is purely Arabic, and 
is not commonly met with in Malay. 

Aamad, Ar., j<-»Ip Common, universal. 
(See Aam, f\^ Common, vulgar.) 

Aamal, Ar., or J-^— ^ A work, deed, action, 
practise, to do, perform. Note: In 
Malay this word has now almost lost 
its original meaning, and is used chiefly 
of practising sciences, magic or even 
games of skill, &c. Maka Hang TAah 
dan Hang Jebat ber-aamal ber-diam diri 
dengan kaki tAnggal, ^ ^^\^ &\^ ^ <^A^ 

J^y s/^ J"^ ^r^^ r^^y^ J^J^ ^ 
Hang Tftah and Hang Jebat practised, 

remaining silent and standing upon one 

leg. Pe-t<ia itu handak-lah di-aamal 

pada tiap-tiap hari masa bangkit deri 

Aandam, i»JuL^ 

tidor, i^^-M J^ J-*^-^^ dUjuLfij «:^l Ij^a 
j>kJ[;J i^ ^^U ^^^b> That precept 

should be practised daily on arising from 
sleep. Jikalau handak men-jadi pandei 
ber-silat handak-lah ber-aamal dengan 
s' chAkup-nya, v^J^^ ^^^\s,s^ ^<Xi^ ^S^ 

^j^^ ^a y^y^ diiJoJb aL^^ If you 

^ wish to become a skilful fencer vou must 
practise thoroughly. "X 

Aamarah, Ar., &j*^ To perform the 
pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Aam&rah, Ar., &y^ A boundary, the con- 
fines of a territory. MTika ini-lah kami 
sebut-kan aadat tebus segala hamba orang 
iang lari itu jikalau di-dalam kota hengga 
aamarah negri dda kApang dan tiada 
jadi rampas-an segala pem-bawa-an-nya, 
JC-^ ^y^ &^\s> ^.3<J>-— ^ ^^ aLjgil <^U 

ij^^ ^1 JJ y^L^ ut-il ^g;S ^ ^Jjl ^r-'J^ 

J^^\jILa3 yiji ^j-JU; v^al»A.-» Herewith I 

state the customs concerning the re- 
demption of fugitive slaves. If they 
are within the fortification or within the 
confines of the country the redemption 
fee shall amount to two hupang^ and 
whatever property they may have in 
their possession (lit., whatever they may 
carry) shall not be taken from them. 
Ada-pun di-lilar aamarah negri ia-itu di- 
hilir Ganchong, ^J^ &y^ ^'^^ c)y'*^' 
^y^ J^^ «-*iP^ Outside the confines 

of the city, that is to say, below Gan- 

Aam bar, Ar., j^sj^ Ambergris. HarAm 
deri-pada aamber dan kestiiri, J^j*y ^^yb 
^^yLS ^)J ^.j-fcO More fragrant than 

ambergris and musk. 

Aamil, Ar., J--h«^ One who works, a 
workman. (See Aamal, J-»^ To work. 

Aamil, J-^-*-^ unlike its root, is not in 
general use among Malays in so far as 
the colloquial dialects are concerned.) 
Aamal herti-nya kerja iang di-kerja-kan 
Mih aamil, d)jl ^/W^/^ ^ g/ ^^ J-fC> 

J-^4^ Aamal means the action performed 
and adjnil the agent who performs it. 

Aandam, |»Jj^ To take sanctuary, to take 

refuge, to seek an asylum. Aandam ka- 
rdmah raja, gl; ^^j^ f^^^f^ To take 
refuge in the king's palace. Meng- 
aandam, |»Ja*A-« To seek refuge, &c. 

Aarab, Au., i^^ 

Aandam-kan, ^^^Sjs> To harbour, to 
shelter, to give refuge to. 

Aarab, Ar., c^^ Arabian. Orang Aarab, 
i^jS> &jj) An Arab. Negri Aarab, k^^ 
<^j^ Arabia. Bftat-an Aarab, c^>^ o^l>^ 
Of Arabian manufacture. Bhasa Aarab, 
i-r>^ ,j^j|^ A^rabic. 

Aarash, iAlB., j^j^ The throne of Grod, 
the empyrean heavens. Dosa-nya sama 
seperti di-r<intoh-kan aarash, (»C« ^^l-^^»^ 

^j^ O^^^A?*^ ^j^ His sin is as though 
he had overturned the throne of God. 
Antara aarash dan kersi, ^^lo J^j^ j^' 

^^ Between the two thrones of God, 
between the empyrean and crystalline 

Aarath, Ab., (j^j^ Visible, having sub- 
stance or size. TClhan bClkan aarath dan 
bftkan jauhar, ^^ ^b ^jS> ^^ ^y 

y^^ God is without substance or form. 

Aaraz, Ar., jjS> An accident, anything 
that befals a person. 

Aariat, Ab., ^^ t> A thing lent or borrowed. 

Hukum aariat, ^j\^ ^♦^ Debt laws. 

Aarif, Ab., <-i;lc> Intelligent, ingenious, 
wise, skilful, acute, discerning, sagacious. 

Aarif dan bijaksana, ^LJU^ ^^)j <-i^lc> 

"Wise and prudent. Orang iang aarif, 
«^jlc> M p;i^' A wise man. (See Aarip, 

««i;lo which is the more common form 
in use among Malays.) 

Aarip, Ab., i^j\^ Intelligent, ingenious, 
wise, skilful, acute, discerning, sagacious, 
a wise man. Seperti kata aarip tiga 
pek&ra iang tiada men-jadi ka-bajik-kan, 

^j^ls^ As say those who are wise, 

there are three things which will never 
prove profitable. Bahwa sdnggoh-nya 
aku ini ada-lah seperti kata aarip iang 
di-kejar tiada dapat dan iang di-kandong 
ch^chir, SjIl^ dJbl ^J /) ^^^^^ Ij^ 

y^^ ^^jj^j Verily, it is with me as 

say the wise men, "what he seeks he 
does not obtain, and that which he 
possesses he lets fall upon the road." 

Aarip dan bijaksana, ^;)*^-^ ^^ <-ii^l^ 

Wise and prudent. Semperna aakal dan 

aarip-nya, ^^^ ^b Jfio ^^^ His 

intelligence and sagacity were complete. 

Aasek, Ab., ^5frfi»lc> 

Aakal iang aarip, <-i^lo Al Jfi^ A wise, 

Aariz, Ab., ^i^ Hoar-frost. 

Aaruth, Ab., ^j^)^ Metre, measure in 
poetry. (See Sajak, ^U Metre, &c.) 

Aas&bat, Ab., & y<ng> Nerve, sinew, distant 
relations who have no rights to inherit. 

Aasar, Ah., y<:^ The afternoon, the hour 
of afternoon prayer. Aasar tinggi, yo^ 
^^gS^ About 2.30 p.m. Aasar rendah, 
esjo; y<:^ About 4.30 p.m. Ada aasar 
lagi, ^S ycss> a I The hour for after- 
noon prayer has not yet passed. Woktu 
aasar, y=>^ uuJ?^ The time during which 
the afternoon prayers may be recited. 
Sembahiang aasar, yo^ ^^.f^^..^ To say 

the afternoon prayers. Asal ber-jalan 
pagi-pagi dan tiba ka-tcmpat itu aasar 
tinggi, ^J LL^ s-^ ^b y^y J\c^y, ^\ 

^J^ y=^ If you start in the early 
morning you can reach that place by 
2.30. p.m. Pada perashat patefc hari ini 
woktu aasar rasa patek handak ber-prS,ng 

dan me-lihat darah, sa>^ <-^^^ ^ly JJ 

o'^ ^'y^ O^^^ ^^^ U^!^ y=^ M^ cr^' 
a;lj ^--X» I have a presentiment that 
to-day, at the hour of afternoon prayer, 
we shall engage in battle and see blood. 
MS,ka pada sambilan hari bdlan jemad-al- 
awal pada hari ahad pada woktu aasar 
baik akan ber-jalan pMa woktu itu Alar 
di-alah-kan Mih katak, ^l^ ..^^., ..^ j<i csA-^ 

yc>^ 3S^ JJ Jx>.l f^j^ ^ Jjil jUfe. ^^y^J^ 

On the ninth day of Jemad-al-awal, on a 
Sunday, at the hour of afternoon prayer, 
it would be' well to start upon your 
journey, for at that time a snake would 
be vanquished by a frog. Note: The 
Lima woktu, uj^j ^ or five hours of 

prayer observed by Muhammadans are as 
follows : — Suboh, ^^ Dawn, day-break. 
Lohor or Thohor, y^ Midday — i.e., 

between noon and 1 p.m. Aasar, y^s^ 
Afternoon — i.e., 2.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m. 
Marhrib, <-T^yb» Directly after simset. 

Isa, L-P or Aaisha Ux> Evening — i.p., after 
dark. For other ways of reckoning the 
hours, &c., see ^o<e under Ambun, ^^x^-^' 

Aasek, Ab., ^5ss^lc> Love, passion, amorous, 
in love, to love. (See Aashek, ^3^^^ 
 Love, to love, &c.) 


Aashek, ^5s?^lc> 

Aashek, ^5-^ls> Love, passion, amorous, 
in love, to love. Sa-hengga aashek-lah 
Mti-ku sebab me-rasa-i lazat cMta kias 
dan ibarat-nya itu, d)i ^ ^- ft >L-P <>- ^*-Af >» 

i) ^j^ ^i^ Until my heart was 


excited to passion, because of the delight 
caused by her hints and allegories. Ter- 
lalu-lah aashek hati-nya dan brfi,hi-nya 
dan mflka-nya ber-sri-sri seperti bftnga 
raya kembang pftgi, ^\sb> ^5-^lo d) j^^jJ 

^U L^ ^^\j His heart was inflamed 

with love, and his desires were kindled, 
* and his face blushed like unto the rdya 
blossom when it opens in the morning. 
Maka segala anak raja iang mdda itu- 
pun aashek, \^^ ^ gb <5^' J^^-^ ^-^ 

<5ss^^ oy **^' -^^^ ^^^ jo^^g princes 
were smitten with love . Aashek-i, ^Jlto t> 
Enamoured, inspired with love. 

Aashkar, Ar., /U^ An army, a soldier. 
Aashkar Islam, (•X*l ^^i^^ The army of 

the Faithful. Orang aashkar, ^io>^ 4yl 
Soldier. Kapala aashkar, ^Ccuo !kiS A 
captain, a leader of soldiers. 

Aasi, Ae., cs-=*^ Rebellious, disobedient, 

obstinate, stubborn, refractory. Deri- 
pada segala m6min iang aasi, J^^— * ^j^ 
^e-olo M o-^V* Those among the true 

believers who are disobedient. Hamba 
iang jahat dan aasi, ^b 3^.^^^ ^-i c,-^*.fii 

^q-o \^ Your servant, who is wicked and 

Aat&bat, Ar., ^L-ao A township, a small 
town, a village. 

Aat&kad, Ar,, JJUlo Faith, confidence, 
trust, belief, a resolution, determination. 
(See Ifitakad JJUU^, TMkalJ^ly Faith, &c;) 

Aat&kat, Ar., ^g..k o Plan, intention, to 
intend, to purpose, to plan, to plot. 
Jangan-lah ayah-ku ber-sAsah hati jangan 
kita aiitakat salah ka-pMa 6rang sudah- 

lah, u:^ ^Ws ^J^ &-^y^ji cs^l dlai>U. 

ijJlWu* 4yl jJi^ dJL) dfiko Be not troubled, 

oh my father, nothing matters so long as 
we do not intend to do evil towards any 
man. (See Niat, i-->i To intend, &c.) 

Aatham, Ar., fisxs> Bone, bones. 

Aath&mat, Ar., ^  h ,g> Imposing, solemn, 
awful, appalling, august, impressive, 

Aazil, Ab., J^^ 

inspiring ideas of awe, fear, state or 
grandeur, pomp, magnificence, state dis- 
play. Maka ber-jamu-lah segala raayat 
bala tentera-nya penoh sesak tiMa tSr- 
sangka bflnyi lagi siang dan malam gegak 
gempita ter-lalu-lah aatbamat dengan 
segala bftnyi-bAnyi-an, J^^ ^y\^ji 

^^V^^Ji y^ AH the people ana soldiers 
feasted, crowding with incredible clamour 
by day and by night, noisy and clamorous, 
and the sound of the musical instruments 
was very imposing. Ter-lalu aathamat 
r{lpa-nya, ^Uy 2jis> ^iy His appear- 
ance was very imposing. 

Aathim, Ar., ^» J^c > Grand, sublime, awful, 

solemn, august. Tdhan rabi iang aathim, 

^♦-Ja^ ^ i^)j ^y The Lord, who is - 

most august. Khuran iang aathim, ^j^ ^ 
^♦-^ ^ The sublime Khuran. ' — 

Aatik, Ar., ^5<>ao Old. Al-kaul al-aatik, 
^5^J|yi)l The Old Testament. 

Aau, Ar., j-c> and ^) Aid, assistance, an ; 
assistant, the companions of the Prophet 
Muhammad. Aau-th billahi min-a- 

shetan nirajim, ^*^*«^y ^^ Ua-Jjl^ dUb ip) 

By the aid of God against the accursed 

Aaul, Ar., J^ Increase, growth, enlarge- 

Aawan, ^1^ Mistress, madam, a middle- _ 
aged woman, mistress of a family. Inche* 
aawan, ^^|^ *s^' ^^ ^^^' aawan, *^^ 
^^1^ Mistress, madam. Nott>> : This word 

is not used or understood in the Malay 

Aaz, Ar., j£> Great, grand, excellent, 

Aazab, AR.,<-r^J^ Sorrow, trouble, misery, 
discomfort. Karana sangat-lah aazab 
hamba tAan jikalau tiada dengan per- 
tMong-an ka-bawah kaus, dlix^Lo ^^l^ 

^^j^ ^a aLjf ^ ^ly c^^uJb ^Ss> 

^jli &^\^ Because your servant is in 
great trouble unless you will assist him. 
Men-jadi aazab sangat bagi sekelian isi 
negri itu, ^^jJ^ ^flj ^L* <-p J<c> ^^jU^x.^ 

^' ^J^ s?^' I^ ^^^1 cause great misery 
to the inhabitants of that country. (See 
Aajab, h-^^ Discomfort, &c.) 

Aazil, Ar., J>-c> Eesignation, dismissal. 


Aazim, Ar., |»y> Plan, project, enterprise. 

Aazimat, Ab., ^^ A charm, an amulet, 
spell, talisman, a written charm. Mfilka 
di-ambil hfilti kAbong itu mem-bftat 
aazimat, &l^.^4^ «*-4' ^ji^ ^^^ J^'^ ^-^ 
d^iyp' He took the liver of the flying 

squirrrfto make into a charm. Aazimat 
ini dil^pakei sepaya jd,ngan-lah sangat 
meiv/knggong peny-akit, ^Ua ^1 a4^y> 

2^[^ ^/^*^ ^^^ d)uf>U ^pliLo This 
charm is worn as a preventative against 
sickness. Aazimat peng-asih, d-w^lii 3^jS> 
A love charm, a charm to procure love. 

Aaziz, Ar.j jiy^ Magnificent, incomparable, 

Aba, c^t To glow, to feel heat of body ; 
glow, warmth. 

Aba, c^l The smallest imaginable atom. 

Aba-tba, <^) Tackle, gear, harness, traces, 
harness for draught cattle, a saddle. Aba- 
aba lembu, ^ t^^-r^' Grear for oxen. Kena- 
kan aba-aba ka-pMa lembu ka-indra-an 

itu, *) ^^'b^'^^j^ ^^ t*^' c/**^ Harness 
the draught cattle. (See also Abah-abah, 
V^^) Note : This word is not used in the 
Malay Peninsula, Pakei-an ^\^ being 
employed in its stead. 

Abad; Ae., Ju^l An age, a period, eternity. 

Abad, Ab., J^lc> Good, worthy, polite, 
pleasant. (See Aabad, J^ \£> Good, worthy, 
&c.) I 

Ablidi, Ab., ^^^x^ A bought slave, the 
descendant of a bought slave, a slave or 
the descendants of a slave who was not 
originally of the Muhammadan religion. 
(See Aabadi, ^^x^ A bought slave.) 

Abah-Hbah, Jav.jI'a^I Tackle, gear, harness, 
traces, harness for draught cattle. Abah- 
abah tenun ^^ Y^^^ The loom with all 
its apparatus. (See Aba-aba, Y<^^ Tackle, 
gear, &c.) 

Abai, ^1 Small. Meng-^bai, ^l^ To 

disregard, hold lightly, care little for. 
Ombak di-abai-kan-nya, ,^jiX-.j)a ^^^) 
They disregarded or cared not for the 

Abaimlina, ^^--^.^1 The private parts. 
Jikalau di-per-Alih-nya kain iang'mem- 
ada-i &kan men-\itup ka-diia abaim^na 
maka di-t<itup-nya-lah akan ka-d<!la-nya 
itu, atau di-per-dlih-nya mem-ada-kan 
salah satu deri-pMa ka-dfta-nya maka 
w&jib men-dahMu-kan abaim&na iang di- 

Abang, ^] 
hadap-an, ^^MaU ^ ^^ ^^^^ ><-^ 

^aU>j If the cloth possessed suffices^ 
both the privy parts must be covered up, 
but if it only suffices to cover one of them, 
it is necessary to first cover the parts 
which are situated in the front of the 

Abam, ^1 Fulcrum, bois d'appui. Abam 
kamddi, ^^^ ^1 The cross-piece of 
timber which supports the rudder in a 
Malay vessel. Abam tiang, ^ ^1 The 
timber or shaft which serves to steady 
the mast. (Commonly pronounced Bam.) 

Abang, ^1 Elder brother or sister, elder 
male or female cousin. Note : In Pfirak, 
Kedah, and Selangor the term Abang 
^ I is only applied to a brother or male 
cousin, the word Kakak, ^l^ being applied 
to an elder sister or female cousin. In 
Johor, Pahang, Trengganu, Kelantan and 
Petani, however, the two words are used 
interchangeably without reference to sex. 
H6 bAdak kechil gila apa angkau sudah 
angkau bAnoh abang ftku maka angkau 
m&ri ka-pada aku minta segala barang- 
bd^rang makan-an, <-il X^ Ja^ c5*l^ cs*^ 

^U Yl^^ j£o ^U;^ /I jJl^ Oh, little 
child, what madness is thine ! Having 
slain my elder brother, thou comest to 
me and asketh all manner of things to 
eat. Jikdlau abang mftdik ka-hMu, chari- 
kan adek daun kamboja; jikalau abang 
mati dahfdu, nanti-kan adek di-pintu 

Hr^ o-?'^ c5^*^' s^^^ 

Jybj ^L. ^_^) y<_^ 

If you, oh my brother, are going up 
stream, find for me a leaf of the kdmbqja 
tree. If you, oh brother, die first, await 
the coming of me, your^ little sister, at 
the gates of Heaven. Adek mem-b6ga 
abang mem-bftlang, sama-sama mem- 
bftang nyslwa, ^^.^m^ ^I t.JL«u-^ ^^I 

bk ^!>'^^ Vf'^ The younger brother 
holds the cock, the elder brother fastens 
the spurs, and together we risk our lives. 
Jikalau betul bagai di-kata &bang ta* 
takut mem-biiang nyawa, ^\^ \^ ^^^^ 


Abang, ^1 

b^i ^!>*^ ^/^ '^^ ^' ^^^ If what you 

say is true I, your elder brother, am not 

afraid to risk my life. Abang s'ma' 

- s'bapa, <-il,^ *L^ ^\ An elder brother 

by the same father and mother. Abang 
s'pApu, yy^ a' a first cousin. Abang 

dAa ptlpu, yy b^ ^' A second cousin. 
Note: Like most terms of relationship 
in Malay, Abang ^ I is often employed as 
a friendly and familiar vocative, being 
used by the younger of two persons in 
speaking of his or her senior. Abang 
^1 is used in this sense in conjunction 

with the word Adek, ^al a younger 
brother or sister, &c. ; used in this 
way these words do not necessarily 
imply any degree of relationship existing 
between the persons conversing. When 

used by persons of diflFerent sexes Abang 
^1 is usually applied to the male and 

Adek ^»^) to the female. In writing 
these terms are never used, the words 
Kakanda ^j^ and Adinda JJ^I being 
used in their stead. People of rank, 
in speaking of their relatives, often place 
the words Abang ^1 or Adek ^a) before 

the name of the person in question — 
Abang Hitam, ^^sl^ ^I Adek Ngah, 
djt> ^Jl Adek Ali, ^lo ^al Abang 
Mahmud, J(^-»«k* ^) &c. 
Abang, ^1 Red. Kain abang, ^^ ^^^ 
A red cloth. Bfi,wang ftbang, ^\ 4l^lj 

The common red onion. Chengkring 
abang, ^1 ^^^^ A species of the 

eryfhriiia which has red blossoms. Note : 
This word is not much used in the Malay 
Peninsula, the term M6rah &^y-w» being 
commonly employed to express " red." 

Abdi, v^^^^ A slave, &c. (See Aabadi, 

Ab6ntara, \j\sjj.\ A herald, a marshal, a 
sword, spear, or standard bearer, an 
officer in a Malay Court who has charge 
of the regalia and the royal insignia, 
and whose duty it is to regulate the 
ceremonies on state occasions. Note: 
Abentara, V>Uxi) an ancient form, now but 
rarely met with. (See Bent&ra, )pUg 
which is the modem form.) 

Abis, ^j — }) Finished, completed, entirely, 
quite, completely, after that, then, and 
theu ? (See Habis, ^ — } Ub which is the 

Abu-an, ^^^l 

correct form of this word, although the 
initial h is very commonly dropped in 
the colloquial dialects.) 

Ab jad , Ab., j^ I The name of an alphabet 
the letters of which have different 
numerical values as follows : — 


O Q O O 
lO -^ CO <N 


o o o 
o o o 

O Oi 00 


O Gi 00 


o o o 
o o o 
r^ CO »o 

t^ O iC '\cO Cv| T-H 

o o o o 
o o o 

CO Ol rH 

o o o o 
o 00 r^ <x> 

This series is arranged in the order and 
has the power of the Hebrew alphabet 
as far as 400, afterwards the Jews use 
the final letters, instead of which the 
Arabic letters not found in the Hebrew 
alphabet are here used. The Malays 
extend their scheme by again adding 
their own peculiar letters : — 

<-S p J g 

7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 

Pada me-ny&ta-kan khabar siingguh, 
tiada sAngguh, maka kita bilang nama 
6rang iang ber-tanya dengan nama hari 
itu, dengan angka abjad, s'telah sudah 
maka bClang ampat ampat, jikalau tinggal 
satu, siingguh, jika tinggal d{la tiada 

sAngguh, dS^^ jl^ dS£>yji j^ o^^V* "^ 
csA^ es.v .0 d)buo j^l hX^\ ^a u:^! <^^^ 

dSit>y^ jUr IjJ J^^ In order to find 
out the truth, we count the number 
made by the letters in the name ot the 
enquirer and that made by the letters in 
the day on which he comes to enquire, 
following the numbers given by the 
alphabet ; that done, divide the total by 
4 and if there is 1 over what he asks is 
true but if there be 2 over then it is not 

Abok, ^^1 Any kind of dust. 

Abu, 4-jl Ashes, cinders, dust. Abu kdyu, 

jil^ ^1 Saw-dust. Abu dian, ^^ ^\ 

Snuff of a candle. Abu api, ^s*' ^' 
Cinders. Men-jadi abu,^l v^o^k*- To 

be reduced to ashes, to become dust, to be 
pulverized. Abu r6ko', "^^j^^ Cigar ash ^ 
tobacco ash. (See H&bu, ^ lit> Ashes, &c.) 

Abu-an, ^^1 A share, a portion. (See 
Habu-an, ^^ Ub A share, portion.) 


Acliak, ^1 

Achak, ^3^1 Quick, nimble, active, fast, 
energetic, often, frequently. Note : The 
use of this word is confined to the natives 
of Trengganu, Kelantan and Pet^ni. 

Achan, ^1 To make a feint, to make as 
if one would strike, to brandish a weapon. 
To decQ|f game. 

Achang J^-^ I A messenger, envoy. Meng- 

achai^-kan, ^^^^\k^ To send a mes- 
senger or envoy. 

Achar, HiNi\, ^-^.1 Pickles. Achar ba- 
wang, ^j^. y^^ Pickled onions. Achar 
mangga, 4-^iu y^] Mango pickle. (Pees., 

Achllra, Hind., ^L^ I Cause, suit. Note: 

The word in this form is practically 
unknown in the Peninsula, the form in 
use being Bechara, \j^ which, as now 

used by the Malays, has a somewhat 
wider signification than that of Achara 
j\^\ from which it is derived. 

Acheh, A-j5^l Achin. The kingdom situated 
at the north-western extremity of the 
island of Sumatra, which has succeeded 
for many years in resisting the armed 
forces of the Dutch Government. Orang 
Acheh, A-5^1 ijj\ A native of Achin. 

SelAar Acheh, a-^I jI^l-^ The many- 
coloured striped short trowsers worn 
by Malays when in full dress. (See note 
under Baju, y^^i A coat.) G-ediibang 
Acheh, dftfe.! ^yyS The short Achinese 

sword. Bhasa Acheh, a-^l ^l^ The 
Achinese language : 

Dengar-lah tAan suatu pri 
Di-cherita-kan Alih bMak johari 
Cherita-nya raja sekarang ini 
Acheh-lah kAnun nS,ma-nya negri. 

Listen, my masters, to a tale told by a 
jeweller, a tale of a king of the present 
day, whose country, it is said, was called 

Achi, ^1 Ready, done ! A word used 

by traders to express that a bargain 
is accepted, and by starters in a race 
or other competition in asking whether 
the competitors are ready. Jikalau 
k&mu handak adu-kan fi.yam-mu dengan 

Achum, f^y^] 

hak &ka ini fi-ku achi sudah, ^^ 
^l/I ^l/l ^ J>^y^ ^1 oO^l ^x^ 

&Jw-mo . If you are willing to pit your 
cock against this one of mine, I am ready. 
Note : The expression Ta'achi, ^1 *lJ a 

contraction of Tidak achi, ^1 ^xJ Not 

ready, &c., is used to mean " No bargain," 
" Not ready,*' &c. (See also Asi, ^) 
Ready, &c.) 

Achi-achi, f^^' The lever by means of 

which the boom of a Malay boat is 
turned over and over and the sail furled. 
PAlas achi-a.chi, f^g^' ^y To turn this 

l^ver round and round. Note: The 
handle by means of which the lever is 
turned is called Telinga 16man, ^^4^ UJJ 

Achih, iL-u^l A small species of leech 
found in jungle, more especially during 
wet weather. Note : In the Malay Pen- 
insula the word Pachat i^4^ is used for 
these leeches, but the word Achih ^^^.1 is 
used throughout Sumatra. (See Lintah, 
iJsttJuJ A horse leech.) 

Achtta, ^L-j>.l A fine kind of white rice. 

Achu, ^^1 To attempt, to try, to test, to 
pretend, to feign, to make a show of, to 
brandish. ChAba achu dahMu. Try 
first. M4ka Jeragan Budiman pun bharu 
ter-achu handak terjun meng-ambil bAah 
kel6mpang itu, j^ ^^y o^^^ o^'^ ^^^ 
«^1 ^^ &\^ Jh^ ^^y JJ^ j^\J 
Now, Jeragan Budiman had just made 
as though he would leap into the water 
to fetch the kelompaiig fruit. Belum 
di-achu tfiwas dahMu, ^^y^ >^'^ (V-^ 
J^J To fail before mating an attempt, 

to bei beaten without a struggle. 

Achu-an, ^^y^\ A mould, a form, a model. 

Achu-an besi, ^^ o!>^' ^ mould of 
iron. Achu-an pelftru, y^jli ^^1^1 A 

bullet mould. Achu-an batu jala, ^^l>^t 
JlcK yb A mould for making the weights 
which are fastened to the extremity of 
a casting net. Lalu di -stir oh tiiang-kan 
161a iang sama seperti achu-an ch6ntol 
iang lama, ^L^ ^ J<>) o^'y &jy^^ ^i 

C^ ^ cK>^ oW ^J^ ^^^^ ^^ ordered 
them to cast cannon (swivel guns) ac- 
cording to the original model. 

Ac hum I i»^l To irritate, provoke, excite 

ill-feeling, or make mischief between 
people by carrying reports from one U> 


Ada, jI 

another, also Meng-achum, j*^^ and 
Meng-fichum-kan, ^^y^\k^ Peng-achum, ' 
^y^ \kk A busybody, one who habitually , 
causes ill-feeling by carrying reports 
backwards and forwards. 

Ada, a) To be, to exist, is, are, was, were, 
to have, to possess, it is, there is, it was, 
there was, &c. S'l&ma adaj^wa patek, 
4,4^13 L^jft. jI |»JLo So long as my life 
lasts (i.e,, is, exists^. Si-apa iang ada, 
J I ^ <«iL<5— ^ Anyone who is there. 
Mana iang ada, ^' ^ ^^L# Any that may 
exist. Ada angin ber-layar dan jika 
sudah ka-mati-an angin ber-laboh itu-lah 
pe-tfta iang hamba trima, j^^ ^jtA^ ^^ 

y^y H--^ ^ 'ja^ If there is wind, sail 
with it, and if the wind has died away 
anchor; that is the teaching which I 
have received. Sudah ada, »^l ^sJ^ It 
is here, he is here. Ka-bawah duli ada 
^edia me-nanti, ^ jua^ ^^j^ j) ^a &j[^ 

His Majesty is already awaiting you. 
Jikalau ada tiada men-jadi bagai-mana 
jik&lau tiada aalei-kulil-hal, »^L^ Jl J^ 
JJIJ^^l^ jLJ>5C^j^U^^al^ If 

there are any it will not make any 
diJBFerence, and if there are none so much 
the better. Ada jiiga akhtiar pMa hamba, 
c,--u> cki ^ft«6.l «— Sjo^ ^1 I have a scheme. 
Jika ada ISmpah ampun j&ngan-kan 
laksam&na s'6rang jikalau negri Mal&ka 
s'k41i-pun dapat aku alah-kan, al t^^ 

^^^1 jSri a-*b ^yi^K^ if you have 
kindness and pardon in my regard not 
only the Admiral but the whole country 
of Malacca also will I succeed in defeat- 
ing. Ada ka-pada aku satu priok tepong, 
ty^ <5^y y U y"! jJl? j| I have a cooking 
pot fall of flour in my possession. Ada- 
kah,i)^bl Is it? Is he? Was it? Was he? 
Were they? Are they? Is there? Was 
there? Has he? Had he? Have they? 
(See Kah ^ the interrogative afl&x). Ada- 
kah di-d&lam mejelis ini 6rang iang ber- 
aakal iang btdih meng-ajar dan mem-bri 
nasihat slkan anak-anak-ku ini, <Su— ^lat 

d)^ ^ Jfi^^ ^ ^J^ cH' u— <^^ r^'^^ 

] s there present in this assembly any wise 
man who can admonish and give good 
counsel to these my sons ? Ada-kah raja 
besar mau mSm-b^t 6rang dengan tiada 
: semena-semena dan &da-kah raja itu 

Ada, ^t 

mungkir deri-pada per-kata-an nya, A^lal 
^b Y^^^ ^^ ^^ Ijj^ &]j.^/l.j^ ^]j 
^'la$y jjr^a j^ u^\ gl; d^lJl Will a 

great monarch be willing to kill anyone 
without reason, and will such a king 
depart from his word ? Ada-kah angkau 
men-aroh api, ,^1 &jj;lu»^<^!^ljl Have 

you a light? Ada-lah dJbl \is, there 
is, &c. Ada-lah seperti kata 6\,ng tCia- 
tfla sia-sia-lah me-nanti-kan ara ta'ber- 
getah, d)fL>-^ fl^ gA?' <-*^ BjL.^ aJIal 
dsSj^ *iJ )j] ^^M ,0 It is, as say the men of 

old, useless to wait for a fig which has no 
resin in it. Maka Ma-lah dalam antara 
mejelis itu s'6rang brahmana bS,ngkit 
serta ber-datang sembah ka-pada raja^ 
^l^y, ^jy^ ^1 ,j.^J>^ I;U3l ^b ^bl csU 

gl; jJi^ iLH^ ^Uji o^j^ &fS::iki There 

was amidst that assembly a Brahman 
who arose and made an address to the 
king. Ada-pun ^^^y i*^' Whereas, more- 
over, as to, however, and also. Ada- 
pun pada peng-lihat-an patek duli iang- 
di-per-tftan jarang-lah pergi ka-ast&na' 
Ttlan Peteri, ^a ca\j^U ^^f^^ di ^yb) 

^j^ ^ij-j ^u^'is ^y a^ji^ o'yy^ 

Whereas, so far as thy servant can see, 
rarely does your Majesty visit the palace 
of the Princess. Ada-pun aadat segala 
hMubalang Malayu apa-bila nama tiian- 
nya di-bawa' pada s'bAah negri, ^^b) 

'b^^ ^'y r^ ^' ^^ ^ 3^ ^^^ 

i^jS^ &\yi^ *xi Moreover, it is the custom 
of Malay warriors when they are sup- 
porting their master's reputation in a 
foreign country. Ada-pun hikayat itu 
pri men-cherita-kan ka-k&sih dengan 

ka-ksLsih, ^^j^^ spy «w' ^^^ oy'"^' 
d<s-^K? ^a d-s^K? As to this story, it is 
a tale telling of a lover and his mistress. 
Ada-pun kita hidop di-atas dunia ini 
deri-kechil di-kandong-an ibu sudah 
besar di-kandong-an aadat jikalau mati 
di-kandong-an tanah, <-iJ«^ «:-^ o^'"^' 

As to our living upon this earth, from 
the time that we are small we are in the 
wombs of our mothers, when we are 
grown up we are in the womb of customs 
(conventionalities), and if we die we are 
in the womb of the earth. Ada-pun 
patek d&tang ini dengan sflroh-an paduka 
adinda T{lan Peteri Linggam Chaya, 



^\i^ fj^ ^?>^ i^'y ^^' Moreover, thy 
servant has come hither by the order of 
thy little ^sister the Princess Llnggam 
Chslya. Ada-nya, ^^ljl So it is, so be it, 
even so is it. Note : This form is used 
by Malays to denote the conclusion of a 
paraaa^ph or sentence, and has much the 
samd^ignificence as the "amen" at the 
eud of an English prayer. Damikian-lah 
di-nyata-kan ada-nya tamat, ^^^^ dLjX«j 
«t^ ^^1^1 It is made known accordingly, 
so be it, finis. Maka kata anak raja itu 
bahwa sAnggoh-nya aajaib &da-nya, 
^bl <^\^ ^^ \^ 3i\ el; ^1 &l^ cM^ 

" Then," quoth the Princes, " now verily, 
it is a miracle ! so is it." Tiada-lah apa- 
apa Iain-lain lagi hanya-lah salam al-taa- 
thim kita ka-pada sehabat kita ada-nya, 
l^ A<jb«aJl ^l^ dijUi ^i p^J fv^l dJjgr 

^Ijj Mfc^ i^\^»o JJ^ There is nothing 
more (to add), only my polite salutations 
to my friend, so be it. Ka-ada-an, 
^•lyi? Existence, being, essence, state. 
Dan barang-ka-m^na ia ber-teriak ada- 
lah suatu benchana akan datang di-sana 
damikian-lah ka-ada-an-nya,^U<i>;lj ^|j 

^*iyi? dluuX^J, And wheresoever he 
hoots some calamity will occur there, 
and that is the nature of his being. 
Maka jikalau kita handak ber-prang 
denofan dia m&ka ka-ada-an kita ka-* 
kdrang-an raayat dan kuasa kita pun 
lemah, ^^ ^ty^ <3^*^^ «^y<L-^ tsA^ 

4u) ^y s^^ ^\^ Now, if we would 

wage war with them our state is one of 
insufficiency of men, and our strength is 
much weakened. Ada-kan, ^^^1^1 Meng- 
ada, \^\kA and Meng-ada-kan, ^^j^bUu 
To produce, to supply, to create, to 
invent, to beget, to effect, to occasion, 
to furnish, to give existence to. Benda 
iang Ma di-tidak-kan dan benda iang 
tiada di-ada-kan, ^lj ^^^ ^1 ^ IJ^ 
^^bb al^ Ai 1^ I'hings which are 
they deny, and things which are not 
they invent. Di-sAroh-nya b6ta ada-kan 
prahu dfta rS.tus maka seperti ka-handak- 
nya itu ti&da-lah b6ta ter-ada-kan, 

&^ ciU ^\j \}^ y>*y ^^bl ^ ^jy^^ 

^bfy ufc^ Jal^J ut-^l ^J^ Se ordered 
me to 'supply two hundred boats, but, 
with regard to this desire on his part, 

Adang, fial 

I am unable to give effect thereto. Tidak 
ada, a I ^^ Is not, was not, were not, 

has not, &c. Note: In writing this form 
is usually contracted into Tiada, a LJ and 
in the colloquial dialects into Ta'da, b*LJ 
Tiada-lah suatu apa sebab-nya, JjL^ 
^JJ.^.:-^ i^\ 5|^— m© There is not a single 
reason for it. Jatoh pengsan^lah ia 

tiada ber-nyawa lagi, jLJ ^^I &\x ,♦» ^Z\e^ 

^^ b'i^ She fell do^Ti insensible and 
had no life left in her. Ada-kah tidak 
benda itu, «-^l Ijuj ^J^ <xfbl Is that 

thing there or not ? Ta'da b*lJ It is not 
there. Note : It is not well to make too 
frequent use of the word Ada Jl either 
in the written or colloquial language, 
unless its expression is indispensable, the 
Malays usually suppressing Ada a I in 
case where in English the . auxiliary 
verb would be used. Thus, The house 
is large, should be rendered RAmah ini 
besar j-^^ ^^-il <3l*jj; not Rdmah ini dda 

besar, ^ at ^^\ d^jij &c. 

Adab, Ar., s^jI Polite, civil, civilized, 
refined, courtly, affable, politeness, 
civility, courtesy, affability, urbanity. 
Orang iang adab, ^^^^l ^ ^^^1 People 

who are civil or polite. Maka di-bS,las 
salam-nya dengan Adab dan taathim, 
^♦tJbuJ spJl ^^ ^1^ ^l^J c^U He 

returned their salute with affability and 
politeness. Ada-lah seperti kata 6rang 
tfta-tda baik ber-stru dengan 6rang &dab 
deri-pada ber-sehabat dengan 6rang 
kasar,^^^x^^ <^l^ fly ^j^\ «^& &yu dJbl 

j-ol^ ^j^\ ^^ ^l^-=>> ^j^ sp^l Ijj) ^^ 
It is, as say the ancients, better to be in 
enmity with one who is refined than to 
be friendly with one who is coarse. 

Adad, Ar., ^jIp Numbers, nimierals. 
(See Aadad, JJlc> Numbers, numerals.) 

Ada-kala, J^^l Sometimes, at times. (See 
Ada, J I To be, &c.) 

Ada-kan, ^ljl To produce, supply, create, 
beget, invent, effect, occasion, furnish, 
give existence to. (See Ada, ^1 To be, &c.) 

Ada-lah, dJbl It is, there is. (See Ada, 
Jl To be, &c.) 

Adang, 4jI To stop, to get in the way of, 

to shield, to waylay, to lie in ambush, 
to lie in wait, to cut off, to intercept. 
Maka kita siiroh adang tetekala ia ka- 
sflngei kita stlroh tikam dengan tdmbak 


Adang-adang, p£^1 

ampat pMoh itu, Jl^ £^' fijjT^ 

^^' <5^y c)^"^ r^ *>!r^ **^ <^y^ ^ 

ill Jy We will order them to waylay 
him as he goes down to the river to 
bathe, and to stab him with their forty 
spears. Adang pintu, ^a^i ^\ The 
railing placed across the door-way of a 
Malay house to prevent children from 
falling down the steps which lead 
up to it. Adang-kan, ,^^^ Meng-ftdang 
AJliUandMeng-adang-kan, ^^^U.^ To 

stop, to get in the way, to shield, to 
waylay, &c. Ter-adang, ^\j^ Shielded. 

Ter-a,dang Mih pohun kayu, J^l £^ly 
y^ cj'y Shielded by the trunk of a 
tree. Ada 6rang iang mat handak meng- 
ftdang-kan dia di-tengah jalan, ^ ^^)\ ^1 
^\^ dAJJ ^gJ J±>^\^ JJuJ5> 5J There 

are some people who intend to lie in 
wait for him upon his journey. Apa 
bechara-nya karana kita ini di-Mang Mih 
mftsoh, djy ^Jb ^1 uu^ ^^l^ ^^1;^? v^l 

6^y What shall our line of action be, 
as we are cut ofi by the enemy ? Peng- 
ftdang $^Ui A highway robber, one 
who is employed to waylay another. 
(See also Aning, ^1 To waylay, &c.) 

Adang-lldang, >f^\ A screen, that which 

shields or protects one from the sun or 
wind, &c. (See Adang, ^\ To stop, to 
shield, &c.) 

Ada-nya, ^^\ So be it, so it is, or was. 
(See Ada, ^1 To be, &c.) 

Adap, cJ»^l In the presence of, in front 
of, before (of place.) (See Hadap, «-3 jl^ 
in the presence of, &c.) Meng-adap 
cJJU-« To go into the presence of a 
rAja, to face, to sit in front of anything. 

Adap-lldap-an, ^t'*-^*^! or Nasi fi,dap-adap- 
an, ^t'cJ Jl ^-oli A dish of rice, which 
it is customary to present to (or place 
before) the bride and bridegroom at a 
marriage ceremony, or to the patient 
at the celebration of circumcision, &c. 
(See Hildap, cJJl^) 

Ad a- pun, ^^' Moreover, whereas, how- 
ever, as to. (See Ada, Jl To be, &c.) 

Adar, ^ Jl To sleep at a friend's house in 
token of good-will. Mari-lah ber-Mar 

di-rftmah kdwan, ^^^ ^ii^^ ^^'^ ^^^ 
Oomo and sleep (as a sign of good-will) 

Adek, ^j1 

in my house, ^ote : This word is used 
in the southern portions of the Peninsula, 
but in P^rak and Kedah the word 
Tandang, 6JjJ is employed. 

Adar, ^^1 Aged, advanced in years. 
mote : This word is not in common use 
in the Malay Peninsula. (Sm TJdar, ^ ji 
Aged, advanced in years.) y 

Adas, ^J^^\ Fennel, foeniculum, q|raway» 

carmu. Adas manis, ^j^ U ^ j| Aniseed, 

Anethum, Pimpenella. Note : The form 
Adis is also met with. 

Adat, &^\^ Custom, manner, usage, habit, 
state, mode, fashion, rite, functions, 
ceremony, rules of etiquette, of behaviour, 
or of law. (See Aadat, &^\^ Custom, 
usage, manner, &c.) 

Adek, ^Jl Younger brother or sister, 
younger male or female cousin. Maka 
ka-dengar-an bdnyi meriam gegak gem- 

ptta di-dalam k6ta adek-nya, ^^^^ <^^ 
^j| ^/ ^Ijj &JuS ^ ^^ ^^ He 

heard the noise of cannon, loud and 
sonorous, in the fort of his younger 
brother. Maka kata adek-nya iang 
bfingsu, y^^. ^^ J^^\ u^l^ ^ Then, 

said her youngest sister. Adek iang 
be tin a, ^^ ^ ^^' A younger sister. 
Adek hamba iang tiga 6rang itu, ^Jl 
44t^l ^^^1 c-Cj ^ c.p-.uJb Thy servants, 

who are all three relatives. Adek ber- 
adek, ^^1^ ^^1 Brothers, sisters; 
persons who are very closely related by 
ties of blood ; male or female cousins 
who are closely related. Adek ber-adek 
s'ma' s'bapa, t-iLj— -o ,^U--o ^34^'^ <3-i^' 
Brothers who have the same father and 
mother. Adek ber-adek s'ma' ^^)^ ^^1 
^J^^ Brothers by the same mother. 
Maka ka-tAjoh ber-adek pun ber-jalan- 

lah, dUU^ ^ ^^'^ ^y^ <^^ All 
seven brothers set off walking. Maka 
pen-jftrit ka-tikjoh ber-adek pftn men- 
(Impang ka-pada Patch Kerma WSjaya. 

jj^ ^y^ ^y c3A^'^ ^y^ h^y^ ^^^ 

^^L^sy ^yS dJLi The seven brother 

warriors lodged at the house of Patch 
Kerma WSjaya, Adek ber-adek s'd&to', 

y|j Md ^j)j^ ^S\ Cousins having 

a common grandfather, first cousins. 
Ber-adek, ^^'^ To have a brother or 
sister, to care for^ or look* after a 
brother or sister. Ada-pun hamba ini 


Adek, ^^1 

tiada ber-tldek kakak lagi-pun iang tiada 
ber-tempat diara-an, ^34^!^ ^W^ ^^' s--4Jb 
^j iiuSji jl^J ^y ^l? As for me, I 

am without brothers or sisters, and am 
without a dwelling-place. Si-apa iang 
tiada tahu ber-anak bawa'-lah ka-mari 
ksimi iang tahu ber-anak dan jika tiada 
tiihu ber adek kami-lah iang pandei ber- 
fidek, A>U^ dJH^li ^1^ yblj ol,^ ^\^,^^ 

y^U /llj c^ ^IJ ^1^ ybU ^ ^\^ 

^3^^!^ ^gJoJ M ^^^ c3A^'> Who is it 
who knows not how to care for her 
child ? Bring it hither, for I am versed 
in managing children, and if she knows 
not how to care for her little brother I 
am skilled in caring for little brothers. 
Adek kakak, ^^\^ ^^1 Relations. Note : 

This phrase is often used to express 
everybody, all the people. Tiada men- 
aroh kasih-an atas segala adek kakak, 

^l^ ^Jl J^ ^1 ^^yf^ fiyU.^ Jl<^ 

Having no mercy on the people, Adek 
s'pdpuyyLo ^S) A first cousin. Adek 

dfta pApu, yy 1^^ ^^1 A second cousin 

Adek dngkat 3lX£>] ^jI An adopted 

brother. Adek ipar, y^l ^ Jl A younger 

brother-in-law. Adek tiri, ^^JtS ^Jl 
A step-brother. Note : Like most terms 
of relationship in Malay, Adek ^Jl is 
often used as a friendly and familiar 
vocative, being used by the elder of two 
persons in speaking of his or her junior, 
or by the younger of two persons in 
speaking of his or herself. Adek, ^^1 
is used in these senses in conjunction 
with the term Abang, ^1 or Kakak, ^^\^ 
An elder brother or sister. When these 
terms are used between persons of 
different sexes, Adek ^34 J I is usually 
applied to the woman. 

BCiah rcmbfiga di-bawa' pdlang 
Rama-rama terbang ka- Jawa 
Adek mem-b^ga abang mero-bftlang 
Sama-sama mem-bAang nyawa. 

Adinda, ^^1 

The rembega fruit is carried home, and 
the butterflies fly to Java. You (the 
little brother) hold the fighting cock 
and I (the elder brother) fasten the spurs, 
•and together we risk our lives. Wa- 

hai kakak TAan Peteri minta-lah adek 
ayer bS,rang s'tegok dan sirih barang 
s'kapor karana adek ter-lalu dahga, ^1^ 

^3^^ ^j^ >-il ^^' ^'^^^ s^^ ^ly ^l^ 

i-^J Oh, Princess, my sister, I, thy 
little brother, ask for a draught or two of 
water, and a quid or two of betel-nut, 
for I am exceedingly thirsty. Note: 
In writing or in speaking to a person of 
Royal blood of his younger brothers, 
sisters, or cousins the word Adinda JJ Jt 
is used, but a raja when speaking of 
his relations uses the word Adek, ^Jl 
attached to the name of the particular 
person whom he may wish to' indicate. 
Thus : — Adek Ali, ^ ^Jl Brother Ali, 
Adek Patimah, ^u^^^ ^^1 Sister Patimah. 
(See Adinda, Ji Jl A younger brother or 
sister, &c. Abang, ^t An elder brother, 
sister, &c, Kakak, ^^\i An elder brother 

or sister, &c., and Kakanda, JoXS^ An 
elder brother or sister.) 

Adi, Sans., ^^jI Excellent, eminent, mag- 
nificent, handsome, beautiful. A title 
in use among the Malays of Java and 
Sumatra. Adi warna, ^^^ ^^] Of 
beautiful colour. Adi-pati, ^^^^^ The 
titular appellation of the highest class 
of nobility in Java. 

Adi, ^^Jl A warrior. Note: This word 
is not used in the colloquial dialects of 
the Peninsula. 

Adi, v^jI An instrument. Note: This 
word is not in common use in the Malay 

Ad i -k^ra, ^ l^^l Beautifully made, of beau- 
tiful workmanship. (See Adi, ^^\ Ex- 
cellent, &c.) 

Adil, Ji^ls> Just. (See Aadil, JijIp 

Adinda, j^jI A younger brother or 
sister, a younger male or female cousin. 
Note : This word, which is formed from 
the root Adek, ^Jl a younger brother, 
&c., by means of the suflBx anday J^l 
is only used in writing or in speak- 
ing to a person of Royal blood of his or 
her relatives. If the person referred to 
is a ruling raja the term Sri paduka 

adinda, JJ^t -*)jU ^j^ should be used; 

if he is a raja who bears a title, or who 
is the son of a ruling 7-4/^, the phrase 



Adinda, ^^\ 

Paduka adinda, J^^l -sJ^U should be 
used. In speaking of rajas of lesser 
rank the term Adinda, ^^1 should be 
used alone. In writing Adinda is used 
reciprocally with Kakanda, JoXS", elder 
brother, sister, cousin, &c., as a polite 
and polished substitute for the personal 
pronoun, and is applied to the junior of 
the two correspondents, although they 
need not necessarily be connected by ties 
of blood. If the correspondents are 
persons of different sexes, Adinda JJJ) 
is usually applied to the woman, even 
though she may be older than the male 
correspondent. The use of the term 
Adinda J^^l does not necessarily imply 
relationship, and is often met with as 
a term of endearment among lovers, 
husbands and wives, &c., when it is inva- 
riably applied to the woman. Maka titah 
Baginda ka-pada PermisAri " Ya adinda 
akan sekarang apa bechara kita akan 

anakanda ini," ^^y-^<r^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Then quoth the monarch, addressing 
the Queen, "Oh, my little sister (my 
love), what shall we now decide about 
our daughter?" Maka Sang Perted^wa 
pun ber-titah ka-pada istri-nya itu " Ya 
adinda jikalau ada kasih adinda akan 
kakanda karana kakanda pun sudah ber- 
petera dengan adinda mau-kah adinda 
meng-ikut kakanda kembali ka-Indera- 

an ka-negri kakanda," ^y t^iJJy ^ <-2^ 

^ J 1^^ a.v_u) ^y juX^ ^^l^ ^.^ ^\ 

^"l;jsjj/l^^L-^ Ja5C?5y;jL.JjJt iS;S:/L. JJJI 

j^jS^ i^J^ Then Sang Pertedfiwa said 

to his wife " If you (my little sister) love 
me (your elder brother) because I have 
had offspring by you, will you follow 
me when I return to Fairyland, which 
is my own country?" Ada-pun patek 
ddtang ini dengan sftroh-an paduka 

adinda TAan Peteri Linggam Chaya, 

•JjU ^jy^ J>^ ^1 ^1^ cft\jrU ^b) 

^glfe, fJS^ ^^yii ^Ipf jJjI Thy servant 

has come here by order of thy sister 
the Princess Linggam Chliya. Paduka 

adinda Tungku Ali sila-kan ka-bawah 
duli ber-angkat ka-balai sepaya santap 
penganan, ^Ks-^ ij^ ^ ^^' -^^*^ 
J\ki ^qm^ ^[li^ ^[^ SS:£>]j^ ^J &y[^ 
Your brother Tungku Ali invites your 

Adu, ^ j1 

Highness to proceed to the hall in order 
to partake of sweetmeatiS. Sri paduka 
adinda di-Lingga, «*J^^ JJ^I -*J^U v^>*« 
Your brother of Lingga (i.6., the Sultan 
of Lingga.) Note : A raja in speaking of 
his relatives usually prefixes some term 
of relationship to their names, but the 
words used under these ciAumstances 
are Adek ^ol Abang Aj' Ay^ di) &c., 

and not Adinda JJJ) Kakamla *vX? 
Ayahanda Ja-^l &c. Thus : — ^Adek Ali, 
^^j^ ^Jl Brother Ali. Abang Hitam, 
f^s^ ^1 Brother Hitam, &c., not Adinda 
Ali, ^^Js> jJjI &c. Wabaadah deri-p&da 
itu ahwal maka ada-lah adinda maalum- 
kan ka-pada kakanda, c&^l JJ^^J &^>^*-j^ 

Furthermore, the matter is that I (the 
younger brother) make known to you 
(the elder brother). 

Adi-pati| ^V^^' A governor, a ruler, a 
prefect. The titular appellation of the 
highest class of nobility in Java. Maka 
raja pun mem-bri angraha per-salin-an 
akan adi-pati Jemaja dan batin-batin iang 
ber-gelar anam orang itu, ^y gl; 

u^] ^^y\ ^) >?^ ^ \>^\s ^b The King 

gave presents of suits of garments to 
the Governor Jemaja and to the six 
Chiefs who bore titles. Maka s'bilah 
kris itu pem-bri-an adi-pati Plembang, 

That dagger was a gift from the Gro- 
vernor of Plembang. (See Adi, ^^^0 

Ad is, ^ol and Adis nabi ^li o^^' To - 

read the Khuran, giving the interpreta- 
tion at the same time. (See Meng-Sji 

nahu, ^^ c^^ under Aji, ^1 To 
learn, ao.) 

Adis, ^^1 Fennel, Foeniculum, Caraway, 
(See Adas, ^^\ Fennel, &c.) 

Addh, a^J) Alas! Meng-adoh, a^jU- To 
sigh or groan as one in pain or grief. 

Adok, Jav., ^^^I To agitate, to stir 
about, disturb. 

Adon, ^j) To mix. 

Adu, ^Jl To sleep, to rest, to take repose. 
Note: This word is only applied by 
Malays to a raja or person of Royal 
birth. Unlike most words in the Malay 
language, the root Adu }^\ is never used 


Adu, ^*^l 

alone, the prefix Ber-^ being invaria- 
bly attached to it. S'telah di-lihat 
Alih segala dayang-dayang dan biti-biti 
perawan dan segdla gAndek-gAndek 
raja me-lihat raja ber-8.du di-riba Hang 

Jebat itu, t»^b y^^ ^^1 V-<^^ ^ — ^ 

ufc*i1 3l^ ^ sH>^ -?^'-^ sb ^^^ when it 
was s^n by all the nurses, damsels, and 
female attendants, and when all the 
king's concubines saw that the monarch 
was asleep on the lap of Hang Jebat. 
Maka Tftan Peteri ka-dAa itu-pun santap 
s'telah sudah lain bSr-adu pada mftsing- 
masing bilek-nya, 1;J^ v^j»i ^^'^ <^^ 

^a.Jj,j t'Ats-*^ Then the two Princesses 
took their repast, and when that was 
done they went to sleep, each in her own 
room. Maka TClan Peteri bangun deri- 
pada ber-adu pagi h^ri dAdok pS^da 
tingkap kechil rftpa mdka, v^^ ^ly ^-^A^ 

Ju-* <3^^^ ^g;^ ^J^^ -^^'-H ^>>^ c»^^ 
\^y» i^^j Jjs^ «^-ft5CA-J Now the Princess 
rose from slumber in the early morning, 
and sat at her little casement, which was 
shaped like a human face. Maka apa- 
bfla raja dAa laki istri telah ber-adu lelap. 

Now, when the royal husband and wife 
were both sound asleep. Per-adu-an, 
^^^ly A sleeping apartment, a couch, 
a bed-chamber. Maka Laksamana pun 
masok astana itu lalu ka-per-adu-an, 
ys ^\su^\ ^|J^ c5--*L# ^y ^U — 53 cM^ 
^^ j)y^ The Admiral entered the palace 
and passed into the sleeping apart- 
ments. Maka di-bawa' orang masok ka- 
dalam per-adu-an-nya, ^jj\ H^U^ <-2A^ 
^^aly ^)j^ ^l^ The attendants led 
him into his bed-chamber. Mdka Bagin- 
da pun ber-Mu di-atas per-Mu-an Tftan 
Peteri, ^ly ^^ J)y ^1^ ^^1^ ^y j^ caU 
i^jSL9 The monarch slumbered upon the 

Princess's couch. Note: The ordinary 
Malay bed-chamber for persons of rank 
consists of a portion of the main apart- 
ment raised above the level of the floor, 
thus forming a platform called a Pentas, 
^j^AiJ or, in the case of a royal per- 
sonage's bed-chamber, a Grei, v^y or 
Greta, La? This platform is screened by 
curtains called Tabir, ^ iJ or Tirei, ^j^J 
which shut it off from the main apartment. 

Adu, ^^1 

and which enclose the Kelambu, ^-^J^ or 
mosquito net. These curtains can be 
hitched up (Sengkat, J<A**) or let fall 
(Jatoh, dJU) at will. Some of the large 
platforms are made in a series of large 
steps (Tengkat, ^Kw) culminating in a 
platform on which the mat and pillows 
(Tikar bantal, Jxjj yfiJ) of the chief or 
raja are arranged. The followers of the 
Chief sleep upon the broad steps already 
described, and thus guard their master. 
Ber-kayuh lagu raja ber-adu, j^i &ji^y, 
^^\j^ eb To paddle in the peculiar 
manner called by Malays " the sleeping 
Prince." (See Kayuh, ^syl^ To paddle, 
&c.) Note : In the dialect spoken in 
Petani the word Ber-adu, ^Jl^ is used 
to signify. To cease, to stop. Ber-adu 
main ma'iong, ^ji'^ ^U^jIj-^ /Cease 
acting the play. 

AdUy^jt To complain, to accuse, to pro- 
secute, to bring a charge against anyone, 
to state a case, to make an application, 
statement, or representation, to cause to 
appear, to represent, to incite, to stir up, 
to cause to fight, to pit one man, animal 
or thing against another. Also Meug- 
adu,^aGuandMeng-adu-kan, ^^^jU-« To 
complain, &c. Dia pun datang meng- 
adu dengan 16ntok-liak dan kiilei-balei, 

^L-j ss!>-^ Then they came makiug 
complaints, wriggling their necks and 
wagging their heads. Adu-an, ^^jI The 
plaintiff in a law-suit, the prosecutor, he 
who makes a complaint. Also a charge, 
a complaint. Note : In colloquial Malay 
this word is often pronounced AdA-an, 
^\jS\ Kena adu,^Jl Ui" To be accused, 
to be complained about. Orang iang 
kena adu, ^Jl L^ ^ ^^^1 The defen- 
dant, the accused. Peng-ad u-an, ^^J^\^ 
A complaint, a charge, an accusation. 
Bdat peng-adu-an, ^^^^^ Sl^ or Da- 
tang-kan peng-adu-an, ^^jLii ^^^-JCajIj 
To' make a complaint, to bring a 
charge, to make an accusation. Jika 
tiada ter-bAnoh dlih hurft itu meng-ddu 

ia ka-pd,da hakim, j^ d3^l <)^^y jLj csJU^ 
f^f^ jJi^ ^^1 ^jU.^ uu^I If he be not 

slain by the free man, and if he complains 
to the judge. Peng-adu-an iang sia-sia 

Wgi bebal, ^ ^I y^. * ^ o->^^ 

Frivolous and foolish accusations. H6 
tClan-ku pe-kerja-an iang tftan 


Adu-hai, ^j^^ 

hamba kerja-kan ini ter-lalu besar dosa- 
nya meng-adu-adu orang damikian ini, 

Oh, my jnaster, what manner of work is 
this on which you are engaged? The 
sin of causing men to fight thus is a very 
great one. Meng-adu ayam, ^l^^Ul^ 
To fight cocks, to pit one cock against 
another. Tempat peng-adu-an, iJUl 
^^^Ui A place where complaints are 
received, a person to whom complaints 
may be made. Karana ti&da-lah tempat 
peng-adu-an hamba tdan hanya-lah pada 
tftan s'6rang tempat peng-adu-an-nya, 

^^oUi diuS ^jy^ ^^'y For there is no 

person to whom I can complain, and to 
you alone can I make complaint. Apa- 

kah biji peng-adu-an-nya, ^e^ ^ — Ci) 
^^ J Ui What is the gist of his complaint ? 
Adu-hai, ^yE>^j| or Adu-h6, Ohl behold! 
Adu-hai kakanda mMa bestari, -q^^^' 
^g^la^ ]^y Ja<? Oh, my brother! 
Illustrious youth ! 

Adun, ^^ol To adorn, adornment, that 
which adorns. Tftkang orang itu ber- 

adun diri-nya, ^ji^ c>-^^'^ «-i' ^^^' ^^ 

That woman is skilled in adorning her 
person. Bagai-mana rftpa adun-nya 

peng-lihat-an itu, .^f^^tM^ Jj^\ Ujy ^U^ 
«L^I What kind of adornment is that 
which meets my eye ? 

Afal, Ar., Jil Actions, deeds. 

Afiat, Ar., i^ao Health, convalescence, 
recovery. (See Aafiat, ^Lio Health, 
convalescence, &c.) 

Afil, Ar., J-jil To know by heart. Note : 
This word is usually only applied when 
speaking of those who know the scrip- 
tures by heart. 

Afiun, Ar., ^^^I Opium, the inspissated 
juice of the poppy. (See Apiun, ^^^0 

Agah, dS\ To grin, nod, chuckle. Orang 

tfta chakap ber-agah-agah, «-^^. ly ^jj\ 

V^^j^ Old men nod and chuckle when 
they talk. Meng-agah, dS\k^ To crow, 
chuckle, &c. Meng-agah seperti bMak 
bharu jadi, <^jU ^j^ ^j^ Sjh • ^\kA 

To crow like a new-born babe. 

Ag&hiri, K^j^^ Medium, average, mo- 
derate. Brat-nya lima saga iang agahari. 

Agama, U-?l 

^^^1^1 ^ 4_?Le ^ Ji\j^ Its weight is 
that of five medium-size red peas. Herga 
agahari, ^g;!^' 4-Jy> A moderate price. 
Agahari antara panjang dan pendek, 
^joi ^b ^^ ^la3) ^^J^\ A medium 

between long and short. Note : In the 
Malay Peninsula this word is not used or 
generally understood, medium^ unoderatey 
4*^., being expressed by Per-tJipgah-an, 
^jj^y Alang, ^1 or Alang kapa^ng, ^\ 


Agak, ^1 To guess, to conjecture, to 
imagine, to estimate, to dare, about, 
nearly, also Agak-kan, ,^^\ To guess, 
&c. Tiada ter-agak (ilih hamba, ^L-J 
«-i--*^ J^l ^\ji It is impossible for me 
(thy servant) to guess about it. Lebeh 
kftrang s'ratus agak-nya, ^'^ ^jj^ ^ 
j£\ I estimate them at about one 
hundred. Liat sdlnggoh daging ini agak 
tAa benar ayam-nya, ^1 KS\^ ^S^^ 5J 
^1 y4 ly ^1 Verily this meat is of the 

toughest! I imagine that the fowl was 
indeed an old one! Patek ta' agak 
handak me-lawan dengan patek t£la itu, 

uw^l I (thy slave) dare not resist that 
Chief (lit., thy old slave.) Peng-agak, 
^Uu Opinion, notion, idea, estimate, 
guess. Pada peng-agak aku, ^\ ^^ iJ^ 

In my opinion, to my idea. See also 
Gamak, ^5^1?, Sangka, ts^i^ and Jangka, 
tsXie, To guess, &c. 

Agak, ^3?l To feign to strike, to threaten 
to strike, to make as though one would 
strike, to brandish a weapon. 

Agal, J?l The largest sea- turtle met with 

in Malayan waters. Note : The follow- 
ing are the names of the various salt- 
water turtles known to Malays : Kambar, 
^^ which is somewhat smaller than an 

Agal, Jfl Belimbing, ^ -^^a J ^ which is 
smaller than a Kambar, j.^ Sisek, 
^3-..--N — which is smaller than a Belim- 
bing, ^*-*^ and which is about the 
same size as a Pennyu, ^^ (For names 
of tortoises and land turtles see Dari- 
d&ri, v^^'^ A tortoise.) 

Agam, ^-?l Large. (See Agong, ^^1 
Large, &c.) 

Agama, USI Religion, belief. (See Ugama, 
USI which is the more usual pronounoia- 
tion of this word among Malays.) 


Agan, ^^\ To prepare, to make ready, 
to make preparations for war. Maka 
Baginda pun ber-agan, ^^]ji ^y JjJ^ csA^ 
The monarch made ready. Note : This 
word is not of common occurrence. 

Agar, ^1 For, that, in order that, to the 
end that, so that. Agar sepaya, j^\ 
order that, so that, &c. Agar 
•dapat ka-senang-an, ^Ijol^ ^^I ^I 
In order that he may obtain 
happiness. Agar di-bftnoh-nya, ^^ ^ ^1 
In order to kill him. 

Agar-agar, ^1 Zostera, a species of sea- 
weed. By the Chinese it is called Ke-chi, 
and is employed by them as a kind of 
glue, and also both by Malays and 
Chinese to make a kind of sweetmeat 
which somewhat resembles calf's-foot 
jelly, both in appearance and in flavour. 

Agas, ,j-^i A sand-fly. Jikalau kandang 
kerbau ber-dekat dengan rdmah me-lain- 
kan selalu banyak agas-nya, ^ — ck 
^b j^X^ o^^^ A-Hj; ^^ ^^y. >/ ^^^ 
^^\ If the buffalo pound is near the 
house, there are always great quantities 
of sand-flies, Kena ketip di-agas, U^ 
^j^la *.JusS To be bitten by sand-flies. 

Gratal bAat di-agas, ^;— ^1^ 5l^ J-Jl? 
Irritation caused by the bites of sand- 
flies. (The term Angit, ^1 is also 
applied to a sand-fly.) 

Agas, ^1 or TaU dgas, u-?' ^^5^ The cord 
suspended from the roof of a Malay house 
directly over a woman's bed, by means 
of which she raises herself into a sitting 
position during the forty-four days of 
her Pantang her-anak^ ^\y ^fjJ> or days 
immediately following her confinement. 
(See Pantang, ^juJ, Taboo, &c.) Note : 
This phrase is in use in Perak and parts 
of Selangor. In Rambau, Tali kala, ^ ^ 
Ji^, in Singapore, Tali senam ^%ju* ^iJ, 

in Pahang, Trengganu, Kelantan and 
Petani, Tali ka-lelah,dU^^U is used. In 

Sumatra the term used is Tali singkil, 
j5Ci-^ Jli, and in Java the phrase Tali 
kendolan, J^y^ ^^ ^^ employed. (See 
Kala, J^ A scorpion. Senam, ^♦ju* To 
exercise the muscles. Lelah, dU Panting, 
to pant, &c., and Singkil, J<4-5--u> To 
have the teeth on edge, &c.) 

Agih, <ie?l To remove a portion of any- 
thing from one receptacle into another. 
Agih-kan daawat itu, ut-^l 5^^ ^^i^^ 

Ahad, Ab., j^-c^I 

Put a portion of that ink into another 
bottle or receptacle. 

Agih, djjrl To give, divide. Note: This 
word is not used by the Malays of the 
Peninsula in this sense. 

Ago', 'jfl or Agok, jj/l A necklace, a 

Agong, ^^1 Large, principal, main, head, 
full grown. Maka Raja D6nan pun diidok 
ber-henti-kan lelah-nya ber-sandar pada 
tiang ftgong, JJ^J ^^ ^j^ gl; csA^ 
^^^1 ^ ^ j.y^^y ^ J^y Mja 
Donan sat down to rest, leaning against 
the main-mast. Deri-pada kechil sampei 
sudah besar mem-bawa' agong belum 
pernah patek lihat ka-laku-an Tilan 
Peteri s'macham ini, ^^■♦. ■■■> J--^ ^j^ 
A^ csAjfU dSy 1*^ £jS) H^L*-* j^, ^sJw-u> 

time that you were small even until the 
time when you were big and full grown 
never have I (your slave) seen your 
behaviour, oh Princess, like anto this 
Note: The idiomatic phrase Mem-bawa 
agong, £jSI *|^L-»-* signifies to be of age 

to be full grown, to be arrived at years 
of discretion. 

Agdng, Ch., £jSl A gong, a metal instru- 
ment played by means of a drum-stick. 
(See Grong, ^^ which is the more common 

Ah, &] Ah ! alas ! 

Ahad, Aii., J^l Sunday. Maka pada sam- 
bilan hari-bMan Jemad-al-awal pada hari 
ahad pada woktu aasarbaik akan ber- 
jalan pada ketika itu illor di-alah-kan 
Alih katak, ^^j\^ ^ l. ; ...;,» — o j^ <sL^ 

'^ J^J^ J^ ^^ y=^ "^-^ ^ J^^I->^ 
^l^ ^J^l ^lj ^^1 uwl ^^^ On the 

9th day of the month of Jemad-al-awal, 

on a Sunday, at the hour of afternoon 

prayer, it would be well to start upon 

your journey, for at that time a snake 

will be vanquished by a frog. Note: 

The following are the names of the days 

of the week, as known to Malays, who 

have adopted them from the Arabs : — 

Hari Jimaat, ^ ♦. r» i^j 
Hari Sabtu, ^L — ^o ^j 

Hari Ahad, s — &.I k^j^ 
Hari Ithnain, ^^^--^1 i^j^ 
Hari Thalatha, ^:kJ ^g;b> 
H£iri Arbaa, ^j^ ^J^ 
Hari Khamis, ,j^jj4^ s?>?^ 









Ahal, Jjbl 

In colloquial Malay the following forms 
of the above are in use: — Isnin and 
Senayan for Ithnain, ,^ri:^^ Monday, 
SeUsa for Thalatha, 4*^Aj Tuesday, Rabu, 
j^lp, for Arbaa, ^^t Wednesday, and 

Hamis, ^^.»» x% for Khamis, ^ ^ ^ ^ Thurs- 
day. The form Senayan, for Monday, is 
chiefly used in Pfirak, Kedah, and parts 
of Selangor. Isnin is used in Pahang, 
Johor and elsewhere. Rabu,^)^ is almost 
invariably used in all parts of the 
Peninsula; and Hamis,^j.--H^ and Khamis, 
,j^.v ^ are used indifferently by most 

Malays. In speaking of the days of 
the week by name, the word Hari, v^^li> 
Day, should be inserted before the name 
of the day, thus : Hari Ahad, J^l ^^^li> 
&c., not Ahad, J*^l only. The word 
Minggu, ^ijU^ which is used instead of 
Ahad in some parts of the Peninsula 
and Archepelago, is not pure Malay, and 
its use is to be. avoided. The man- 
ner of distinguishing between the days 
by means of numerals, which is employed 
in Singapore — e.g., Hari satu, yLo ^j^ 
Monday, H3,ri dAa, |^J ^a>^ Tuesday, 
&c., is also to be avoided, this being an 
innovation made by Europeans who 
were ignorant of the Arabic names of the 
days of the week employed by the 

Ahal, Ar., J-fe) People, persons, indivi- 
duals. Karana ahal al-hikemat ber-kata, 
ueaIS"^ iiXJtJfijI ^l^ For people who 

are versed in the subject declare. Ahal 
nujum, ^y Jjfel or Ahlun-nujum, (•^'Jj^' 

An astronomer, one who studies the 
heavens, one who is skilled in reading 
the stars. Maka ahlun-nujum itu-pun 
datang-lah ka-tAjoh-tAjoh-nya meng- 

adap Baginda di-balai, (•^tjj^t «.sA^--» 

And thereupon all the seven astronomers 
came to visit the monarch in the Hall of 
State. Maka ber-titah-lah Baginda ka- 
paila per-dana mentri-nya sAroh mem- 
anggil segala ahlun-nujum dan segala 
strawan, ^j»i^ cj'^^y "^ ^•'^ ^'Mts^ *-^ 

Then the monarch spoke to his Prime 
Minister, ordering him to call all the 
astronomers and all the magicians. Maka 
sembah segala ahlun-nujum dan strawan 
"Ya t(lan-ku shah aalam patek mohun- 

Ahwal, Au., Jl^l 

kan ampunbe-ribu-ribu ampun dankemia 
pada ka-bawah duli shah aalam,'^ d.^.*^ <^^ 

^/ o'^ c)-^' ^r^^ c)^^' s^y" "^^ 

^L^ aUso ^^ a^L? j^ Then all the 

astronomers and magicians made repre- 
sentation to the king, saying, " Oh, master 
of all the universe, we thy sla^s crave 
pardon thousands of pardons, a^ grace 
beneath thy feet, oh ruler of the world 1 " 

Ahli, Asfcl An expert, a clever, talented, 

or wise person, a skilful man, a member 
of any learned or legislative body. 
Jikalau ada kira-nya khilap atau ter- 
salah deri-pada bhasa atau hftrup-nya 
me-lain-kan telah harap-lah hamba akan 
ampun dan maaf tflan-tAan karanabdkan- 
nya hamba ini ahli bagai iang damikian„ 

^\ i^^^u^ ^^li> iSiJ ^:yAfA^ ^jy^ ,^— J* 

' ^1 s-^ ^y oJ^ v^y ^i»^ o'^ c>>"' 

^j5ft<-a ^ ^\y ^\ If, by chance, there 

are any faults or mistakes in the style or 
in the letters (of this book), I trust that 
ye, my masters, will pardon and forgive 
them, for I am not an expert in such 
matters. Ahli meshwarat, Sj\yf^ ^Jj^ 
A member of Council. 

Ahmak, ^5.*^) Silly, foolish, close-fisted, 
stingy, avaricious. Maka deri-sebab 
aakal fi-ku per-amp6-an iang h^na lagi 
ahmak ini telah jadi-lah aku jahat ini, 

^1 3^^\ AliJlfiK dlJ ^1 ^^4c^\ It is because 

my intellect is that of a base and foolish 
woman that I have thus become wicked, 

Ahu,y^l Ho! Hullo! (calUng.) 

Ahwal, Ab., J1>c^' Matters, affairs. Note : 
This word is the plural form of the word 
Hal, J&* Affair, a matter. Ahwal maka 
ada-lah b^ta me-nyata-kan ka-pada pa- 
duka sehabat bfeta, «t^ Jl Jl cM^ J!>-^l 
u:^w^ ^U^ -s)jU JJi^ ^^^^ ^l^he matters 
are this, whereas I make known to my 
friend. Hal ahwal, Jl^^l J^ The 
whole matter, everything (lit., matter 
and matters, &c.) Di-chitera-kan-nya- 
lah segala hal ahwal merika itu deri- 
pada asal ia ber-ka-hilang-an t6ngkat 
itu s'hengga ka-sudah-an-nya hal ahwal 
istri tClkang tenun dan istri brahmana 
itu-pun habis-lah di-chitera-kan ka-p&da 
raja, ut^<^^ Jl^l Jc^ yL^ id^l^a^ J 



iian, ^Ia) 

gl; He then related all the circum- 
stances concerning these people from 
the original matter of the loss of his 
walking staff even unto the end of the 
matters, relating to the wife of the weaver 
and tip wife of the Brahmin, that also 
did iMrecount to the king. Maka segala 
hal ahwal-nya bagei-mana di-per-bftat 
Alih suami-nya itu-pun sekelian di- 
chitera-kan-nya-lah ka-pada istri Brah- 

ufc^l ^Ujoy ^^js:^\ J^ All the circum- 
stances as to all which had been done by 
her husband was told by him to the 
Brahmin's wife. Langsong naik pada 
rilmah orang tAa itu ber-tanya segala 
hal ahwal negri itu, d^^j J^-i ci^b 6^^ 

And straightway he went up into the 
house of the old man and asked him 
about all the affairs of the country. 
Serta ia ber-tfinya segklp, hal ahwal 
perentah ator-an negri itu, ^^IJy ^^1 ui^j^ 

^' ^j^ o^y' ^y J'>^' d^ y^ ^^^ 

he also enquired into all the circum- 
stances of the rule and procedure of 
that land. Jik&lau barang suatu ahwal- 
nya tiada-lah ter-tanggong fttas-nya, 
^1 ^yiAjy d3bL^ ^1^1 &\^^^ ^j\i ^ 

If anything should happen he will not 
be responsible. 

Alan, ExG., ^bl Corrugated iron. Atap 
aian, ^1^1 *^J}) Corrugated iron roofing. 
Kena-kan atap aian, ^li) ^-iJ) ^LS' To 
erect corrugated iron roofing. Rdmah 
kayu ber-atap 4ian, ^Ijtl •-flJly jilS A^jy 

A house built of timber and having a 
corrugated iron roof. Note : This word is 
well understood in the Malay Peninsula. 
(See Ayan, ^\i\) 

Aiap, i^i\ To eat, to guzzle. (See Ayap, 
*Jil\ To eat, &c.) Note : This word is 
used by an inferior when speaking to a 
raja of himself or any other inferior 
eating, &c. 

Aiap-an, ^^1 Victuals. (See Ayap-an, 
^1 Victuals.) 

Aiat, i-il A phrase, sentence, text. Chftba- 
lah bacha diat-nya^ ^t glj d\^^ Read, 
the sentence. Payah meng-herti tiada 
dengan bacha S,iat-nya s'kali, ^ji^ a^U 







Aiut, i^l 

^15C- ^\ ^\i ^J ^W It is diflBcult to 
understand without reading the entire 
sentence. Senang ber-chdkap bhasa Ma- 
layu akan tetapi payah j6ga men-d&pat 
aiat-&iat-nya iang plek, ^j^Lfj «-^lfe.^ ^jlm» 

It is easy to speak Malay, but it is 
difficult to acquire its peculiar phr ises. 
Note : This word, though applied to any 
sentence or phrase, is especially used of 
the texts of the Muhammadan Scriptures. 
(See Ayat ^\ A phrase, &c.) 

Tb, <~r^^t^ Shame, a reproach, an insult. 
(See Aaih, Shame, a reproach, &c.) 

iok, ^yl To copulate. (See Ayok, ^>il) 

Tp-an, ^jift^ Shame, insult, a reproach. 
(See Aaip-an, ^jjA-©^ Shame, insult, &c.) 

iu,^l Ho ! Oh! Behold! Lo! Also Aiu-hai, 
^ji) Ho ! Oh 1 Behold ! &c. Maka kata 
kra itu aiu-hai sehabat-ku apa-kah jAga 
iang tAan-hamba mesherhul-kan ini, 

<_r^ dO) t^U^ r^y' ^' '^ **>^ *-^ 
^1 ^kA^ ur^ly ^ Then quoth the 
ape, " Ho ! my friend, what is it that 
causes my friend to be thus sorrowful ? " 
Aiu-hai Sang Tftpai iang baik paras, ^jil 
^j\j c^^b ^ ^y ^ ** Oh, Master 
Squirrel, with the gracious features." 
Aiu-hai Tdan Peteri jika handak merka 
s'kali-pun chAba-lah bftka dahAlu bflng- 
kus ini, -s)^ jjJa.^ ^^ ^j^ ^ly ^ji) 
^ — il ,j*Xfi>^ Jybj ^^ ^^ ^yijic^ 

" Behold, oh Princess ! However much 
you may wish to scold, open this bundle 
first." "Maka titah Baginda "liu-hai 
mamak Bendahara ampus-kan apa-lah 
arang di-mftka kita," ^lacooi S^^ cs^>i^ 
3l^ -*J^^ ^I;) ^I ^^yt-l Then quoth 

the monarch, " Oh, Father Treasurer, 
blot out the soot which is upon my 
face." Aiu-hai Rangka dan Jaksa apa 
khabar ayahanda dan bonda," ^g^^' 
|ju^3 ^b J^j^ cJ) LJij^ ^b \s:£>j " Oh, 
Rangka and Jaksa, what news is there 
of my parents ? " 
u-hai, ^^1 Ho! Oh! Behold! Lot 

(See Aiu, yl Ho ! Oh ! &c., and Hai, ^ 
Ho! Ha! Hullo!) 

un, ^ji\ To swing, to swing backwards 
and forwards, to rock, to sway, to rock 
a cradle. (See Ayun, ^ji\ To swing, to 
sway, &c.) 

ut, &^) or Aiut-aiut-an, ^ ^J f fM' A 
concubine, a slave. (See Ayut, Syl) 


Ajaib, <-,-4^ 

Ajaib, Ar., s-^il^ Wonder, wonderful, 
surprise, miracles, prodigies, to be sur- 
prised. (See Aajaib, <n-i^ Wonder, 
surprise, &c.) 

Ajak, ^^\ To invite, to persuade, to urge, 
to challenge. Also Meng-ajak, ^ U- and 
Ajak-kan, ^^^^\ Maka Raja Donan ini 
pun meng-ajak TAan Peteri ber-pindah 
ka-prahu itu, ^^\^ ^^j^ ^^ J^^ gj; ^-^ 
4«^| yb]ji^ &SjJy, ^jA9 ^1^ Then Raja 

D6nan also invited the Princess to move 
into his ship. Langsong naik meng- 
adap Raja PetAkal meng-ajak mu-pakat, 
aJU^ ^Ul. Jlf^ gl; i^^vib. c^b ^^ 

And straightway went up into the 
presence of Rftja Petiikal and persuaded 
him to come to terms. Maka pada suatu 
hari Tftan Peteri meng-ajak Baginda 
pAlang ka-negri-nya, i^j^ &|^--« ^ '^^ 

. one day the Princess urged the monarch 
to return to his own country. Maka 
Baginda meng-ajak mem-bftlang ayam, 
^1 ^^^--*-« <3«^l^ JoJ;^ 4^A^ The monarch 
invited him to fasten the artificial spurs on 
to his fighting cock. Maka ia pun meng- 
ajak 6ja ayam, g^l ^lA-^ ^yi ^\ <^l— 
^1 He invited him to try his fighting 
cock. M&ka segra di-sAroh panggil masok 
glanggang serta di-ajak meny-abong, 

t^^ <39^'^ Then speedily he ordered 
him to be called into the cock-pit and 
challenged him to fight cocks. Ajak ber- 
kelahi, ^l^j^ ^1 To challenge to 
fight. SAroh ta' pergi panggil ta' datang 
ajak ta' cmbok, ^1 J ^\S J^ ^y 'U &j^ 

<5r^* *lJ ^) When ordered he will not 
go, when called he will not come, when 
invited he declines. Lalu di-ajak 6rang 
tfta itu ber-sama-sama dengan dia, 4-Jil 
^^ ^^ Yf^l^j^ «Hll ly ^jj^ <3^l^ Then 

he urged the old man to accompany him. 

Ajal, Ar., Je.) Fate, destiny, predestina- 
tion, hour of death, destined period. 

Sft-kit mata di-kinohing semut 
Dftdok di-padang bAlan trang 
Si-flpa tahu sljal dan maut 
Minta-lah maaf lebeh dan kftrang. 

t^J-^ cJ-J-^ t"^^^ O^J^ 
h^ c>'*^ J^' -^^ v^l<^-^ 

Ajar, j^] 

My eyes are sore with the urine of ants, 
as I sit in the plain in the moonlight. 
Who can foretell his destiny and end ? So 
I beg pardon for my greater and lesser 
offences. Maka dia pun ka-tahu-i-lah 
iang ajal-nya sudah sampei, ^y ^^ tM^ 
^^u^ fiX-a ^1 ^ ^jisS He knew that 

his hour had come. ^ 

Ajam, Ar., ^^^ Persian. (Se\ Aajam 
^♦5^ Persian.) 

Ajar, ^1 To teach, to instruct, to educate, 
to correct, to reprove. Also Meng-ajar, 
j^\^ Ajar-kan, ^^ — T^l Meng-ajar-kan, 

^^j&.Ul* Ajar-i, ^^J-«^I and Meng-ajar-i, 
^je^ \k^ To teach, to instruct, &c. Maka 
sebab kasih-an hati-ku biar-lah aku aja»r 
ka-pada diku pekerti iang baik. 



b 4)J 


I iw^»<0 

<^Lii Because of the pity which my 
heart feels for you, let me instruct you 
in all good behaviour. Kiirang ajar, 
^\ ^j^ Ill-bred, badly brought up, 
rude, rough, unmannerly, mcd Sieve. 
Bftdak ktlrang ajar, jf^\ ^j^^ jjJ^ A 
rude, rough, ill-bred, or unmannerly 
youth. Ada-kah di-dalam mejelis ini 
6rang iang ber-aakal iang bMih meng- 
ajar dan mem-bri nasihat akan anak- 
anak-ku ini, ^^^1 ^l u-^^^ ^'^^ ^1^' 

vji' ^f<5^' Is there in this assembly any 
wise man who is able to educate and give 
good advice to these my sons ? Bdkan- 
kah tiian-ku meng-ajar hamba jangan 
mSng-ambil herta orang, ^'1/ ^^^^l 
^j^\ ca^yb J--^U^ ^W. w-^ j^^ Did 
you not teach me, oh, my master, not to 
take the property of any man ? Jika 
ada ampun serta kernia duli tdan-kii 
bahwa patek-lah chakap mem-bri nasihat 
serta meng-S.jar paduka anakanda ka- 
ampat ini, U^ ut*^^— ^ O-^' "^^ *"^^ 
au,^ ^j^A^ e-a^U. dK^U 1^ y3ly ^j 
^1 aJL.'^l^ ^jJii\ -^jU ^U- u^j^ With 
your Highness' s permission and pardon, 
I (your slave) will undertake to give 
advice to, and to reprove your four sons. 
Peng-ajar-an, ^^^^^ Teaching, lesson, 
doctrine, precept, advice, correction, 
reproof. Maka ada ter-bhagi hikayat 
ini atas lima bhagi-an ia-itu men-jSdi 
peng-ajar-an pMa 6rang iang ber-aakal, 

y^ji ^ tJJ^ jj ^^Ui ^gJU^ This 


Ajar, ^1 

tale is divided into five sections in order 
that it may be a lesson to those who 
have intelligence. Insha Allah Taala 
dengan berkat peng-ajar-an gAru hamba 
tiada-lah lebeh tahu-nya segala pen-jArit 

Man japS,hit itu deri-pada hamba, dUI UJl 
JbU ^^Jbjy/^^Ui iT^ J>^ J\sS 

«-r-*^jf Please God Almighty, and by 
the messing of my master, who taught 
me, all the warriors of Manjapahit do 
not know more than I do {lit.^ with the 
blessing of my master's precepts). Maka 
apa-bila di-dengar Mih gagak peng-ajar- 
an srigala itu maka siika-chita-lah ia, 

^^1 dJU^ -s)^ <-aU Now, when the 

crow heard the advice of the wolf he was 
very pleased. Men-jadi lembut-lah hati- 
nya serta men-drut segala nasihat dan 
peng-ajar-an 6rang serta men-61ak segala 
ka-jahat-an dunia akhirat, dlJ^ ^^j^«.^ 
^1j dftj*^ y^ — ^ &jy^ i^j~^ ^^ 

&^^--fr- g» l L-wiJ Their hearts became 
softened, and they obeyed all the good 
advice and precepts (which were given 
to them) and they renounced all evil in 
this world and the next. Ajar-ajar, ^^1 
A learned man, a scholar. Peng-ajar, 
^I4i A teaching, precept, advice, reproof, 
correction ; a teacher, an instructor. 
Aku sudah ber-chakap pada Sri Betara 
mari-ku chftba jftga peng-ajar gflru-ku 
ini, ^^j^ j^. ^?.^-^ ^ «-^^^> esJc-^^l 

cr^'->^A>/^^ <— fj^ "^y^ j^ I have 
passed my word to the Sri Betara. 
Come, let me put the teaching of my 
master to the test. Bel-ajar, ^Jg To 

learn, to acquire learning. Pel-ajar-an, 
^fi^^ Learning, that which is acquired 
by learning or study. Puncha pel-ajar- 
an, ^^y>^^ l^ The commencement of 

learning. Ada iang pandei di-dalam 
pel-ajar-an dan ada iang pandei tiada 
dengan bel-ajar, ^^^ ^1^*^ ^gJjuJ M ^1 
j^^ ^^ jL^ v^j^ ^ j| ^1^ There are 
some who become skilful by reason of 
their learning, and some who are clever 
without ever having learned. Di-sftroh- 
nya jdga anak-nya itu mem-bacha sftrat 
dan bel-ajar elemu, u^-^l ^1 ^-J*^ ^)y^^ 
y^^^-^ y=^^ 4^'*^ hy^ gW--^ He ordered 

Iji. ^' 

his son to read and to study sciences. 
(See also Bika, csA-^ To teach,, &c.) 

Ajar-ajar, *ijfe.l A learned man, a scholar. 
Akan tetapi ada s'6rang ajar-ajar ber- 
nama Sang Persentenala itu ber-tapa di- 
gdnong PeruantepAra ter-lalu amat sakti- 
nya, ^ ^li^ t»^l ^}y^^ ^1 ^Uj ^I 

^ ^ ^ ^1 But there is a wise man named 
Sang Persentenala, living in seclu- 
sion on the mountain of Peruantepiira, 
whose magic lore is exceedingly great. 
Maka kata segala ajar-ajar itu "Ber-henti 
di-sini dahMu karana hari sudah malam'* 
* * * Maka akan Laksamana pun di-bri 
tempat Mih ajar-ajar itu serta di-per- 
jamu-nya makan Abi kledek dan segala 

bAah-bAah-an, uw) t>^' J^^^-^ «^^ <^^ 

^U ^sJw» ^j\^ ^l? Jy^j s?*"*^"^ s?^^-^ 
dJ^I aij ^ji^ ^y ^U^ ^^1 c&U * * * * 

^jjfiil^fi)^ JC^ ^)j Then all the wise men 

said, " Stay here a while, for the day is 
far spent," * * * * and all the scholars 
gave a place (in which to spend the 
night) to the Admiral, and feasted him 
with wild yams and all manner of fruits. 
(See Ajar, ^\ To teach, &c.) 

Ajat, u^^cskI Intention, wish, desire, reason, 
idea. (See Hajat, j^U. Intention, wish, 
&c., of which this is a common colloquial 
form.) Correct form, Hajad, Ak. j^csIck 

Aji, ^1 To learn, also Meng-aji, ^^^ 

which is the form usually met with. 
l^oie : Although this word really means 
to learn in the general sense, it is usually 
understood by Malays to especially refer 
to the study of Muhammadan theology, 
and the reading of the Kuran. It has 
thus come to mean, to intone the holy 
books, &c. Di-sAroh-nya jAga £lnak-nya 
itu mem-bacha sArat dan bel-ajar elemu 
m^ka di-lihat-nya anak-nya ada meng- 

^U^ He ordered his son to read 

and to study sciences, and he saw that his 
son was learning. Meng-& j i kitab, ^ U.* 

iL^\sS To study the religious books. 
Meng-aji sampei tiga jAs, ^o*-^ ^^ 
^y^ «— ^ To have learned the first 
three chapters of the Kuran. Meng- 


Mh ^» 


aji sampei khatam, ^^sn*. -JU^ <^^ ^^ 
have read the Kuran through to the end. 
Meng-aji nahA,^ s^^ ^^ learn gram- 
mar, to learn the Kurfin with the interpre- 
tation of the Arabio in the vernacular 
dialect. Maka ia ka-dengar-an bftnyi 
6rang meng-aji ter-lalu merdu suS,ra-nya, 

^^tplj^ He became aware of some one 
intoning with a very melodious voice. 
M61ek sangat suara-nya meng-aji, ^5«J^ 
^U- ^^l;!^ d^Lo His voice is beautiful 

when he intones. Maka tahu-lah 
meng-aji dan bel-ajar nujum, J^lJ 

(V^ y^'^ c)'*^ ^^^ s?' He knew how 
to intone the Scriptures, and had studied 
astronomy. Peng-aji, ^Ui A student, 

one who learns theology. Maka di-ikut 
(ilih segala anak murid dan bftdak peng- 

aji-nya, ^IJ J^^ ^3^1 J^ 4?' S^'^ ^^ 
i£j«^^ <3^^ H® ^^s followed by all his 
disciples and pupils. Peng-aji-an, ^^j-se^Ui 
A lesson, a task, learning in religious 
writings ; theological knowledge. Maka 
bharu-lah di-tAlis-nya peng-ftji-an aku, 
/) ^^j^Ui ^yj d)^^ v^i. Then at 

the last he wrote out my lesson. Peng- 
aji-an-nya dalam, ^b ^^^jLj^eKUi His 

prosecute his studies so far as to learn 
to read and write in the Malay character 
which has no vowel marks (Sftrat ta' ber- 
baris, ^j^j^ji *^ ^j^ i.e., unmarked writ- 
ings) although the letters are practi- 
cally identical with those which he has 
already acquired. It is still more rare 
for a Malay to Meng-aji nahA, ^ c^^ 
viz., to learn not only the ArabV^ sounds 
contained in the Kuran, but Mso the 
meaning attaching to each word formed 
by those sounds. 

Aji, Jav., ^\ A magic formula or incanta- 
tion. (See Jampi, ^g*-^ Mantera, l^^a^^i 


Aji, ^1 A king, a prince, a title of honour. 
Also Seng-aji, ^l*-* Biirong aji, ^jjji 

^\ A fabulous bird. Paku aji, ^^©^1 ^li 
The name of a tree. Cycas circinalis. 
(See Paku, /U) 

Aji, Jav., ^I Price, value. Note: This 
word is not used or understood by the 
natives of the Peninsula, the word Herga, 
<-jyb being (»raployed by them in this 
sense, to the exclusion of all other terms. 

Ai\, ^ A pilgrim, one who has made 
the pilgrimage to Mecca. Note: See 
Haji, ^ A pilgrim, &c., of which this 

learning is prof ound. Note: The literary! is merely a common colloquial form. In 

education of the average Malay is con- 
fined to attaining a knowledge of the 
Arabic character, as written with its 
customary vowel marks, which is called 
Sftrat ber-baris, ^j l^^ Sjj^ or " marked 

writings." When the scholar can read 
through the Kur^n, pronouncing the 
Arabic words more or less correctly, by 
means of the character and the sounds 
which he has been taught to attach to 
the various vowel marks, but without 
having learned to attach any meaning 
to the Arabic words, his education is 
considered complete. He is then said 
to have Meng-4ji khatam, as^ ^^^-^ 

i.e., studied the Scriptures to the end. It 
is usual for the students, who are for the 
most part children under fourteen years 
of age, to be sent to reside with their 
Grdru, jy^ or teacher, until they have 

completed their studies, when they are 
sent back to their relations iu order 
that they may undergo circumcision. It 
is comparatively rare for a Malay to 

writing, the form ^ alone is permissible. 

Ajla, Ar., ^J^I Clear, plain, manifest, 

Ajnas, Ab., ^Ij^' Kind, sort, property, 
possessions; the name of a peculiar coin. 

Ajok, Jy^l To imitate, mimic. Also 
Ajok-kan, o^>-^l Meng-ajok, jj^La^ 
and Meng-ajok-kan, ^^U.- Pelat 
6rang barat senang di-&jok, Sj\i ^j^) iLj 
^^Ij ^ju4 It is easy to imitate the 

accent of the men of the west (i.e., 
Petani, Kelantan, Trengganu, &c. See 
Note under Barat, Sj^ West). Di-ajok- 
kan 6rang mem-bangkit-kan per-gadoh- 

He incited them to cause a disturbance. 
Peng-S,jok, Jjy^*-^ A mimic, &c., 
one who incites, exasperates, &c. Ta' 
tahan hati patek karana pachal itu peng- 
aj6k sangat, J^U ^j^ ^^^U ^lft> ^\S ^Lr 

afi>L» ^>^l^ «-^' I (thy subject) could 
not keep my temper because he (thy sub- 
ject) mimicked me. Ta' baik ajok-kan 


Ajong, ^^1 

6rang, ^jj\ ^^\ i^\i "\S It is not 
proper to mimic people. 

Ajong, £^l A Chinese junk, the Chinese 
vessels usually seen in Malayan waters, 
a ship, a vessel. Ajong pichah hiu jflga 
iang kennyang, ^ ^ *-J>^ ^ d^ ^^1 

WTien the junk is wrecked the sharks 
have tj^ir bellies full. Prov., signifying 
that tfie misfortunes of the great are 
often the sources of profit to the poor. 
Ajong sarat, SjLi ^y^\ An over-laden 
junk. Laksana ajong di-atas karang, 
6j\^ ,j'-Jl^ ^>^1 ^j)CjO Like a junk on the j 
rocks. Prov. — i.e., in sorry case. Ajong ' 
di-r&pat R&ja R6m layar-kan ka-mudraj 
Masir, \j]^ ^^i f^^j gl) a*l;j ^^^1 j 

j-y o -^ The ships having been got ; 
together, the king of Constantinople : 
sailed for the port of Egypt. Note: 
Though usually written with an initial 
a, f this word is always pronounced Jong^ 
ij^ in the colloquial language. 

Ajong, 4^1 A kind of shell-fish. 1 

Ajuf, Ab., v-i^t A hollow, a cavity, a hole. , 

AjDjah, Hind., ^^\ To slander, to | 
calunmiate, slander, calumny. (See 
AjAjat, &.^0 

Ajujat, Hind., &^^I To slander, to calumni- 
ate, to gossip, to make mischief by carry- 
ing reports from one person to another, 
slander, scandal, calumny. Ajftjat-an, 
^jjae.^) Slander, scandal, calumny. Ta' 

baik s' kali mem-bftat ajAjat kata di-sana 
bawa' ka-mari kata di-sini b&wa' ka-situ, | 
*t^ij ^Uj u^l? ac^^l S)j^ J\SL. ^\i 'U j 

well to cause scandal by carrying reports , 
of what is said hither and thither and 
backwards and forwards. Note : The 
form Ajdjah, &^^t is also met with. i 

Ajun, ^£^1 The last, the last of all, the 
latest, that which goes widest of the 
mark at which it is aimed, delayed, tardy. 
Pe-kerja-an ajun sangat, ^^j^\ ^•Uj-<J 
46L» Work which has been undertaken 
after long delay, work which has been 
postponed to the last moment. 

Akal, Ak., Jflc> Intelligence, ingenuity, 
sagacity, acuteness, cunning, understand- 
ing, judgment, stratagem, policy, re- 
source. (See Aakal, Jflc> Intelligence, 
sagacity, policy, resource, &c.) 

Akan, ^1 

Akan, ^1 To, at, unto, for, by, with 
respect to, with reference to, concerning, 
in order to, will, shall. Ingat akan diri- 
mu, ^>iJ ^1 JAil Take heed to thyself. 
Lalu di-bahan akan kS.yu merabau itu, 
**-jJ ^^ >l^ c/' cT^^ y ^ Then he felled 
the intsia amboinensis tree {lit., to the tree) . 
Apa-bila harihampir akan petang, J^l 
^ ^] ^( J u ^ ^J^ When the day was 
near unto afternoon. M&ka Akan Per- 
meisuri pun ber-anak-lah s'6rang per- 
amp{l-an, dtot^ ^y ^^j(^..^y ^1 s^X^ 

^l^y ^jjs^ A female child was given 
birth to by the Queen. Maka titah Ba- 
ginda " HS ahlun-nujum ber-kftta benar- 
lah angkau ka-pS,da llku akan hal fi,nak- 

ku itu," utilS*^ r^^>jJ^' ^e^ ^^^ Aa^y csJLw* 
u^] csXsil Je. ^1/1 jJl^yC6) aJ^ Then 

quoth the monarch, " Oh, ye astronomers, 
speak unto me truly concerning my 
child." Lalu ber-mohun b&lek ka-rfi.mah- 
nya akan sedia-kan bekal-nya, ^^^^ ^^ 
J^ c/^^ J} ,£y^^/ S^^ Then they 
asked permission to return to their houses 
in order to prepare provisions. Akan 
meng-lipor-kan hati iang rindu, ^^1 

^^j ^ ^J^ cAA^ I" order to comfort 
his sorrowful heart. Note : Akan, ^1 is 
often used as a sign of the future tense. 
Maka Sang PSrtedSwa tahu &kan diri-nya 
&kan ber-Mih anak, ^iJ lyJJy A«^ «^JU 

^1 J^l> J\ ^ji^ J) Sang Perted^wa 
knew with reference to himself that he 
would have offspring. Jangan-lah angkau 
takut tiada-lah per-bdat-an itu akan men- 
jadi ka-merka-an, dJIjUf &/\J ya>l dL^U. 
^^'^^ v^^W*-* ^1 uwl ^^y.y Have no 
fear, that deed shall not be the cause of 
any displeasure on my part. M&ka tahu- 
lah ia &kan anak-nya itu S,kan men-jadi 
Raja besar pada akhir zaman, dJyblj csA-* 

^U) He knew that his descendants 
would be great rulers in the days to 
come. Apa-kala ka-bawah duli akan ber- 
S,ngkat sila-lah meny-droh panggil patek, 

csAjfU y^ Whenever Your Majesty is 
about to start, be pleased to order me 
(thy slave) to be summoned. Tahun 
&kan datang, ^1 J ^1 ^IJ Next year, 

the coming year. Pe-kerja-an iang 
damikian tiA,da akan aman-kan negri. 


Akan-akan, t'^^' 

Sucli proceedings will not tend to pacify 
the country. Akan sekarang, ^j^^ ^^^ 
Now, presently, Maka titah Baginda ka- 
pada Permeisftri "Ya adinda akan seka- 
rang &pa bechara kita akan anakanda 
ini" JJjI \i K^jy^^tf^j^ *^ J^ ^^ ^-^^ 

l^hen quoth the monarch to his queen, 
" Oh, my beloved, what now shall we do 
with reference to our daughter ?" Akan 
tetapi, e^lsJ ^1 But. Akan tetapi ada- 

lah istri-nya bharu anam-blas tahun 
iimor-nya serta dengan 61ok-nya, ^\ 

^i^\ jS>^ UEAj^ But his wife was only 

just sixteen years of age, and comely to 
behold. Note : The word Akan, ^^\ has 
in the course of time been contracted 
into Kan, ^^ which is now used as an 
inseparable verbal aflBx. See Note under 
Kan, ^jS. Akan-akan, Y^^^ omd S'akan- 
akan, t'c/*^ Like, closely resembling, 
similar, very nearly, almost. 

Akan-akan, ]f^\ and S'akan-akan, t*^*L^ 
Like, similar, closely resembling, nearly, 
very nearly, almost. Rftpa bftdak itu 
akan-akan rilpa bapa-nya, JJ^^ <-3^^ 

Akhir, Ae., ^^^.1 

<sJLi 'Uf The cunning of the creeping 
plant, which twists without breaking. 
Proverbial expression. Tiada r6tan akar 

pim ber-gflna, ^/^ ^y ^\ ^)j ^L-Jf 
If there is no rattan a root can be used. 
— Prov. Equivalent to the English 
aphorism " Half a loaf is better than no 
bread.'* Ber-akar, ^1^ Having roots. 
Pohim kayu iang ber-akar ^n ber- 
chabang dan ber-daun, ^1^ ^ >i^ ^^ 

O-^'^-H o'"^ ^^y^ o'"^ Trees which have 
roots, branches, and leaves. Harimau 
akar, ^\ >^j> The largest species of wild 
cat found in the Peninsula. {Lit.^ the 
root tiger.) 

Akas, ^j^\ Superlatively beautiful, pre- 
eminently handsome, active, lithe, neatj 
skilled in singing or dancing. P&ras-nya 
ter-iaiu akas, J^\ ^ij^ er->>^ Her 
features were of wondrous beauty. Note : 
This word is not in common use. 

Ak^sa, ^) The atmosphere, ether, air. 
(See Angkasa, ^^^^ Air, atmosphere, 

&c., of which this is a most uncommon 
form). Bau'-nya mem-enoh-i akasa, ^y\i 

^\ ^yj^ Her perfume filled the 

^lij s^}^ y^\ uL^I The appearance of , Akbar, An., ^1 Great, magnificent, awful, 
that child closely resembles that of its Allah Akbar, yS\ dUI Great God! 
father. Belum men-iadi laffi tetapi akan- a... a ii:ijxiiij.i^ 

akan handak men-jadi jiiga, ^^\^ ^^ ' ^^^'""^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^' ^^^^' ^^"*> ^^* 

^^ ^^\^^ ^j^ )f^\ ^Uj ^J It: 
has not yet succeeded, but probably will \ 

succeed. (lAt.^ is as though it were about 
to succeed.) 

Akar, jS\ A root, a creeping plant. 
Harus-lah di-chabut-kan dengan akar- 
nya di-bflang-kan, ^J ^^U^J dL^^b 

j^V*^ ^^^ It is essential to pluck 
it out by the root and throw it away. 
Tetak akar pisang raja, A-^ ^1 ^ ffT 
gip Cut the root of the raja banana 
tree. Akar bMoh di-pakai 6rang akan • 
mem-bftat hMu parang, ^li^ ^^y^ ^\ 

^^U Pyb s\y^ ^1 ^j)\ The root of the 
bamboo is used for making the handles 
of jungle knives. Lemah liat kayu akar 
di-lintar bftlih di-patah ta' dapat, S^ <u3 
i-iU *lJ d-JU J dJ^ ^^-aJ J /I ylf Pliant 

yet tough, like a root which can be bent 

but cannot be broken. — Prov. Aakal 

akar ber-pdlas ta' patah, ,j-3y^ ^1 Jfic> 

stage, state, or part, extremity. Akhir 
akan datang, ^b ^\ ^*^l The future, 

the coming time, the end which is to 
come. Akhir-nya, ^j-s^' Result, sequel, 
the end thereof, the last state thereof, 
the conclusion thereof, finally. Akhir- 
nya akan men-jadi bala iang tiada ter- 
kira-kira lagi, ^L::^^ Jl^ v^al^^ ^1 ^j^\ 
^S H^^-a^y The result will become an 

evil which cannot be estimated. Akhir- 
nya padi iang di-tanam itu tiada-lah 
men-jadi barang sedikit pun, v^^U ,^^^1 

The end of it will be, the rice thus planted 
will not thrive, even a little. Maka 
jikalau tiada di-chabut neschaya akan 
mem-bri bahia iang amat besar pada 

akhir-nya, ^g^^ ^^^^ ^U^^^-^ *-s^ 

is not plucked out it is certain to cause 
great danger in the end. Nesch&ya 


Akhirat, Ab., ^v<^I 

damikian klak pad a akhir-nya, ^^ 

^^^1 Jl* ^ ^J^^^ Verily, it will be thus 

in the end. Maka di-per-sembah-kan deri 
awal sampei akhir-nya,^J ^^^i^.fM^^^ csA^ 

^^^1 ^^u^ J^l He told the king every- 
thing, from the beginning to the end. 
Langsong di-sembah-kan deri-pada awal 
per-c^fkap-an Raja Donan itu hengga 
samp« akhir-nya, wkJ»;J ^jC ^ .. > . o j ^j--^ 

^^^l Then he related all from the be- 
ginning of Raja Donan's speech even unto 
the end thereof. Akhir zaman, ^U) ^^1 
The end of time, the end of the world, for 
ever and ever. M^ka Sang Seperba tahu 
akan anak-anda (pro. ananda) baginda 
ka-ampat-nya itu men-j&di R&ja besar 
datang ka-pma akhir zaman, 

4*^1 ,^fSJL»^\^ J^ JuJJil ^1 ^\S ^ji, 

I jJ^ ^lj j^ q]j ^^J^fc*^ Now 

Sang Seperba knew that his four sons 
would become great rulers in the time 

to come. Ada-kah pernah harimau 
me-makan padi entah aalamat akhir 
zaman-lah sudah, ^u-»^^<Uy d_^|j| 

6Ju* diiUj^^l d^^ daJl ^^jU Has a tiger 
ever eaten standing rice ? I know not 
whether it be a sign that the end of 
time has come. 

AkhTrat, Ae., Sj^js^) The future life, the 
next world, the life to come. Note: 
Akhirat 3^^ I is used in contradistinc- 
tion to Diinia, Uj This world, the 
earth, &c. Diinia akhirat, 6^-i«£*l L^JJ 
In this world and the next. Mem-bAat 
per-janji-an diinia akhirat, ^^j©^k*^y 3l>'^'*-• 
&ji!^\ LjJa To make an agreement which 
shall hold good both in this world and 
the next. Neschaya di-kasih-an-i Allah 
akan dia diinia akhirat, ^m^^^ s^^^ 
S^\ Uj ^^ ^1 dU) Verily shall he be 
treated mercifully by God in this world 
and in the next. Serta ia men-61ak 
segdla ka-jahat-an diinia akhirat, uo^ 
&j,^\ LJ J ^^^^ ^ — ^ ^y^ ^1 And 

they also renounced all evil in this world 
and in the next. 

Akhir-nya, ^^^^1 Result, sequel, end, end 

thereof, conclusion thereof, finally. (See 
Akhir, ^^f End, &c.) 

Akhlas, Ae., j^A^l Love, affection, friend- 
ship. Note : This word is usually pro- 
nounced Jfikhlas, j^AcSkI by the Malays. 

Akhtiar, j^s^^ 

Warkat tftlus akhlas kasih sayang 
dan mesra, d<w^l^ j^l-^l ^j^y^ ^jj 
\y^^ ^lj AlL^ A letter of love, affec- 
tion, devotion, fondness and friendship. 
Siirat al-akhlas, j^A^JIIS;^ A friendly 
letter. Ada-pun herta ini dengan tMus 
akhlas tflan-tftan mem-bri hamba, ^y '^J 

s?>H- fo!^ ^^^^^ uT^y J"^ cH' "^J^ 
c^-'Oib And as for this property, do 
you give it to me freely and in a 
friendly spirit ? Pem-bri-an hamba tAan 
ini tiada-lah dengan seperti-nya men-jadi 
tanda akhlas sahaja, ^\ ^ty c^-^oib o^^H^ 

gL^-^ This thy servant's gift is not suit- 
able, it is merely given as a sign of affec- 

Akhtiar, Ae., jtr^\ Resource, stratagem, 
scheme, arrangement, free-will, election, 
free agency, choice. " Ya tdan-ku dengar- 
lah akhtiar patek hamba iang h6na ini," 

^1 u-jb ^ H-^ ^^^ ytr^^ ^j^^ y^'y ^ 

your Majesty, listen to the scheme of 
thy subject who is a worthless slave! 
He sudara-ku sekelian apa-lah akhtiar 
hamba lagi, j-s::d^l aUI ^jJX-rf^l;lj^ ^ 

^i i^r-^a^ my brethren, what re- 
source now remains to us? Jikalau 
tifida ter-b{tnoh {Qih harr itu meng-adu 
ia ka-pada hakim atas akhtiar hakim-lah 

meng-hukum-kan dia, d3^l ^y.J ol<>jy^ 

^^-^^ja ^ l ^j^^^l Ati^^ *^^ <^l^«^l^^ ^^Hll j^ 

^^ ^^^u^^^ dL^^ If he is not slain 

by the free man he may complain to the 
judge, and it will rest with the choice 
of the judge to decide what punishment 
shall be inflicted. Akhtiar banyak, j^^^ I 
^b We have many choices open to 
us. Akhtiar-kan, ^j^^gx^^.] and Meng- 

akhtiar-kan, ^^^-^»uU^ To bespeak, to 

procure, to negotiate for, to procure by 
negotiation, to devise a scheme, to hit 
upon a plan. TfQong akhtiar-kan s'bdah 

rftmah akan men-jadi tempat ka-diam-an 
kita, v^Jlap^ c/'^jy ^!>^ c/-^«^^' ^yy 
^ cT^^ ^^ Assist me by bespeaking a 
house which we may make our dwelling- 
place. Lalu di-sdroh akhtiar-kan prahu 
kftrang satu s'rdtus bftah, &jj^^^ yJ^ 
fil^ ^l^yLo ^jj^ybly ^^^^^ad.1 Then 
he ordered him to procure one hundred 
boats save one. Atas angkau-lah akan 
meng-akhtiar-kan, ^^j-^l d)yC-i>l ^ Jl 


^jfgSii^\L* It is for you to arrange to 

procure it. Minta' akhtiar-kan, *Uu^ 
^^^t!Si£^\ To ask someone to procure, 
secure, or bespeak. Akhtiar-lah, ^jn^^) 

Bespeak, procure, &c. (Imperative.) 
Akhtiar-lah sepaya ter-plehera ]6wa 

kita sekelian, l^-s«^ ^jisi)^J ^^^ a3^^-<,_a6.1 

^ j f K  '.0 «fc-.<^ Carry on negotiations, in 

order that all our lives may be saved. 
Akhtiar-lah tdan-hamba sekelian bagei- 
mana bAlih lepas deri-pada bahia ini, 
,j— iJ 4^ c)^**^ cy ^"^—"" H-H^'y ^,>-ft»5^' 
ej — i' s?l^ »>i^«^ Devise a scheme, my 
masters, by means of which we may be 
able to escape this peril. 

Aki, ^1 Father, an uncle. Note : This word 

is rarely, if ever, met with in writing, 
but it is in common use in colloquial 
Malay. It is more familiar and less 
respectful than Ayah, 6i) and more affec- 
tionate than B&pa, <-ili being used much 

as is the term Wa' "t^ in many parts of 
the Malay Peninsula. This word, in 
common with many terms of relation- 
ship, is often used as a familiar and 
friendly vocative by persons addressing 
those who are senior to them in age, but 
who are not necessarily related to them 
by ties of blood. To' aki, ^<\ y A grand- 
father, a great uncle. Note : It is usual 

to attach this term to the proper name 
of an old man, thus: To' aki Anjang, 
AaJl ^^1 *>i Grandfather Anjang, &c., 
much as the term "grandfather " is often 
applied to aged men among the rustics of 
England. Note: The term Che' &ki,*^^ 
^<\ is occasionally used by commoners 
in addressinor the eldest son of a Chief. 
(For other words for father, uncle, &c., 
see Note under A.yah, ajJ and for grand- 
father, &o., see Note under Dato', ^y'^) 

Akik, ^5-^1 The name of a kind of shell 
much used by the 6rang Laut^ &jS ^j^\ 
or aboriginal tribes of the coast, for 
making rings, bracelets, and other orna- 

AkitiAB., ^1 Cornelian stone. (SeeAakik, 

Akmal, Ab., J*^I Perfect, complete. 

Akrab, Ab., <^ji) Close, intimate. Sehabat 
iang §.krab, s-»y ' M 4 W« An intimate 
friend. Kar^-na kita pun ber-sShabat 

Aksa, Ab., ^^'aiI 

ter-lalu &krab ^ij ^U-©^ ^y u:^ o^^ 
c^^l Because we are friends who are 
very intimate. K&nak-kanak itu ber- 
sehabat ter-lalu akrab, ^U-o^ «^l ^^3^^ 
cr>y>l yS^ These children were very 
close friends. 

Akral, Ab., J^I or Jyt To promise, to 

agree, to engage, to promise ir\all good 
faith, to bind oneself by a pledge^romise 
or engagement. Maka kita meng-aku se- 
perti kita telah fi,kral-kan dan serah-kan 
tempat-tempat iang ter-sebut di-bawah 
ini ka-pada kompani itu, ^Uu ^^ l&X^ 

4*^1 ^Ai.4.< jJ^ ^ ^it &)\.)^ &yf^^ji We 

acknowledge that we have promised, 
and handed over the undermentioned 
places to that company. Me-lain-kan 
dengan akral tAan-nya ka-pada segala 
ka-benasa-an maka tiada-lah ia meng- 

^leh, js:— jJL^ ^ly jj^i ^^ j:.^ 

dLJU v^l dJIjLjJ csU ^•LjJj!^ If, however, 
his master has engaged to run the risk 
of any damage done, he {i.e., the borrower 
of the slave) shall not be required to 
indemnify him for it. Note : Akral is 
better pronounced Skral. The form 
Akrar, j^) or jjM\ To promise, &c., is 

also in use. 
Akram, Ab., (»^I Generous. 

Akrar, jjS\ orjjS\ To promise, to agree, to- 

engage, to promise in all good faith, to 
bind oneself by a promise, pledge, or 
engagement. Jika ber-betul-an pada 
hati adek per-tama chinchin tiga bentok 
iang s'bentok tanda mem-inang dan 
s'bentok ber-akrar janji dan s'bentok 
tanda jadi s'barang bechara, ^^^y^y. ^^ 

<M j^y^. v«<^ ^^y,^^ pUy ^^1 ^U ja 

If you, my brother, are of the same 
mind, firstly (send) three rings, one as a 
sign of betrothal, one as confirmation of 
engagement, and one as a token that all 
matters shall be brought to a successful 
issue. (See Akral, Jj^l or Jyl To pro- 
mise, to agree, &c.) 

Aksa, Ab., -s*^^' Distant, far off, far 
removed. Masjid S,ksa, ^^^^^ J^s^^ The 
distant temple. Note : This phrase is 
used to indicate the temple at Jerusalem, 


Aksara, Hind.,^Uj1 

as opposed to the Prophet*s mosque at 

Aksslra, Hind., ^ LjI A written character, 
a letter, a letter of the alphabet. Di- 
hias-i dengan bagei-b&gei huruf aksara 
dan tMis-an iang ter-lalu endah-endah, 

Y&^\ yiy M He adorned it with all 
kindarof letters, written characters, and 
writings of exceeding beauty. 

Akta, Ab., ^Jail The elder tree. 

Aku,^1 A pronoun of the first person 
singular, I, me. Note : This word is used 
by a superior to an inferior, or by equals 
talking familiarly together, and when no 
deference is expected to be paid to one 
or the other. Aku,^l must never be used 
to a superior, and should not be employed 
by Europeans when conversing with 
Mdjds or persons of rank, in which case 
Sahya ^^^^ is the better word. It may, 
however, be freely used by Europeans 
when speaking to servants or other in- 
feriors, and in such cases is more correct 
than Sahya, ^^^ — ». Aku, ^\ is used in 

conjimction with the following words, 
which express the second person singular 
or plural : (In most parts of the Malay 

Peninsula) Angkau, y^\ or Kau, jS (In 

Penang and Kedah) Hang, ^ (In 

P6rak) Kamu, ^l^ (In Trengganu, 

Kelantan, and Petani) Mu, ^. Jika- 
lau ada lempah ampun j&ngan-kan 
Laksam&nas'6rang jikalaunegri Mal&ka 
s'kali dapat &ku &lah-kan, diJ Jl tsA.^ 

^1 /I a^b ^l5C-^ -sJ^ If there is 
mercy and pardon shewn to me, not only 
the Laksamana but the whole country of 
Malacca shall I succeed in subduing. 
Aku iniR&jaiang besar bdlih men-egah- 
kan apa-apa per-biiat-an drang di-dtas 

diri angkau, ,^fi^ 4^ >-J ^ sb c)^' /' 
/^\ ^ji^ ^b ^j^\ J^ji^ t*<->l I am a 
great king, and am able to prevent any- 
thing being done to you. M&ka negri 
Manjap&hit ini-pun habis-lah &ku 
kan, ijMU) ^y ^1 2^\^f^ s?>-^ *-^^ 
^L-Ai yi And now at once I will 

utterly destroy the country of Manja- 
p&hit. Ber-sharah kalam d,ku-lah rd;ja, 
sb ^^' r^ ^j-^ji The pen declared, I 
am the king I Handak-lah angkau den- 

Iku, /I 

gar baik-baik per-k&ta-an aku ini, dUjuJ^ 
^l/l ^*laf^ r^^ j^^ y^' Thou must 
listen attentively to these my words. 
Note : Aku,^l is often contracted into Ku, 
<^or ^especially in literary composition. 
Barang ku paksa aku per-Mih barang 

ku chita men-jadi, <jJjly ^1 LJU ca\£>;lj 
^jl^^ju. wfa^ft T. . i.&k£>j\^ Whatever I need 
I obtain, and whatever I long for comes 
to pass. H6 anak-ku dan b^ah hati-ku, 
^^^ &|^ ^^1^ *-5^l ^ my child, 

core of my heart ! Jikalau anak-ku handak 
ber-istri lima perkara handak di-chari, 

^g^l&.j If, my son, thou wishest to 
take unto thyself a wife, there are five 
qualities for which thou must seek. 
Note: In forming the possessive, the 
personal pronoun denoting tlie possessor 
should be placed immediately after the 
thing possessed. Ka-handak Aku, ^^y^ 
yS\ My desire. Herta aku, ^\ uo^ 

My property. Benda itu hak Aku, Ijo^ 
^\ ^^ ut^l That thing is my property. 
Aku sendiri, v^^Jju* ^\ 1 myself. Aku 
sekelian, ^^g^^ ^1 We, us. Aku samAa, 
SyA.^ ^\ We, us. Note: In colloquial 
Malay the expression Aku samAa, \y^ ^\ 
is usually contracted into Aku 'ma, U^l 

more especially by the natives of Pfirak 
and parts of SelS-ngor. Maka hal ini-lah 
iang telah di-pakat-kan Mih aku sekelian. 

This is the matter which has been 
arranged by all of us. Aku ber-dda, 
Ija^ /I and Aku ka-dCla, \^^ ^\ We 
two, both of us. TAan-ku, y^lyr Your 

Highness, Your Majesty, His Highness, 
His Majesty. (Lit., my master). " Ya 
tdan-ku shah aalam, ^Lf> dL^^ljj \i 

Yes, Your Majesty, ruler of the world. 
(See TAan, ^\yJ Master, &c.) Note: 

When T6an-ku,^ly is used as a vocative 
the first person singular or plural is 
expressed by the word Patek, <-^Jli A 
slave, &c. The term TAan-ku,^ly is 
only used when addressing or referring to 
a ruling monarch, his queen or immediate 
offspring, except in Pfirak, where it is 
used when speaking to or of the R&ja 
MAda and the Bendahara. It is customary 
to address all other persons of Royal 
blood as tTngku, ^^S Your Highness, 



except the sons or daughters of a ruling 
monarch, who, when the term Tflan-ku, 
j^ily is not applied to them, are addressed 
or referred to by the title of Tungku, 
^^ which is of higher standing than 

tJngku, ^£>\ Mana-mfitoa titah tdan-ku 
sedia-lah patek men-junjong-nya, t*^^U 
^y^^i^f^ <^l> dSv^jL^ yOly dxJf What- 
ever may be Your Majesty's order, I 
(thy slave) am ready to submit thereto. 
Note : For other pronouns of the first 
person, see Amba, <-,-^IB6ta, uu^ Dengan, 
^J Diku, ^^ Hamba, c,-^^ Kami, 
-^l^ Kawan, ^^l^ Kita, «u^ Patek, 
tsA^li Sahya, ^^^ Teman, ^^J. 

Aku, ^1 To acknowledge, confess, avow, 
undertake, guarantee, warrant, engage, 
become surety for a debt, to go bail for 
anyone. Note : The root Aku, ^-^1 is 

seldom used alone, the compound 
form M6ng-aku ^Uu being generally 

employed. Tet&pi karana sudah ka-malu- 
an itu tiada-lah ia meng-aku, ^^J^ ^^^ 
/UU ^^1 dJbUf ui^l ..^yU^ &^ — u) But 

because he was ashamed he would not 
acknowledge it. Maka Tdan Petri pun 
lembut-lah hati-nya langsong meng-aku 
stlnggoh s'bagei-mgLna iang di-kata-kan 
Mih orang muda itu. ^y ^yiJ ^ly <^U 

^UJ:,-^ d«>j^ /Ul. ^^ ^Ijb diJ^ 

ui^l iJj^ £^jl d3^l v/^^ ^ Then the 

Princess's heart was softened, and she 
acknowledged that all was in truth as 
the youth stated. Jikalau ada lagi 
abang-ku mcng-aku b^ta sudara, ^1 ^^ 
]j\^j^ «.^ yUL. c^l ^S If, my 

brother, you any longer acknowledge me 
as your relative. Ambil-lah ftlih-mu 
akan dia segra pergi sAla-kan karana ia 
tiada mau' meng-aku, v^«^ ^1 ^^1 ^sJJ^i 

Take him and quickly go and impale 
him, because he will not confess. Jangan- 
lah meng-aku diri-mu pandei, dL^Les 
^ja3 ^ji^ yUU Do not avow that you 
are clever. Brani meng-aku, ^UU Jl^ 
To dare to acknowledge, confess, &c. ; 
to be ready, willing or prepared to 
confess, avow, guarantee, go surety for, 
&c. Si-apa iang brani mc?i.(,^-aku pAtus- 
kan pe-kerja-an ini, ^Uu Jl^ Ai tjL-u) 

undertake to settle this business ? Si- 

llah, a3l 

apa iang brani meng-aku betul ta' betul 
per-kata-an 6rang ini, yUU ^Ijj <-iLj--o 

cH» t>^^ ^•K>* ^y>i '^ ^y^ Who wiU 

go bail for the truth or falsehood of this 
man's word ? Aku-i, ^^^\ To acknow- 
ledge, confess, &c. Ta' ter-aku-i, *Lj 
^g^ljJ Not to be warranted or gone 
security for. Aku-an, ^t^l AnWknow- 

ledgment, confession, avowal, undertak- 
ing, bail. Baik-lah kakak kita ber-aku- 

aku-an sudftra^ o^^'^^ *«^ ^^ ^U 
\j)^^ It were well, lady, for us to 
make an avowal of relationship. Meng- 
aku diri, f^j^^ ^Uu To boast, to 

A I or El, J I The Arabic definite article. 
The. Note : It remains the same for 
all numbers, genders, &c. In writing 
it is combined with the word which 
follows it — Example: Al-nabi, ^^^-juJI 
The Prophet. When a substantive 
which is preceded by the definite article 
is qualified by an adjective the latter 
also receives the article. Example : Al- 
masjid al-aalei, ^Wlj^^^^l The high 
mosque. By the Malays, who in their 
own language have no definite article 
proper, this word is only employed in 
conjunction with some adopted Arabic 
word, and in many cases may be omitted 
with propriety. Examples : Al-merhum 
f^je^j^i) The late. Al-nujum (^^s^^ The 

astronomy. The forms Merhum f^y^j^ 
and Nujum j*^ are both used alone 

without the article by the Malays. 

Ala, SI To lead to, to go in the direction 
of, to incline towards, to direct a course 
towards, to wend, to, towards, in the 
direction of. (See H^la, Jlfl^ To lead 
to, &c.) 

Alab, H-J' Slow, at long intervals, slowly, 
slackly , slack, slackened, Pij. Note : This 
word is not in common use in the Malay 
Peninsula. The usual meaning here is 
" good, satisfactory, praiseworthy," and 
a common expression, alab sangat ka-la 
ku-an-nya, ^l/K d£>[^ ^\ "His be- 
haviour is excellent." 

Alabangka, Port., cMijJI A lever, a crow- 
bar, a crab, a winch. Pij. 

Alah, d3l To lose (as a battle, game, 
wager, or stake played for). Overcome, 
vanquished, beaten, defeated. Jik&lau 


Alah, d)! 

s'orang ber-prang dengan kita maka 
alah-lah ia lain ia da tang ber-khodmat- 
kan diri-nya ka-pada kita, ^jy^ ^^ 

^la v^iyS s^l ^\ ^^ «^ J>^ l^yy 
1*^ jsJL^ ^j^^ ^^A^^^^j^ If someone 

-wages war with us and loses, then he 
comes and submits himself to us. Ada 
iang akth ada iang menang, ^ Jl d)l ^ j| 

iA-» ^ome win and some lose. Alah 
menang ta' tahu ber-sorak bAlih, *l5 ^j^ dJl 
<J^ ^j^j^y^^ Whether we are winning 
or losing we know not, but we can still 
clieer. Note : This is an expression much 
used in cock-pits, &c., and signifies that 
though victory is not certain it is 
still highly probable. Lihat-lah laki-laki 
hamba sendiri bulih tentu alah dan 
menang, ys^ ^y, ^jl^y->^ c,— ^^ ^s?^^ <^Wts^ 
i;-*^|jd)l Behold my courage ! I myself 

will decide who shall lose and who shall 
win. Di-dalam per-main-an tadi alah- 
kah menang tAan hamba, ^U^ ^1^^ 
c,.^!^ ki^ d^\ v^^Uf In the recent 

game did you win or lose ? Jika 
di-adu-kan patek dengan ka-bawah kaus 
pakai alah sahaja-lah patek, ^j/^^l^ <^^ 

^Jgl^ ^ dJl ^U ^^U &^L^ ^J c^Li 

tsAjjjU If I am pitted against Your High- 
ness, I can only expect to lose. Alah- 
kan, ^1 Meng-aiah, dJU^ Meng-alah- 
kan, ^jjlX^UU To defeat, vanquish, 

conquer, beat, overcome. PMa waktu 
aasar baik akan ber-jalan pada ketika 
itu ftlar di-alah-kan Mih katak, ux^^ J^i 

P^l u^\ i^X^ J^ J\c^j^ ^] C^lj j.^^ 

^\^ d)^l ^j^l^ At the hour of after- 
noon prayer, at that time it were well 
to start, for at that hour a snake will be 
vanquished by a frog. Negri Malaka 
s'kali dapat aku alah-kan, -£31^ ^^Q 
^^1 ^1 dib ^ICd The whole country 

of Malacca shall I be able to subdue. 
Jika di-sAroh kami pergi meng-alah-kan 

negri mau'-lah kami pergi meng-alah- 
kan negri, ^j-^ ^^^ &jj-^^ *^«^ 
^^^U^ Jjj. ^l? d)yU ^^^^ ^^5-5:^1^. 
^g^Q If you order me to go and van- 
quish that city, I will go and vanquish 
it. S'drang pun tiMa dapat handak 
alah-kan Kaja PetAkal, ^U( ^y ^jy^ 
^yxi gip ^^\ JJJoJb iilj No one was 
able to vanquish Raja PetAkal. Pada pe- 

Alamang, ^11 

rasa-an p£ltek sangat-lah stlkor handak 
meng-alah-kan negri itu, csA^U ^*Loly JJ 

«wl i^J^ c5^^ c3^*^^ /-^** 4la£>U It 
seems to me that it will be very diflficult to 
conquer that country. Rdpa orang mAda 
itu meng-alah-kan rdpa anak Raja iang 
besar, ^1 <^jy ^j^^ *-w' '^>* Aa?' <->jj; 
j^ ^ ^j The appearance of this youth 
surpasses that of a great prince. Alah-an 
^1 Loss, defeat. Di-tetak deri kanan 
di-tangkis-kan ka-kiri dan di-parang 
deri-kiri di-16mpat-kan ka-kanan tiada 
jdga ber-alah-alah-an, y^^j^ S-^*^ 

made a cut from the right, and it was 
parried to the left; he made a slash from 
the left, and it was avoided by a leap to 
the right, and neither side sustained 
defeat. Banyak sangat alah-an-nya 
^^jA^l u:^L-u> ^5^^ His losses were 
excessive. Note: See Kalah dJl^ and 
Kalah-kan, ^l^ &c. The form Kalah- 
an, ^i^ or simply Alah, dJI are the more 
usual forms employed to express "loss." 

Alah-an, ^1 An old river bed. Note: 
This word is probably a derivative of 
Alah, <5J) To lose, &c., the idea being 
that the spot in question has been lost 
by the water of the river and won by 
the dry land. This word is in common 
use in Pahang, but is not generally 
understood in the Peninsula. 

A I am, ^L^ The world, the universe, the 

earth and all that it contains. (See 
Aalam, ^ lc> The world, the universe, &c.) 

A I am, ^Lp a standard, a flag, an ensign, 

jurisdiction. (See Aalam, ^lo A flag, 
a standard, &c.) 

Alaman, ^^i\ A lawn, the open space in 
front of a Malay house. Note: Halaman, 
^^ which is the more correct form, 

should always be used in writing. In 
colloquial Malay, however, the contracted 
form Laman, ^^iJ is employed almost 
exclusively. (See Halaman, ^j^^ A 

lawn, the open space in front of a Malay 
house, &c.) 

Alamang, A^SI The name of a kind of 
sword which has a straight blade. Col- 
loquially, Lamang, ^S (See Halclmang, 


Alamat, i.Ao 

Alamat, i^A.-o Sign, signal, token, mark, 
device, address, banners, flags. (See 
Aalamat, d^Xo Sign, signal, token, &c.) 

Alan-alan, Po" ^ buffoon^ a jester, a 
clown, a merry-andrew. Alan-alan ma'- 
iong, ^>l*^t'^jJI The jester in the Malay- 
plays called Ma^'iong. Note : The term 
Pran, ^^'y is also often applied to these 
clowns or jesters. 

Alang, ^1 Medium in length, neither 
long nor short. Kris ftlang, AJt ^^ 
A dagger shaped like a kris panjang, 
if^ u^^ ^^* shorter than that weapon, 
though somewhat longer than an ordinary 
kris pandak, ^^jJ ^j^4^ (See Kris, 

^^ A dagger). Alang ka-palang, ^1 
^U^ Unsatisfactory, &c. Note: Alang, 
^U.e., medium in length,is the distinctive 
name usually applied by the Malays of 
P6rak to the third child in each family, 
the other children being named as 
follows : — The eldest, if a son, KMop, 
uJj^ = Foreskin; the idea being that he 

is the first child born to his father 
after the latter's circumcision: KMop, 
4-a)^ is sometimes contracted into L6p, 
<-iy or I6p, <-ijil : The eldest, if a 
daughter. Long, ^^ which is a contra c- 
tion of SMong, f^^ i.e., the first-bom 

child; the second child is called Ngah, 
^ or Angah, <sf>l which is a contrac- 
tion of Tengah, <sAS = The middle one — 
/,/3., the child who comes between the first 
and the third. The fourth-born child is 
called Panjang, ^^ = Long, which is 
sometimes contracted into Anjang, AaJl 
The fifth, Pandak, ^sXxh = Short, in 
case of a girl Andak, ^o3l The 
sixth, tTda, IjjI which is a contraction 
of MAda = b^ Young. The seventh 
child is called PAteh, A-Jy = White, or its 
contracted forms tTteh, a-JjI or Teh, ^ 
The eighth is called Hitam, f^s^ or 
Itam, ^1 = Black, and the last-born is 

called Bongsu, j <^i = The youngest, 

which is usually contracted into Busu, 
^^ The names Long, iyJ and Ngah, 
d^ are used very generally among Malays 
of all countries to indicate the first and 
second-bom of a family, whether male 
or female, and the name BAsu, y^y, is 

Alang, ^1 

also very commonly applied to the 
youngest child in a family. The names 
Pftteh, AJfy tTteh, dtJjl Teh, a^J and 
Itam, ^1 are also generally used by 
Malays, but, except among the natives 
of Perak, they are given to children of 
both sexes without reference to their 
seniority in their family. The name lop, 
<-i^l is also in very general uafe, but in 
most parts of the Peninsula it does not 
bear the special meaning given above. 
A Muhammadan proper name is usually 
added to the above cognomens, thus: 
Alang Ahmad, Ju^^l ^Jl Pandak Ibrahim, 

^1^1 ^Joi PAteh Sepiah, oJlo &t?y &c. 

Alang, ^1 A wall-plate, the beams which 
rest upon and run at right angles to the 
posts which support the roof of a Malay 
house. Alang rAmah, a-ji; ^\ The wall- 
plates of a house. Tiang sudah ter- 
chachak 6sok hari handak di-kena-kan 
alang-nya, v^^^ <5--i' <5^^^ ^ — ^ ^-^ 
J^\ ^?U?a ^y^^ The posts are fixed, 
and to-morrow the wall-plates will be 
erected. (See Note under RAmah, &^}) 
A house.) 

Alang, ^t An idiomatic term employed 
as an exclamation, and commonly used in 
conjunction with the interrogative suffix 
Kah, ^S llang-kah, d5Ci)l Is it not? 
(signifying it is emphatically). It is 
also used sarcastically, as in the follow- 
ing example : Maka Baginda pun men- 
ampar dada-nya seraya ber-titah alang- 
kah baik bMi-nya Si-TAah ini, ^^ 
c^b d<^l dxJf^i ^1^^ ^»ala Juj^ ^y ^y^. 
^1 &\^^ ^,^y Then the monarch beat 
his breast and cried, " Is not Si-TAah's 
conduct good in my regard ? ' ' Alang-kah 
baik me-laku-kan kuasa masa men-ja.di 

Raja s'hari, ^U ^1^ Jj$^ ^^ ^<^^ 

exert one's authority when one is made 
a ruler for one day's space ? Alang-kah 
senang, Aju^ d5Ci)l How sweet it were ! 

Were it not pleasant ? Alang-kah sAka 
men-jadi Raja, el; ^^aU^ jJ^ 6S^\ 

Would one not like to become a king ? — 
i.e., how one would like to become a 

Alang, ^1 A kite. Alang p6nggok, ^t 
^5<!^y An owl. (See Ij^ng, ^ which is 


liang-ilang, yA--^^ 

the more common form, although Alang 
^1 is not unusual in the written language. 

The form Halang, ^ is also frequently 
met with in the written language.) 

Alang-alang, f^l Futile, useless, worth- 
less, slight, a little. Alang-alang pe- 
kerja-an-nya, ^^*le.^ p^l His work is 

useless Marah-nya bftkan alang-alang, 
t*^l cn^ i£^^ His anger was not slight. 
Karana bAkan alang-alang ka-handal-an- 
nya. ^J^ f^' ^ji ^^j^ For that 

his prowess was not slight. Note : This 
word is usually employed in a negative 
sense, it being far more common to de- 
scribe a thing as being Biikan alang-alang, 
Y^^ ^y. i.e., not futile, not useless, not 

slight, not child's play, &c., than to 
employ the word in its positive sense. 

Alang-an, ^\ A joist, the bar at the 

mouth of a river. Alang-an di-kuala 
Kftrau, ^^/ Jl/J J^S The bar at the 
mouth of the KArau river. 

Alang-ka-palang, ^\iS ^\ Futile, useless, 
unsatisfactory. (See Alang-alang, PAJI) 

Alap, 4JDI or Meng-filap, cJi)U.^ To gather 
fruit from the trees by means of a long 
pole or hook. Note : This term is not 
used by the natives of the Peninsula, the 
words Jolok, ^y^ or Meng-ait, ^liL. 

being employed instead. The pole used 
is generally called Peng- ait, ^Ui but 

in tQu Pahang, and in some other parts 
of the interior of the Peninsula, the term 
Tengelan, ^ is used, 

Alap, «-i)1 Slow, sedate, slowly, sedately, 
at long intervals, calm, calmly, com- 
posedly. Jalan aliap santun, di)! ^Le^ 
^^sju* To walk sedately. 

Aiap-Hlap, t'uJJl The name of a kind of 
hawk. Folco Bengalensis. 

Alar, ^1 and Meng-alar, ^lA^ To be rude, 

to be unmannerly. Note : This word is 
of rare occurrence. Pij. 

AiaSi ^^r^' Poundation, lining, stand, 
inner covering. Alas rdmah, ^ — J I 
A*y The foundation of a house. Alas 
y^j^i ^^ eT^' The lining of a coat. 
Cher&na s'bAtir dengan ftlas-nya, ^^1^ 
^1 ^j ygf^i^ A betel-nut box with 

Aleh, d^l 

its tray or stand; would also mean the 
lining (usually paper.) Alas chap, ^\ 
4-^ The sum paid by a Chief to the 
rdja when his letter of authority, stamped 
with the royal seal, is presented to him 
on his accession to power. Alas mftat- 
an, ^^]^ ^ — J I That which is placed 
beneath the cargo in a ship's hold, 
Peti kayu ber-alas timah, ^'^ ^"^ ^^ 

A4-J A wooden box lined with tin. Alas- 
kan, ^j<-JI To line. Alas-kan baju 
dengan kain pAteh, ^^l^ ^J ys^b ^^CJI 
djfy Line the coat with white calico. 
Kain alas-an, ^1 ^\i Lining. 

Alas, ^j — )l or more commonly Alas-an, 

^ — J I An old clearing which has been 

abandoned before it has been made 
ready for planting. A forest. Di-tengah 
jalan di-tempoh alas-an 6rang, J\e^ diJj 

^^^1 ^\ fiyUJ Half-way one strikes 
an old clearing which was abandoned 
before it had been made ready for plant- 
iQg. Note : This word in the above sense 
is more particularly used by the natives 
of triu Pahang. 

Alas, Jav., ^\ A functionary, a headman, 
a chief, Pij. 

Alat, Ar., dJI A tool, an implement, an 
instrument, a utensil, materials, stores, 
ammunition, apparatus. Note : The form 

Aalat, d) lo is also met with. Alat senjata, 
uoU^A-^ ^1 Arms, weapons. Alat pe- 
prang-an, ^^'^^ ^1 Warlike stores. 

Alau, jJ\ To drive away, to chase, to 
hunt away, to drive out, to expel. (See 
Halau, y Ifl^ To drive away, to chase, &c.) 

Alba, Ae., c-JI The name of an aromatic 
plant. Fenugreek, Fcenum gr cecum, Pij. 
Unknown in the Peninsula, but Halban 
^jj-Aft. is well-known as the name of a 

tree that supplies the wood to make the 
sheaths of weapons. (See Halbah, d^) 

Aleh, dJI To move, to remove, to change, 
to alter, to transfer, to shift, to turn, to 
veer round. Also Ber-aleh,d<>JI To move, 
remove, i&c. Ber-aleh s&ngat laku-nya, 
^^S a6Ld djJI^ His behaviour is greatly 
changed. Ber-aleh bechara-nya, dJI^ 
^^1^1^ His tone has changed, he has 

shifted his position in the argument. 
M&ka Kftja Ddnan pun ber-&leh rApa- 


Aleh-aieh, r^) 

iiya, ^Uji; ^]ji ^y ^^j gl; c5X^ Raja 

D6naii changed his personal appearance. 
Maka TAan Peteri itu sudah ber-aleh 

barang ka-l&ku-ari-nya dan santap pnn 

sudah kftrang, fij.— ^ ut^l v^^ ^^'y <^^ 

£^^ The Princess had entirely changed 

her behaviour, and her appetite became 
less. Riimah sudah ber-aleh deri-pada 
t^mpat lama itu, 2iuS jjj^ ^1^ &^y^ ^j 
«:^) (»3 The house is removed from its 
former site. Bintang ber-aleh, djJI^ ^ajj 
A meteor (lit., a shifting star.) Ber- 
aleh hari, ^g;^ ^^j^ When the day 
changes, afternoon. (See Note under 
Ambun, ^^^^.--^1 Dew.) Aleh-kan, ^jj^^l 

To change, to move, remove, to alter, to 
transfer, to shift, to turn. Benda ini 
salah letak tAlong aleh-kan, <jJ L-u> ^1 1 Jo^ 

^^^^\ 9^y^ <3aJ This thing is wrongly 
placed, assist me by changing (its posi- 
tion). Aleh-aleh, t'dJI Presently, shortly 
afterwards, afterwards, somewhat later. 

Aleh-Sleh, t'A-JI Suddenly, without warn- 
ing, presently, shortly afterwards. Aleh- 
aleh datang-lah ia meng-adap raja seraya 
meny-embah, ^j ^jjUu ^^I dlJkJlj t'*'^' 
d--fc^ v^'j-* Presently he came into the 
presence of the king and made obeisance. 
Aleh-fl,leh bangkit ia serclya ber-kata, 
ca^l^^ v^'^--* v^' ^^ft^ y^^ Suddenly he 
arose and said. 

Aleh-padam, i»aU d^l The name of a snake 
which is not venomous. 

Aldku, y3l A pimp, a pander, a procurer 
of lewd women. Note : This epithet 
may be applied to persons of either sex, 
but is unknown in parts of the Peninsula, 
the common terms being Petolul and 
Pinang Mflda. 

Alferes, Port., ^j^JJ] An oflBcer, a 
military oflGicer. Note : This word is not 
in use among the Malays of the Penin- 

<»• J o -• c -* 

Alhamdu lillah, An., dUjs^l Praise be 

to God ! Thanks be to God 1 ^ God be 
praised! God be thanked! Asal kita 
bersin handak-lah di-sambit dengan 

Achap alhamdu lillah, ^jj-s— -•^J «-^ J^' 
d)J jUf *-A^^I ^a S^--i^j dJjrjuL^ If we 

llif, I 

sneeze we should make use of the ex- 
clamation, " Thanks be to God ! " 

Ali-aii, t- Jl A sling. Inak-ali-aii, ^l 
p^^l The stone used in a sling. Ali-ali- 
kan, o^r^g" or Meng-ali-ali-kan, ^^t'^Uu 
To sling, to throw by means of a sling. 
Ali-ali-kan batu, ^\^ s^f^ij^ ^^ sling 
stones. \ 

A I if, I The name of the first letW of the 
Arabic and Malay alphabets. Note: Alif,\ 
usually represents, ,in the transliterated 
Malay, the letters a, a, or a according to 
the manner in which the expressed char- 
acter may chance to be pronounced in 
any particular connection. Examples : 
Kalam, (»li A pen. Kachak, ^l^ 

Handsome. Angkau, j^l Thou, you. 

The sounds a and «, when they occur in 
a Malay word are not usually expressed 
by the equivalent Alif, I in the written 
character, and this also applies in some 
instances, but more rarely, to the ex- 
pression of a. Examples : Ktlrang, ^j^ 

Less. Pandang, ^JoJ To see, &c. 
Bahan, ^^ To strike. Segala, J^l-^ 
All. Initial AUf^ I occasionally has the 
value of e, (?, i, or w. Examples: Endah, 
6J3l Beautiful. jBntah, ^xaJl I know not, 

&c. Intan, ^1 A diamond. Umpfi,ma, 
l»liUl A metaphor, &c. Note : The initial 

long vowels e, i, 6 and u are repre- 
sented by the letter Alif, 1 in conjunction 
with Ya, ^^ or Waiiy } respectively. 

Examples : fikor ^1 A tail. Ikut, 5^1 

To follow. Otak, ^^1 Brains. tjTlar, 

^jf\ A snake. Note : AVords which 

begin in an initial Alif, I form the com- 
pound nouns and verbs in one of the 
following manners. Compound nouns : 
(i). By meang of the inseparable prefix 
Ka- ^ in conjunction with the insepar- 
able suffix -an ^ Example : Kaiada-an, 
^•|j*l? Existence (from Ada, a I) To be. 
(ii). By means of the inseparable suffix 
-an ^^ Example : Achu-an ^^1 A 

mould, (from Achu, ^1 To try), (iii). 
By means of the inseparable prefix peng- 
Ah with, or without, the assistance of 

the inseparable suffix -an ^^ Example : 

Peng-apit, M^ A press (from Apit, 

S^\ To press.) Peng-adu-an, ^^^•^Ui 

A complaint (from Adu, ^al To com- 


Alif-ba-ta, ^ Ugi 

plain, &c.) (iv). By means of the in- 
separable prefix per-ji in conjunction 
with the inseparable suffix -on ^ Ex- 

ample : Per-adu-an, ^^^•^'y A royal bed- 
chamber (from Adu,j^l To sleep.) This 
latter manner of forming the compound 
noun only occurs in a few instances. 
C(fmpcnt7id Verbs: By means of the 
inse^rable verbal prefix meng-k^ with, 
or without, the assistance of the insepar- 
able verbal suffix 'ka7i ^ Examples: 

Mcng-ajar, je^Uu To teach (from Ajar, 
je^\ To teach.) Meng-alah-kan, ^^/i^i^ 
To conquer (from Alah, d)l To lose.) 
(ii). By means of the inseparable prefix 
Ber -^ Example: BCr-aleh, dJI^ To' 

change (from Aleh, aJI To change, &c.) 
Note: It is worthy of remark that the 
Malays in adopting the Arabic character, 
with only a few necessary modifications, 
have adhered in great measure to the 
Arabic system of suppressing the letters 
Ali/y 1 Yoj ^^ and Wau, ^ where possible, 
but have nevertheless entirely abolished 
the marks which in Arabic denote the 
value of all vowels, whether expressed or 
unexpressed. It is, however, incorrect 
to insert the letters Alif^ I Ya, ^^ and 

WaUy J when they can be omitted with 
propriety, although this renders Malay 
exceedingly difficult to read with ac- 
curacy for any one not thoroughly 
acquainted with the language. Note: 
For instructions concerning the pronun- 
ciation of the transliterated sounds a, a, 
and a see pages v., vi. of this volume. 

Alif-ba-ta, ^ Ug» The alphabet. Pada 
hariitu jftga aku tdlis alif-ba-ta, ^^^lib jj 
uo Ui-J' ^ — jJy j-^' «— S'>«^ «-^l On that 
same day I wrote out the alphabet. Bel- 
ajar alif-ba-ta, ^^ LA<JI je^^ To learn 
the alphabet. Kenal huruf alif-ba-ta, 
4^ LJLJi ^^^j^^ J-ji^ To recognise the 
letters of the alphabet. 

Alilintar, yiuM) A thunderbolt. (See 
Halilintar, yu^ A thunderbolt, which 
is the more correct form. The form 
Lintar, jsl;^ or Lelintar, jsu^ is usually 
met with in colloquial Malay.) 

Alim, Ab., ^l^ Wise, learned, initiated, 

instructed. (See Aalim, ^^ Wise, 
learned, &o.) 

llir, ^1 

Alimun, Ab., ^^j^i Magic, an occult art 
(See Aalimun, ^^>4^ Magic, &c.) 

Alin, ^jj<Jl A preparation of rice, flour and 
eggs used by Malay medicine men, and 
by them rubbed on to a sick person's 
body, a text from the KurS.n, or some 
magic incantation, being recited by the 
physician while the operation is being 
performed. To apply or rub on this 
preparation; also Ahn-kan, ^^^\ Meng- 
alin, ^jjtsJl*^ and Meng-alin-kan, ^^jSO-JUl. 

Ber-alin, ^1^ To undergo this treat- 

Aling, ^1 used only in the phrase tTlang- 
aling, ^1 ^^1 To come and go, coming 
and going. (See tTlang, ^^1) 

Alf ntah, dx^JI The large horse-leech which 
is only met with in streams or swampy 
and very marshy country. (See Lintah, 
daj-J The large horse-leech, which is the 
more common form both in the written 
and colloquial languages.) 

Alip, 4-aJI The name given to the first of 
the cycle of seven years called Windu, 
^JJ^ which is a mode of reckoning bor- 
rowed from the Javanese, and not usually 
understood by the Malays. (See Windu, 
^Ji^ A cycle of seven years, &c.) 

Alir, j-j>3l To flow, to run, to stream 
(as water). Maka gem-entar-lah segala 
sendi tMang-nya dan ber-fibah-lah warna 
m{ika-nya dan mcng-alir plCih-nya seperti 

hftjan lebat ada-nya, J^^^— -» d}jsu^ 

^bl aJ ^yb 5^^ ^^ Ji^\^ All the 

joints of his bones trembled, and the 
colour of his countenance changed, and 
the sweat streamed from him like unto 
heavy rain ! Maka darah itu-pun meng- 
dlir ka-b{lmi, s^j^j<^^oj^^ ^^'^ ^-^^ 
The blood streamed forth upon the 
ground. Maka meng-alir ayer mata Tflan 
Petri seperti manik pfltus tali, c&A-^ 

^ iJ The tears flowed from the Princess's 

eyes like unto beads when the string is 
severed. Meng-alir-kan, ^j^\k^ and 

Alir-kan, ^^^ To make flow, to cause 

to flow, to set water running. M&ka 

jikalau handak meng-alir-kan ftyer iang 

tenangitu, ^ j-^l ^U- JJcs.ft>y5Cc^ ^ 


lUr, ^1 

ufc^il ^ Now if you wish to cause that 
stagnant water to flow. Alir-alir-an, 
^*{»^l Streams, channels, the beds of 

streams, the place where running water 

Alir, ^»M A live creature used^as a bait 
to catch some other animal. Alir buaya, 
^^'^ ^1 A live animal set as a bait for 

alligators. T&han-kan alir, ^11 ^jjC^fi^lJ 
To set a bait of this kind. tTmpan alir, 
^1 ^jji-^jl Live bait. Most often used in 
the sense of doing something to invite 
attack. Di-taroh-nya 6rang men-jadi 

Ampan alir,^1 Jl»^\ ^^\^^ ^;^l ,£?^A>^^^ 

To set a man as bait. (To invite attack, 
to set a sprat to catch a whale). 

Alis, Jav., ,j^-JI The eyebrow. (See 
Kening, ^^ which is the word most 

commonly used in the Malay Peninsula.) 

Alit, ijl To smooth with the fingers, 
wipe, lay on (as colour is laid on the lips 
or eyebrows). Note: This word is chiefly 
used of smoothing the moustache, lips, 

or eyebrows. Meng-fl;lit bMu misei, 3^ ll^ 
^^-^tr^ ^ji To smooth the hairs of the 
moustache with the fingers. It also 
means to ooze out, to dribble or trickle 
out, as water. 

PAlau Pinang pekan-nya bharu 
Kapitan Lait men-j8.di rfi^ja 
Jangan di-kenang-kan zaman dahMu 
Ttlndok meng-alit ayer mata. 

The town of Penang is new, and Captain 
Light is its ruler. Think not of the 
days that are past, or you will bow down 
your head, and wipe the tears from your 
eyes. Note : The form Meng-alit, iJll^ 
is more usual than Alit, ^1 without the 
prefix. Maka di-lihat ambar ka-lftar 
meng-alit deri-lAbang hidong mayat 
bonda-nya, ^1^ ^^ ^'^ >^^l ^^ «^^ 
^Ijo^ a--w« ^.x--^ ^y He saw a white 

discharge of mucus oozing from the 
nostril of his mother's corpse. Meng- 
alit, ^ [L* To colour the border or edge of 
anything (as the eyes with chelak, ^l&. ) 
Ber-8,lit, ^)^ Coloured, darkened, 

Allah, Ab., isJJl 

Alit, ijl or Tali&lit, 3^\ J\S A top-cord. 
Meng-S,lit, iJl^L^ To wind round the- 
edge, as a top-cord round a top. Pij. 

Al-kdsah, <wa--^l The story, the tale, the 
story is, it is related, thus runs the 
tale. (See K^sah, ^jusuJ A story, a tale, 
&c.) Al-kSsah ada-lah s'bAah negri 
^g^J3 61^^.-^ d)|j1 <ua Jt )l The story is 

that there was a country, isj-kisah 
m&ka ter-sebut-lah per-kdta-an fi,bang 
R&ja Besar itu ber-nama Bendahara 
TAa, ^1 ^^l«S> ii)J^--^y ^sX^ AcifJOl 
]j^ VjUbjo^ ^\^Ji ui^l J — J gl^ Thus runs 

the tale: it is mentioned that the 
elder brother of R8,ja Besar was named 
the Senior Treasurer. Note : Al-k6sah, 
d^guAil is used for the most part as a mere 
sign that a new paragraph or sentence 
is commenced. 

Allah, Ar., aJJI God. Allah taala, ^UJ dJJV 
The Most High God. Neschaya di- 
kasih-an-i Allah ftkan dia dunia akhirat, 

Surely God will show mercy to him in 
this world and the next. Maka dengan 
takdir Allah istri-nya itu-pun l^amil, 
J^U ^ybit ^>u^t dUI j-i-J^ ^^ «^s^--^ 
Now, by the decree of God, his wife 
became pregnant. Apa-kah daya-ku lagi 
me-lain-kan Allah iang fl;mat meng-a- 
tahu-i fi.kan nasib-ku ini, ^i ^ s?^^ ^^ 

What more can I do, for God alone knows 
my evil fate. H6 srigala ada-pun bangsa 
singa itu tiada ia men-aroh kasih-an 
^kan hamba Allah, LJ^ o^ ''^' J^J*^ ^ 

Oh wolf, this race of lions has no mercy 
upon the servants of God. Note: 
The expression Hamba Allah, <)JJI c,— kJb 
Servants of God, is applied by Malays 
to all mankind, and is equivalent to the 
expression " The human race," &c. 
Bahwa ada BAkit SegAntang itu sekarang 
di-tdrun-kan Allah Taala deri ka-indera- 
an Rftja iang baik bMi-nya, IfSy, J I 1^^ 

^j^ ^l\^ ^ gb ^y^^^ At BAkit Se- 
gftntang the Most High Q od has sent down 
from the heavens a ruler who is virtuous. 
Jikalau siinggoh lagi aku s'ibu dan 
s'b&pa dengan Raja Besar itu barang 
di-sampei-kan Allah Taala ktra-nya anak 

Ahnari, ^g;UI 
sadara-ku itu ka-mari, ^S ^S^^^ ^^^^^ 

i^j^^ <-w' If, in truth, I am born 
of the same father and mother, RsLja 
Besar, may God Almighty send my 
nephew hither. Dengan takdir Allah 
Taala maka lembu itu pun semboh deri- 
pada npny-akit-nya, ^\»S dUI jiSJU jt>^ 

^^ jj^a ^>H^ o-^' ^ "^^-^ ^y 

the decree of the Most High God, the bull 
thereupon recovered from its sickness. 
Allah suba-h^nahu Wa-taala, ^31^.^^ iOJI 
^^j God ever to be praised ! God 

«•< J O "* o — 

most high! Astarhafir Allah, aUI^6,» y,.^l 

Gk)d bless me! May God avert it! 
May Grod preserve us! M&ka meng- 
Achap-lah Raja "Astarhafir Allah" 
serta men-Atup lAbang telinga-nya 

<* J C "• C -" 

^Ugu ^) The king exclaimed, " God 

bless me ! " and stopped his ears. Insha 
Allah, dUI Uil Please God, God wilUng ! 
D.V. " Ya tAan-ku jikalau damikian 
ti&da-lah tAan-ku perch^ya 8,kan per- 
k&ta-an p&tek ini insha Allah maka 
bfllih-lahtAan-ku sendiri me-lihat,y3ly I4 
^•la$y ^\ ^pl^y yOly a3bl^ ^^ }^ 

i^Ju Yes, Your Majesty, if that be so, 
you do not believe the words of your 
slave, but, please God, Your Majesty will 
be able to see for yourself. Wallah 
waalam, (^^^ ^sJJ'j Cfod is most wise! 
God knows ! God only knows ! 

Alm&ri, Port., ^g;U)l A wardrobe, a cup- 
board. Note : This word is not usually 
understood except in the European sett- 

Al-m6rhum, Ae., &y^y^^ The late. The 
deceased. Note : This word is chiefly used 
by Malays in speaking of deceased kings 
and chiefs. (See Merhum, (•^^ Late, 

Al-nujum, An., f^^\ Astronomy. Elemu 

al-nujum, (•^^5l^%k> The science of astro- 
nomy. (See Nujum, i*^ Astronomy, 

Along, 4^1 The name of a game played 
with the hard nuts called BAah Eras 
O^^ fil^ (See Note under Kras, ^j^ 


Al-salam, Ab., i»l^t 

Hard, &c.) Note : This term is not 
used in the Peninsula, the expressions 
Main bAah kras, ^j^^ &\j^ oi^ or Meny- 

ftbong biiah kras, ^^ &\j^ t^^ being 
used instead. 

Alor, jJI The channel of a stream, a gutter, 
a tunnel, a furrow. Di-m&na alor-nya, 
^^ I ^U J Where is the channel ? Where 
is the deep part of the stream? Me- 
randai chari Mor,^l ^j^ s?^j^ To wade 
about in search of the channel — i.e., 
the navigable part of the river, etc. 
Jikalau tid.da drang iang tahu alor- 
nya ber-s&ma dengan kita ter-tentu- 
lah s&ngkut ta' ber-henti (reading this 
word, Malays say ber-henti, ^q^^*-^^ 
speaking, brenti, ^j^) ^^^' ^^ ^ — «^ 

^^^ji ^^ &^Ji^ If there is not some one 

with us who knows the channel we are 
sure to run aground continually. (Lit., 

without intermission. ) Alor hidong, ^1 

^^j^ The furrow in the upper lip. 

Alor tengg^la, JISIW ^1 The furrow made 
by a plough. (See PWoh, a^U) 

Alpa, ULJI Careless, lazy, negligent, in- 
dolent, neglectful, thoughtless. Jikalau 
Orang K&ya handak ka-siingei jS-ngan 

ftlpa, ^Ld. ^^ jJoJ) ^^l^ ^j^\^<^ 

li)l If, my lord, you are going to the 
river do not be negligent. Maka 
benchi-lah segala sehabat handai-nya 
&kan dia sebab bebal dan dlpa-nya, <^^ 
J^ H--: — • v^J^I ^J^^ ^U-o JiL« il^^ 
^liJI ^|j And all his friends and ac- 
quaintances will be disgusted with him, 
because of his folly and his laziness. 
Jangan-lah men-aroh alpa dan malas, 

^U ^|j 1431 e5.jj;U-« dL^W^ Be not careless 

and indolent. Note : The form Lepa, liU 
is very commonly met with in colloquial 

Al-salam, Ab., pX-^l Greeting, salutation, 
peace. Maka Gelila pun mem-bri salam 
Mta-nya "Al-salam aalaikum ia raja 
lembu" Makadi-sahut MihSetiibah "Wa- 
aalaikum al-salam h6 mentri iang budi- 

man," ^A^l ^^\»^ ^^ s?>h- ^f>y J<s^ ^-^^ 
^^ji ^ s?>«-* ^ C^^--* (^f^^ Then 


llu, ^1 

Gelila made salutation, saying, " Greet- 
ing be unto you, king of bulls!" and 
SetAbah replied, "XJnto you be peace, 
O worthy minister." (See Salam, (»iu* 
Salutation, &c.) 

Alu,^t A pestle, a wooden trough in 
which rice grain is husked by means of a 
wooden mortar. Alu dan lesong, ^'^ y 
^yJ Pestle and mortar. Alu batu,yi 

yli A stone pestle. (See Antan, ^^\ 
A pestle.) 

Alu-alu, {yJI To welcome, to receive a 
guest. Segala cheteraya pun datang 
meng-alu-alu-kan Baginda maka Baginda 
pun segra tArun deri-cltas gajah-nya, 

^^^\S ^\j^ ^j>y 1^ ^y j^ All the 

nobles came to welcome the monarch, 
and he speedily descended from his 
elephant. Maka Sang Seperba pun 
segra ka-lflar deri astana-nya meng-alu- 
alu-kan ayahanda bonda Baginda, tM-.^ 
^U^l;j j]j^ \jX — ^ ^y c^y^-^ ^^ 
Jol^ JoL^ ^Xjl^I j^t^yU^ Sang Seperba 

speedily came out of his palace and 
received his parents. 

Alua, ipi Ar., Sweets, sweetmeat. (See 
Halua, lyifls or 1^)l-&. which is the more 
common form of this word.) 

Aluah, Pers., &J^\ Aloes. 

Aluan, ^ipi The forepart of a ship or 
vessel, the prow or stem of a ship. (See 
Hainan, ^^'>-i^ which is the more cor- 
rect form of this word in the written 
language. The contracted form LAan, 
^ly is sometimes employed in colloquial 
Malay.) A spokesman, the man who 
speaks for a deputation. The present 
which is customary among Malays to 
present to a RAja or Chief at the com- 
mencement of an interview. Note : All 
these meanings have grown from the 
same root: it is the part of the boat that 
goes first, the man of a number that 
goes in first, the present which begins 
the interview. 

Alun, ^^1 A swell, a rolling sea, the 
large rolling waves after a storm at 
sea. The slight swell raised in water 
by anything swimming just under the 
surface. Maka laut itu pun ber-gel6m- 
bang maka di-dalam alim iang besar itu 

Aman Ar., ^t 

di-datang-lah dAa 6kor naga dan dAa 
6kor rdja bu&ya, ^^ji ^^y^' S>S tsJ 
/k^ l^j diiJlj «t^1 j^ ^ ^yi ^Ijj 

rose in waves and in the great rolling 
swell there came two dragons and two 
king alligators, llun iang besar hfila 
ka-d^rat, &j\^ i^ j — i ^ ^jJl The 

heavy swell set towards the sht^e. 

Ama, L^l A minute insect. Ama tebu, 
^ U) A minute insect found in great 
quantities in refuse sugar-cane from 
which the juice has been expressed. Ama 
iang me-r&yap ka-atas badan maniisia) 
--^U ^jl^ ^j^*^ «-fli'^ A-i ^' Minute 
insects which swarm upon human bodies. 
(See also H^ma, f^\sb) 

Ama', *L^1 Mother, dam. (See Ma*, *L. 
which is the more usual form in col- 
loquial Malay, although the present form 
is frequently employed in writing.) 

Amal, Ar., J^Lx> or J^^ A work, deed, 

action. To do, to perform, to practise. 
(See Aamal). 

Aman, Ar., ^^\ Peace, peaceful, free from 
trouble or disturbance, knowing no care. 
Dan jikalau sampei klak iimor ananda 
itu tfljoh tahun negri ini pun bharu-lah 
lempah dan maamur dan m&rah dan aman 
sentosa lagi sejahtera-nya pada sekelian 
bangsa isi negri tflan-ku ini, ^q^**-^ ^^ ^^*^ 

And if thy child attains the age of seven 
years, this country will then be fruitful 
and populous, cheap, peaceful, prosper- 
ous, and secure for all classes of inhabi- 
tants in this thy country, kingl Serta 
ia kckal ber-semayam di-atas tahta ka- 
raja-andengan aman sentdsa s'lama-lama- 

nya, «t-^ ^ — ll^ ^U^^^ J5C? ^^1 uoj--» 

^t'^A^ ^yi^ ^» J>^ /^'/ ^d he 
remained permanently in possession of 
the throne of the kingdom in peace and 
prosperity ever afterwards. Aman-kan, 
^j5<ju»I To pacify, to render peaceful. 
Pe-kerja-an iang damikian tiada akan 
aman-kan negri, jLJ ^^j-X^^ ^-i ^^*W^j^ 
^j^ o^^' O^' Such proceedings will 
not tend to pacify the country. Di- 
dalam aman, ^^1 ^)^*^ In peace. 



Amanat, Ab., ^llL^I 

A manat, Ar., SL^l A trust, a doctrine or 
precept which has been transmitted from 
father to son; to transmit knowledge, to 
entrust a precept. To bequeath, to trans- 
mit by inheritance. Takut barang-kali 
adek ada men-aroh amanat 6rang ti^a-tda 

dahMu-kala, &^j\^ J» ^Jl ^l^^l^ &/LJ 

J^ Jy^^ ^''y ^A?' ^^' Perhaps thou, my 
brother, art in possession of some of the 
precepts of the ancients of old times. 
Pen-dapat-an iang di-amanat-kan 6rang 

tfta-tdaka-padaabang, ^^^l»\^^ ^^IJsju* 

Aj' wko^ Hy Aa>' Possessions which have 

been bequeathed to you by the men of 

old. (See Umanat, JJUI) 

Amang, A-^l Tourmaline, wolfram, and 

titaniferous iron-ore are all called by 
this name. They are all considered im- 
purities, and tourmaline is the one most 
commonly met with. Lalu di-chflchi 
bijih serta mem-bftang amang-nya, yS 

^] £|>->^ i^^-^ A.^:^ s?^>^^ "^^^^ 

they cleaned the tin-ore and threw away 
the impurities [which were mixed with it.] 
Kiirang ^lok karang-nya karana banyak 

sangat ^mang di-dalam-nya, jj^l ^j/ 

^bj ^1 2£>L^ ^Lj ^^l^ J>j\^ This 

pay-gravel is not very good, as there is 
a great deal of tourmaline mixed with 

Amang, A^\ To threaten, to menace; a 
threat, a menace. Dengan ftmang flgut- 
Dya, ,^^1 ^-^' cr^"^ With threats and 
menaces. Amang-kan, ^^^^j^I To threaten, 
to menace. (See Gertak, ^jS tjgut, 2S^\ 
etc., which are in more common use than 
the word Amang, ^1 among the Malays 

of the Peninsula.) Pij» 

Amang-umang, ^^] ^^) The hermit- 

Amansari, ^^^Ljl^I A sweetmeat made of 
the flour obtained by grinding up the 
Kachang hijau js^ ^l^ (or Fhaseolus 
radiatus) and smoking it over the fire. 

Amar, Ar., j-^I An order, a command, an 
interdict, ^ a prohibition ; to order, to 
forbid. Amar dan nahi, ^e«J ^b ^1 In- 
terdicts and prohibitions. Amar-an, ^^1 
An order, etc. Karana ia me-lalu-i amar 
raja itu, «:-ql gV) j^l v^^A^ s?' c)->^ Be- 
cause he disobeyed the king's command. 
Amar dan nahi meng-erja-kan sdroh-an 

Amas, ,j«*-^t 

men-jauh-i larang-an, ^^.^ ^ ^^i^ ^' 
^j^ cq^^W^ ^Jy-^ Orders and pro- 
hibitions to perform that which is 
commanded, and to avoid all that is 
f orbidden. Dato' Sri Amar di Raja, y la 
g]^a y\ i^j~-^ A Malay title — i.e., the 
chief who makes known the commands 
of the king. 

Amarah, &j^\ Anger, wrath; enraged, 
angry. (See Marah, &j^ Anger, etc., 
which is the more common form of this 

Amas, ,jwl Gold, golden, of gold. Maka 
Sri Betara pun angraha akan dia amas 
dan p6rak dan pitis ber-pfdoh-pMoh, 

^ — -I v^^ ^\ \^j^\ ^y b^ s?^ "^^^ 

f Jy^ ,j— ^ o'^ <3>** c)'^ ^^^ Betara 
bestowed upon them gold and silver and 
many pieces of money. Ia meng-ambil 
pcl6ru tiga biji dan setenggar s'p<ichok 
per-bAat-an Jawa ber-tatah amas, ^^1 

^^y^ /is^ ^^b ^^ ^-O ^jj^ J^lA^ 

^ -I dJUj^ \^\ c^ J\y^ He took three 

bullets and a matchlock of Javanese 
manufacture set with gold. Maka warna 
tAboh-nya seperti amas s'pftloh mdtu, 
y^ d)y-L* ,j— ^' ^y — -» ^y ^sp) *-^'*-^ 
The colour of her body resembled ten- 
carat gold. Panggong amas, ,jwl £>^ 

A gold mine, also Tambong amas, ^y^ 

^ *l Gali-an amas, ,jw«l ^l? or KeJian 

amas, j — *\ ^^ Kerja amas, ,j— •! gy 
To work for gold. Mc-riau amas, ji^ 
^je^\ Me-landa amas, ^j-^l JoJ-* To i;^ash 

for alluvial gold. Note : The former is 
applied to washing in a Tebok, ^j^ or 

small alluvial mine, the latter being ap- 
plied to washing for gold in the bed of a 
stream. Tel^rang amas, j — *1 ^jt)^ A 

gold-bearing reef, auriferous rock. Amas 
tAa, ly ,j^^) Gold of a high touch. Amas 

mMa, \^y .1 — *i Gold of a low touch. 
Amas pasir, ^^«— -^U ,j'— ^' Alluvial gold. 
Amas ber-bAku, ^j^y ^ — -I Nuggets of 
gold. Amas ter-sepoh, ayLdjJ ^j-^l Burn- 
ished gold. Telepok amas, ,j— •) ^j^^ 
Gilding stamped on to cloth by means 
of a wooden instrument. Ayer amas, 
,jwl ^1 Gilding. Amas drei, i^jj\ ^j^ 

Gold dust. Amas kertas, ^/^jS ,j--w«l 
Gold leaf. Maka dengan s'ketika itu 
jAga limau ber-Akup dan bedak ber- 
setanggi sudah ter-siap di-dalam batil 


Amas, ^j0^\ 

amas miiat lima cMpak, <-2A->::5C-o ^j c&U 

^^ ^ a)^ ^j — •! Jjflj ^bj ijU^y 

Immediately lime juice, which had been 
scented by incense, and sweet-smelling 
powder were made ready in a golden 
bowl which held five pints. Maka di- 
dapat-i bedena amas serta di-ambil-nya 
dengan sftka-chita, ^j-w.) ISj^ ^e»ibj csA.^ 
«t.w^^ ^j ^J^t^\^ ijL>j^ He discovered 
a golden vase and he took it with great 
joy. Maka di-angraha akan chflnda itu 
dengan be-berapa pakai-an deri ka- 
Indera-an amas iang ber-tata-kan rakna 
mAtu manikam (the k in rdhna is silent) , 

He bestowed upon his grandson apparel 
from the heavens made of gold and 
studded with gems and precious stones. 
Ka-amas-an, ^j^w^^l? Grolden, made of gold, 
of gold. Lalu di-bawa' masok ka-dalam 
tirai diwangga iang ka-amas-an, yS 
. O--^"^ ^ i^-^lyj ^jjf ^]j^ ^U ^^"1^1^ J 
Then he led her inside the curtains of 
golden embroidery. Pakai-an iang ka- 
amas-an, ^j--^'*l^ ^ ^^^i Apparel made 
of gold. Note : In colloquial Malay the 
initial a \ in Amas, ,jw«l is always dropped 
unless the word is applied to the gold 

currency called an Amas, ^j *l (See 

Amas, ,j-^l Currency,) Amas me-lintas, 
^ .At. j ,!^ ^j-^-^l The proportion of a debt 
awarded by custom to the Bdja or Chief 
whose arbitration has been called in to 
settle differences between creditor and 
debtor — usually one half of the sum due. 

Amas kahwin, ^^><^ ,j— •' The sum of 
money paid by the husband which be- 
comes the property of the wife whenever 
the marriage has been consummated. 
Halal-kan amas kahwin, ^^i^ ^j-^l ^^^ 
To forgive a husband the payment of 
this sum of money. The following is 
the usual goldsmith's weight : — 

12 Saga, c-TL-^ = 1 Mayam, (^—i\^ 
16 Mayam, ^.L. = 1 Biingkal, J<^^ 
12 BAngkal, ^5^6^ = 1 Kati, ^\^ 

Note : Eight Mayam, ^L^ are equal to 
the weight of one Mexican dollar. Gold 
dust is sold by the BAngkal, J^^ and 

2 Bdsok, 

3 KApang, 

4 Kiipang, 






Amat, ^L«l 

gold thread, Benang amas, ,k-— •! Aj^ by 
the Kati, ^l? 

Amas, ^jw»l A certain quantity of gold dust 
used as currency, and until recently 
regarded as legal tender in several States 
in the Malay Peninsula. The following 
is the table of currency formerly in use 
in Pahang :— 

1 BAah ber^ksa, ,j^^j &\jJ <v Itam 
tengkok, <3<AJ ^1 = 1 Keneri (about 
8 cents of a dollar.) 

2 Keneri, 

3J:£>j = 

16 Amas, J<^^ (u-^') = 

Note : The BAah ber6ksa ,j^y, &\^ is a 
kind of small brown pea which grows 
wild in the jungles. Although the Amas 
^j^ according to the above table, was 
nominally worth $1.33J only, it was 
usually calculated by the natives of 
Pahang as being worth two Mexican 
dollars. In Kelantan the following table 
is in use in the gold-producing districts : 

1 Lada, jJI = 1 Keneri. 

2 Keneri, i^y^ = 1 Bhagid<ia,^C^ 
4 Keneri, ^^y^ = 1 KApang. [I^d 
8 KApang, ^^ = 1 Amas. 

15 or 16 Amas ^j^ = 1 BAngkal, y^y 

In the lower districts of Kelantan the 
Amas ,jw«l is equal to fifty cents of a 
Mexican dollar, and is a coin and not a 
gold weight, the table being as follows : 

60 K^ping, ^ft^ = 1 KApang. 

4 Kdpang, ^^ = 1 Amas. 

2 Amas, ^j^\ = 1 Ringgit, 5-JC^^ 

In Petani a similar system is in force. 
In Trengganu the word Amas ^j^ is 
only employed as the name of a gold 
weight equal to one-sixteenth of a BAng- 

kal, J^^ and is not used with reference 

to currency. 

Amat, ^L^l Much, very, exceedingly, too^ 
too much, excessively. Ter-lalu amat 
besar tdah-nya padflka ananda itu, yS^ 
u:^! j.^JS3l •JjL* ^IjJ j— -^ <LA Sur- 
passingly and exceedingly great is the 
good fortune of thy child. Neschaya 
angkau klak men-dapat s^ksa iang ftmat 


Amat, 1^1 

J^Lo ^1 Thou shalt certainly receive ex- 
ceedingly great punishment. S'6rang 
sudagar ter-lalu ^mat kftya serta dengan 

mftrah-nya, s^l^ ^1 y^>^ j?l J^-^ Aa>*— ^ 
^jy* ^^ u^j--^ A merchant of very 



great wealth and of generous disposi- 
tion. Pantas-nya seperti ribut iang amat 
tangkj^, ^j-^AJ i^l L^ &j^j ^jA—^ ^.>a> 3 

His activity vvas like unto that of a very 
violent storm. Maka TAan Petri pun 
ter-lalu ^mat kasih sayang-nya akan 
biidak itu tiada ber-cherei siang dan 
malam, d-j^l^ 2^] ^ SjJ ^y ^y^ o'y *^^ 

JU The Princess was very much at- 
tached to and exceedingly fond of that 
child, and parted not from him by day 
or by night. Dras pergi-nya bagei kilat 
iang amat tangkas s'tapak dahWu deri- 
p&da angin, 3^\ ^ SL^ ^\^ ^y ^j^ 

^] jsi^J Jybj ^U-^ ^jJos The speed 

of his travelling was like unto that of 
very quick lightning, and was one pace 
in advance of the wind. Maka amat 
siikor &kan meng-ena-i dia karana ter-lalu 
mgat-nya, ^^l^ i^^ ^^^UJU^^— ^ i^l cii. 
^^\ ^ij It is very diflBcult to do for 
him, as he is exceedingly watchful. 
Hamba tiada di-petia-kan &mat, «^L^ ^-r-.^*^ 
i^l ^LaiJ I did not notice it much. 

Note : When placed before the adjective 
or adverb which it qualifies, Amat, 3^\ 
usually means very, much, etc., but 
when placed after the adjective or adverb 
it generally means too, excessively, too 
much, etc. Amat besar, j.^ a^I Very 

large. Besar &mat, i^l j^^ Too large, 
excessively large. 

Amat, i-^1 To gaze upon, to look at 
attentively, to observe, to notice, to take 
stock of, to consider. Maka ia pun 
mem-andang pada Laksamana di-per- 
amat-&mat-i-nya m&ka pandang-kan ka- 

l&ku-an Laksam&na itu, SJjl*^ c)-^' *"^^ 

«s^) ^UiJ^ He looked at the Laksamana 
and gazed upon him, and watched his 
behaviour. Maka di-lihat-nya Si-Jebat 
di-per-ftmat-amat-i-nya maka di-kenal- 

nya itu Si-Jebat, A .,^ f , ^^ ^^sl^^ cM_^ 
*»f»sr* «-4' J^^ <^^ ,i^^^^^ He saw 

Si-Jebat and observed him closely and 
recognised him as being Si-Jebat. Di- 
sAroh 6rang meng-ftmat-amat-i negri itu, 
«w' v^yS v^t'^Uu 6j^\ &jyji^ He ordered 
his people to reconnoitre the country. 

Amba, s-^l Slave, servant; I, me, we. 
Note : In the written language the form 
Hamba c^uJ> is invariably used, but in 
colloquial Malay the form Amba is a 
recognised term to express the first 
person singular or plural. It is more 
especially used among the Malays of 
Petani, Kelantan and Trengganu in con- 
junction with the word Mu, ^ a contrac- 
tion of Kamu,^lS to express the second 

person. Amba, s--^' is used by equals 
conversing together and by superiors 
speaking to their inferiors in a friendly 
or familiar way, but not by an inferior 
speaking to his superior. In the latter 
case the forms Hamba, u^^m^ Hamba 
Tdan, ^ly c^uJ> Hamba Ungku, w-^^ib 

j^\ etc., would be used, but not the 

form Amba, s--^' (See Hamba, c,-^^ A 
servant, a slave, etc.) Mu ta' dengar 

amba panggil, JJlAi h--*' ^^ ^^ ^ Do 
you not hear me calling you ? Mari-lah 
mu ber-sama-sama dengan amba, dl^^U 

s--^' o^^ P(»^^ ^ Come along with me. 
Amba mem-alu kehar-kehar sehaja, ^.,-^1 
gLo \^j^ ^U^ I only beat him gently. 

Note: Allthis is rather peculiar to the East 
Coast of the Peninsula from Trengganu 
northwards, and would be considered 
strange elsewhere. 

Ambichang, ^^' The horse-mango, 

Mangifera foetida. The Malays distingu- 
ish between the following kinds of horse 
mango. Ambachang k6peh, d^^ A^ 1^1 

Ambachang lada, ^3 A^W-*' Ambachang 
lAmpord&lam,^! jy^y Afe.L-»IAmbachang 
chApak,^^*^ ^^' Ambachang pinggan 
dfira,^!^ ^J^i^ ^^' Ambachang sakar 
ber-gantong, ^ysjSj^ ^Lo ^l-^l Amba- 
changsftsu,^^^W^l Ambachang siku, 

yCf^ ^U^' Note: The form Hamba- 

chang, ^Ufi> is also met with. In 

colloquial Malay this word is usually 
contracted into Bachang, ^^\i or M&- 

chang, ^U 

Ambai, ^^^1 A kind of large basket used 
for catching shrimps and small fish. 


Ambai-ambai, f^o^' 

To dredge with a basket for shrimps 
or small fish ; also Meng-fi,mbai, cgt-^^ 
(See Tanggok, ^}^ A prawn basket.) 

Am bai -Sim bai , f^g^J The name of a noxious 
plant. Pij. 

Am bai , J-^1 or Ambal-an, Jl^I A column, 
a procession. Pij. 

Amjban, ^^^^1 A small raft or bundle of 
bamboos fastened to the sides of a boat 
to enable it to carry more than its pro- 
per load. Prahu ber-S,mban bftloh, >^ly 
^>Ih cT^'-H ^ hosA with bundles of 
bamboos fastened to its sides. Note: 
The word Gandong ^>3^-aS' is also used 

in many parts of the Peninsula. Pij. 

Am ban, ^^j-^l A swaddling band passed 
round the l^reasts and fastened under 
the arms. The girth of a saddle. Pij. 
(See also Kamban, ^js-*^) 

Ambang, ^— s-^' The frame of a door; 
any section of a house (but nearly always 
the side.) . Ambang di-atas, ^ — 5) j ^^1 

The lintel or cross-piece at top. Ambang 
di-bawah, &jU^ ^-^-^ The threshold. 
Jenang ambang, ^;t-^' ^^ or Jenang 
pintu, ysj^ AA-«^ The side posts which 
support the doorway. (See also Kong, 
P^ The lintel, and Bendul, J^o^ The 

Ambang, A^l Impeded, delayed (of a ship) 
by too much rigging or cargo. Meng- 
ambang, A-^^ To impede the progress 
or dimmish the speed of a ship. Pij. 


Am bar, j--^l Vapid, insipid, tasteless, flat ; 
an antidote, a spell or charm to render 
harmless ; to render harmless by the re- 
petition of a magic formula. GMei itu 
ambar sangat, ii>L-^ j^\ u^^^l ^y The 
curry is very insipid. Ambar dan tawar 
rasa-nya, ^^L^b JJ^ o'"^ ^ ^^^ flavour 
was vapid and insipid. (See Tawar, ji^lS 
Vapid, insipid, etc) 

Ambar, ^^--^1 The white discharge or 
mucus which sometimes exudes from 
the nose of a corpse. Maka di-lihat 
ambar ka-lAar meng-alir deri lAbang 
hidong mayat bonda-nya, j^\ 3^^ <^A-^ 

He saw a white discharge of mucus 
oozing from the nostril of his mother's 

Ambar, Ab., ^^1-4^ Ambergris. (See Aam- 
bar, j^.*^) 

Ambil, J^l 

Ambirong, ^Jt)W-*' The name of a plant. 
Note : Petani people say Ambaru, ^j^) ; in 
Perak Sebaru, j[; ^ (See Ajnbaru, j[^ l-.^!) 

Ambaru, ^j^t^^ The name of a plant, 
Sihiscus tniiuceus. (See Baru, jjplj and 
Bembaru,j[;L5-^ which are the more conj- 
mon colloquial forms.) 

Am bat, ^1 The breadth of a sa^I. Naik- 
nya lima depa, ambat-nya lima depa jAga, 
v_r^ Uj ^ ^^fj^\ Uj ^ ^U It 

(the sail) was five fathoms long and also 
five fathoms in breadth. 

Am bat, i^-^l To hunt, to chase, to pursue, 
to run after. Ber-ambat, i^^l^ To run, 
to scamper, etc. (See Hambat, L^j^ 
which is the only form which can be 
correctly used in the written language.) 

Ambil, J-^^l To take, to accept, to take 
away or up, to take possession of, to 
fetch. Also Meng-ambil, J<-^1*^ Ambil- 
kan, ^j^W^' and Meng-ambil-kan, ^^\^\k^ 

To take, to accept, etc. Maka di-ambil 
Mih raja ayer mawar tftjoh bftyong, 
^>^ ^y^jL. ^—i\ el; d3y J^b ^sX^ 

Seven jars of rose-water were taken by 
the king. Bab iang ka-anam pftloh 
lapan pada me-nyata-kan pri segala 6rang 
mcng-ambil anak angkat akan anak 
hamba 6rang lain, J^ ^3) d3y ^*l5CAi <^^. 
3SLJ>\ ^\ ^\L. Ij^\ yL^ ^^ ^U^ 
^31 ^^jl c^ ^1 ^1 The sixty. eighth 

chapter, setting forth the law touching 
persons who take an adopted child from 
among the children of the slaves of 
some other person. la liandak meng- 
ambil kakak hand«,k per-istri-kan, ^^1 

cr-^Ji^^y iy^ <5^^ J^^*^ O^^ He 
desired to take thee, my sister, and 
make thee his wife. Bflkan-kah tftan 
iang meng-ajar hamba jangan meng- 
ambil herta orang, ys^ UU ^ ^1^ ^^^yi 
^^jl ^j^ J^^ ^W «n--^ Was it not 

thou, master, who instructed me not 
to take the property of another person ? 
Jangan di-ambil, J^b ^^L-a, Do not 

accept it, do npt take it. Pergi~lah 
angkaru ambil ruh semangat TAan Petri 

itu, ^y^ ^^ly a^u-^ ^^ J^'y^' ^y 

«^l Go you and take the life and 
soul of that Princess, Maka di-ambil 
selftar diwangga dan ikat pinggang 
chindei jantan, *^!^\y^ )^^ J^'^ 


Ambin, ^j^) 

^jjju^ ^jj^ ^XJlj 3.^] ^Ij He took 

up his embroidered trousers and his 
sash of coloured cotton (or silk). Md,ka 
di-ch{iri-nya herta dan istri sudagar itu 
pun di-ambil-nya, ^b c:o^ ^j^^ <-^ 
^^^-L-*1j ^y^l ^\^j — 9 s?>^' He stole 
the property, and he also took possession 
of the merchant's wife. Hukum orang 
meng-arabil anak 6rang iang ter-bAang 

ftlih feu-nya, ^ ^^^1 ^1 J^lA^ ^jj) ^ 
^^\ dJj\ ^y.^ The law concerning 

those who take possession of the children 
of other people which have been aban- 
doned by their mothers. Pa' Sfiyang 
pAlang mcng-ambil anak, A)y AjLL *U 

^] J--«U^ Pa' Sayang returned home 
to fetch his children. Maka ia pun 
terjun meng-ambil tiang layar itu, <-2A^ 

«^l j—ii ^ J^^ 0^>J e)-^' He 
plunged into the water and fetched the 
mast. Ambil bini 6rang, ^;^t^v^ J<^l To 
take away a married woman. Jangan-lah 
tftan meng-ambil hati, J--^U^ ^ly dL^leK 

JU> Do not take offence, O master. 
Sangat-lah pandei meng-ambil hati 6rang, 
^^J^ ^^ J^l^^ s?*-^^ iJItt^L^ Very 
skilled in winning the affections of others 
(/•'t., taking possession of their hearts.) 
J&ngan-lah tftan ambil per-ftsoh-an, 
cT^-^'y J^' o'y ixL^lc^ Do not take it 
amiss. Ambil anak, ^1 J^l A mode 
of marriage, customary in Sumatra, by 
which a father matches his daughter to 
a man of inferior rank in order to keep 
her at home. S'ambil J-.4 o At the 

same time as, whilst, as. Lalu di-sambut 
s'ambil ter-tawa, I^Uy J»», .o Sj^^^s^ ^i 

Then he received it, laughing as he did 
so {liLf he received it as he laughed, or 
while he laughed.) Maka ia pun datang- 
kan sembah s'ambil ber-kata, ^yi^l c^ 
vadl^^ J-.4^ d^fA^ ^^^]^ Then he made 
representation to the monarch, saying 
* * * * (l*t.y and while doing so said.) 
Note : Sambilan, Ju--*-* Nine, is formed 
from Ambil, ^] To take. S'ambil-an, 
jLs-H-9 viz., one taken from ten. 

Ambin, ^^,^1 A shawl or scarf worn round 
the waist or over the shoulders, a girth. 
Taii ambin, ^^,^1 ^Ij A "cord by means 
of which a load is made fast. Ambin 
6kor, /^\ ^^1 A crupper, a saddle-tie. 

Ambong-ambong, V^ jt-^' 

Meng-ambin, ^;J1-^lA^ To wear anything 
like a shoulder-belt, to wear anything 
over the shoulder, or round the body; 
to carry any one pick-a-back. Meng- 
61ek ambin, ^js-^l <5y^ To carry a child 
in a cloth slung over the shoulders. (See 
Kelek ^^ and DAkong ^j*^ To carry 
on the back, etc.) Daun ambin ^^j.?^) ^J«^ 
or Ambin dClkong anak, ^1 ^Sj*^ ^.^^1 
The name of a plant, the truit of 
which grows close under the leaves; the 
latter are used for medicinal purposes. 
Fhyllaydkus. (See also Memeniran, ^^tH^-^ 
thyllanthus.) Ber-ambin liitut, ^j^^tji 
d-jy To squat with the knees supported 
by a band passed round the neck, after 
the manner of very old or very learned 
natives. When standing, this band is 
carried over the shoulder. Ambin-an, 
^-^1 Anything carried strapped over 
the shoulder, a knapsack. S' ambin, 
^Ld A load, such as can be carried 
strapped over the shoulder. Fij. Note: 
This word is not in common use 
among the Malays of the Peninsula. Of. 
Ambong, £>8^' A basket, etc. 

Ambing, ^t«-*' The udder. JN early always 
used with Sfisu, j^j^ Ambing s6su, 
j^j^ A«"^' The udder of any animal. 

Ambong, ^^) The name of a basket 

which is carried strapped over the 
shoulders after the manner of a knap- 
sack. Damar batu dfta ambong, yl^ j^la 
^j^^) 1;^ Two knapsacks feill of con- 
gealed resin. Ambong sdkai, ^U ^^^1 
The knapsacks used by the hill tribes- 
men. Ambong rotan, ^^^Jy ^^^<-*' A 
knapsack made of rattan. (See also De- 
rong, ^jyvi Jangki, ^J^«^ Sali, ^U etc.) 

Ambong, ^^-^1 Rigging. 

Ambong, ^>^-t To boast, to swagger. 
(See B6al, Jly To boast, etc.) 

Ambong, ^y^^ The male proper name 
given in some parts of the Malay Penin- 
sula as a distinctive mark of the first- 
born of a family. Note: This name is 
particularly common in the States of 
Johor, Pahang, Trengganu, Kelantan and 
Petani^on the east coast of the Malay 
Peninsula. It is frequently contracted 
into Bong, £^ in colloquial Malay. 

Ambong-ambong, f^^^-l The name of a 
flowering bush, the fibre of which is used 


Ambong-ambong, ^*^>^^' 

for making lamp-wick and artificial 
flowers. Bftnga ambong-ambong, li>y 
f $^--^t An artificial flower. Vij. 

Ambong-ambong, V^j^^ Fascines, gabi- 
ons. Note : In the Malay Peninsula the 
expression Kayu berkas, ^j'^jk >4^ is 
j^enerally used for fascines, and the word 
Beldbar, j^^ to signify gabions. 

Ambor, y^\ To throw, to cast, to scatter, 
to throw in all directions, to sow, to 
pour out (as grain), to upset, to cast (as 
a net.) Note : Although this word is not 
uncommonly written Hambor, y^j^ the 

present is the more usual form. Ambor 
t6bor y^ yt^\ 1^0 scatter to the winds, 
to throw in all^ directions, to cast about 
on all sides. Ambor t^bor cherai berai, 
^^j^ s^j^ >9-^ >5-*' Scattered to the 
winds and separated in all directions. 
Meng-ambor, ^^^^Uu To throw, cast, etc. 

Meng-ambor benih, a-^jj J.^-•UU To sow 
seed. Meng-8.mbor jala, ^\e^ j^^ To 
cast a net. Note : The word Tfibor, j^ 
is more usual in this connection. Meng- 
ftmbor bras k Any it, 3^^ ^^ ^^^ To 

scatter rice stained with spfFron. Note : 
It is a custom among Malays to scatter 
saffron-stained rice on graves, on the 
road over which a newly-married couple 
pass, in and about the cradle in which a 
newly-born babe is laid, &c., as a propi- 
tiatory offering to the spirits. Ambor- 
ambor, Yj^^ Largess. The thin pieces 
of gold and silver scattered among 
the people at a royal function. Maka 
fl-mbor-ambor di-champak-kan 6rang-lah, 
A£>jy\ ^^^Jiiu^^ Yj^^ <-s^ Largess was 
thrown by the attendants. Lalu di-arak- 
kan ftsong-an serta meng-aroh dan t^bor 
ambor-A,mbor, uu>^^-^ s^y^i^ o-^>>'*^>^^ 
^y^\ j^s^ ^A>^ Then they bore the 
I'rters in procession, and performed war 
in.nces, and scattered largess. 

' nbui, ,^^1 Oh ! Ah ! Hullo ! An 
exclamation of surprise or astonishment. 
Ambui 0' ma' ! "U >l ^^ Oh! Oh! my 

aunt! (A still more emphatic exclama- 
tion of surprise.) Ambui O' ma' ! Alang- 
kah payah-nya ! ^U ^S^\ 'U '>) ^j^] 

Oh! Oh! mother mine! How dijQBcult it 
must be ! 

Ambul, J>!^' To rebound, to pitch (as a 
ship), to rise and fall (like the bow of a 



swiftly moving boat) . Prahu itu k Arang 
laju karSna ambul s8.ngat-sangat, 5^1 ^ly 
r^^L^ J^ e>^^-^* t^/ That boat 
is not very fast, because she pitches so 
much. Lalu di-lempar-kan t6mbak-nya 
ka-langit serta tahan-kan dada-nya maka 
t6mbak itu pun j&toh kena ka-dada-nya 
lalu meng-ambul ka-atas, ^^jlui^ yJii 
^sU. ^blj ^^jC^U ^^^ a^i^ ju^^ 

J^^l^yj ^Ijl^ U-f dJU ^^\ ,5^y 

^j'^^^ Then he threw his spear towards 
the sky, and held his chest ready to 
receive it, and the spear in falling struck 
his chest and rebounded. 

.mbun, ^yt^^ Dew. Ambun lebat, ^^^yt^\ 
l^ Heavy dew. Ambnii rentek-rentek, 
^S^J i^y^^ Gentle dew. Habis b&sah 

bftat di-ambun. 



Ij ^j^\^ 

Wet through by the dew. Ambun jan tan, 
^^y^ Dew in large drops. Ambun 

betina, ^^j-t^ ^^y^ Widespread dew. 
Ambun ter-fttok, ^^'^ c>>^' T>&w which 
forms in drops. Mdka fi,hlun-nujum tAjoh 
ber-adek itu pun tampil-lah ber-t61ek 
deri-pada pohun petang itu dAdok ter- 
pekor hfingga sampei p&da waktu ambun 

jantan rentek-rentek, 6e^y^ r>^' J^' <^^ 

^ ^y JJ;J ^jk <»M^ ^^"^ ^^'j^ 

l'^5-t>«^> ^;5«Ji^ The astronomers, who 
were seven brothers, thereupon began to 
observe (the omens), and sat in medita- 
tion from the middle of the afternoon 
until the hour when the dew falls 
in heavy drops. Kring ambun, ^^ 
^^^1 When the dew is dry — i.p., about 

8 a.m. Note: The Malays use several 
kindred expressions to denote different 
hours of the day. The most common of 
these are as follows : — K6kok &yam, 
(^ C^^ Cock-crow, about an hour before 
dawn. Ay am tArun sclrang, £;U ^j^ ^\\ 

When the fowls jump off their perches, 
about 5.30 a.m. Belum terbang lalat, |»^ 
Jj J Myf Before the flies are on the wing — 
i.e., about 6 a.m. Pichah panas, ^j^U &^ 
When the heat bursts forth — i.e., about 
7 a.m. Tengah naik, ^^li dW When the 
sun is half way up — 1.6., about 9 a.m. 
TMih tenggala mAda, b^ Jl^!^-" V/ 
and TMih tenggala tAa, ly JlSLftJ aJ/ 


Am in, Ab., ^^^I 

When the plough is idle — i.e., about 
9 a.m. and 11 a.m., respectively. Rem- 
bang, ^^j When the sun is in the 

zenith. BAntar bayang, A ^l^ js^y or 

B&ntar mem-b&yang, A-aW-^ js^^ When 

the shadows are circular, and Tengah 
h&ri tepat, iiJ ^^J[sb M Exact midday. 
All these three expressions refer to high 
noon. Ber-aleh h^ri, ^^j^ ^^ji When 
the day changes — viz., from morning to 
afternoon, the commencement of the 
afternoon. Tdrun kerbau be-rendam, 
pVSj-j j^jJS ^^yZ When the buffaloes go 

down to wallow in the water — i.e., 5 p.m. 
Gelinchir mata-hari, ^^) l^x^ jn^^ When 
the sun slips down — viz., below the 
horizon, sunset. Bftnyi riang-riang, ^^ 

)t^j or Bdnyi sanggit, ^L^SX* ^^ When 
the cicalas are heard — /.e., just after 
sunset. Sinja or *^ Sinjak^la, J^^^u^ 
Gloaming. Meng-&ntok S,yara, ^1 ^ U^ 
When the fowls begin to get sleepy — i.e., 
just before dark. Jindera bAdak-bftdak, 
f jjji l^Juu^ When the children are fast 

asleep — i.«., about 9 p.m. I^ote: The 
Malays also compute the time of day by 
reference to the Lima waktu, ul-J^ ^J or 

Five hours of prayer, and by the Baad, 
Jsig or Baad salah, JL© J^ Hour of congre- 
gational prayer on Friday. See Notes 
under Aasar, ^-^xo The hour of afternoon 
prayer, etc., and Baad, J^ The hour of 
Friday prayer. Tadah ambun, ^^y^\ &^^ 
Th« name given to the top row of a 
cluster of bananas. Ambun k&jang-an, 

jJ^l^ i:)>^' ^^^ name of a kind of 
sweetmeat. Ambun bara, \jU o>^' 
Dust which remains hanging on any- 
thing; fine powder such as forms on 
any object when rice is sifted in its 
vicinity. Meng-ambun-kan, ^^jXi^^U-* 

To expose to the dew. Note: Malays 
believe greatly in the astringent pro- 
perties of dew, and often expose their 
medicines for one or more nights before 
using them. Lime juice mixed with 
rock-salt and exposed to the dew for 
twelve hours is a common native remedy 
for gonorrhoea. ^ 

Amin, Ar., ^jj«^I Amen. Meng-ftchap amin, 
^jP^I u^yu To exclaim ** Amen." Sunat 

meng-dchap amin lepas mem-bacha, 

gLf^^ ^j — 4J ^jjst^' *-^^^ ^ — ^ It 18 

Amok, ^1 

well to exclaim * Amen * on leaving off 
reading (holy books.) Maka sekelian 
6rang iang meng-iring Baginda itu pun 

meng-Achap amin, ^-i fi^^l ^ <— >o tsA^ 

who followed the monarch thereupon 
exclaimed * Amen.*. 

Amir, Ar., jff^\ A chief, a commander. 

Amis, ,j-->^l Rankin smell. (See Hamis, 
,j-^lfc Rank in smell.) 

Amok, ^1 To attack, to attack with 
fury, to make a charge, to assault 
furiously, to engage in furious conflict, 
to battle, to attack with desperate fury, 
to make an onslaught with the object of 
ruthless and indiscriminate slaughter, 
to run dmoJc, to dash against, to rush 
against; an attack, an assault, a charge. 
Amok! Amok! ^) Attack! Attack! 

The war cry of the Malays. M&ka kita 
sekelian brani m^i-lah kita dmok Laksa- 

mana dengan kris pandak, u^ cM^ 

u^/ c)^^ ^U.JD ^1 ^ Aljr>U ^]ji ^jjsjiC* 

^joJ We are all brave men : come, let 

us attack the Laksam&na with our short 
daggers. Meng-jlmok, ^U^ To attack, 

&c. n6 Laksamdna ingat-ingat karana 
6rang iang meng-dmok itu ter-lalu 
banyak, ^-^ ^j^) ^j\S f^i-Lil ^l^^ ^ 
^li ySj-J «Hl' ^^ Be on thy guard, 

Laksamfilna, for they who are engaged 
in furious conflict are very numerous. 
Maka ia pun ber-tempik tiga kdli ber- 
tdrut-tArut serta meng-&mok dan men- 
ikam dan meng-rat dengan ka-dAa blah 

tangan, ^l^ v.^ ^^J^j^ ^^ s?' ^^^-^ 

^\L dig l^j^ Then he shouted three 

successive times, and forthwith engaged 
in furious conflict, stabbing and slashing 
with both hands. Maka ia pun meng- 
dmok di-dalam kapal itu tiga h&ri tiga 
malam ber-telun segfila tempik iang 
brani dan rioh gegak g§mpita ter-lalu 
aathamat di-dalam kdpal itu tiada sangka 
bAnyi lagi siang dan m^lam hfingga 
sampei tiga hdri tiga malam ia meng- 

amok itu, J*l^ ^ba ^U- ^^ ^\ csL-^ 

i5tf^ JC-* ^^ji ^U sj:^ ^g;U wCj 4i) 

a^ko y J^ U^ ^ &ji) ^la ^)ji ^ 

^^ ^j:k^ jl^ «wI j^i? ^bj ^^ 


Ampa, <-L») 



c^i^ ^L^ ^)j ^^.^ ^i 

«:^1 ^5-^Uu ^) ^1 — * v-^^ ss;*^ He 
fought furiously in that ship for three 
days and three nights, shouting all 
manner of brave war cries, and creating 
a loud and appalling noise, which was 
very awe-inspiring within the ship and 
which cannot be imagined. This he did 
during three days and nights, by night 
and day continuing his furious onslaught. 
Maka di-dalam tengah gempar itu ka- 
dengar-an khabar-nya ka-pada Raja 
Pikas Tflan Petri GandaEran tftnang-nya 
sudah mati maka ia handak meng-amok, 

^U esj — ^y ^^j^ ^^ ^)y ^^^ 

^U^ ^J^jJ^ v^t <-2A^ In the middle of 
the disturbance Raja Pikas heard that 
his fiancee, the Princess Qanda Eran, was 
dead, and he was about to run amok. 
Maka pelAru itu pun tampil-lah meng- 
amok ka-pada prahu-nya iang kdrang 
satu s'ratus itu, ^JJiiJ ^^>^' Al^ «.sA— * 

«:^l The bullets began to rain upon his 
ships, which were one hundred save one 
in number. Ter-lalu kras amok RAja 
Petftkal itu, «^l JS^ gl; ^1 ^^/^ V 
Raja Petfikal's charge was a very 
violent one. Peng-Amok, ^\^ One who 
runs amok, a member of an attacking 
party, one who engages in furious con- 
flict. Note : It is worthy of remark that 
suicide is very rare among Malays, but 
when the pitch of mental excitement 
at which Europeans sometimes commit 
such rash acts has been reached by a 
Malay, he runs amok, and thus meets 
his death without directly taking his 
own life. The advance of civilization 
has done much to repress this peculiarity 
of the Malays, and amok running is 
becoming yearly more rare. 

Ampa, 4.^1 Empty, void. (See Hampa, 
oUlfii Empty, void.) 

Ampidal, Jw)^' The gizzard, the stomach, 
the maw. Ampadal ayam, ^1 J^^^' 
The gizzard of a fowl. 

Ampidu, ^JJUl The gall, the bile. Maka 
pUda hukum kanun Malayu barang-si-apa 
mcm-bftnoh gagak di-denda-i dfta tahil 
p^rnk karana am[)ada gagak rachun iang 
anuit bisa, ip\} yX^ ^\^ ^^^-e. J^ csL-^ 

Ampalu, jli-^l 


u-^ ^1 ^ ^^b ^\S ).^] ^j\^ ^j^ 
According to the law of the Malay Code, 
any one who kills a crow will be fined 
two ounces of silver ($32), because the 
gall of the crow is a deadly poison. 

Ampai, ^Jl»\ To hang up or hang out 

(as clothes.) A clothes-line ;^ a clothes- 
horse. Also (TYim^e rarely) Ampai-kan, 
^jjC^I To hang up, etc. Aiipai-an, 
^jjft^t A clothes-line; a clothes-horse. 

Tempat ampai-an kain, ^l^ ^^jt^' ^^^ A 
place for hanging out clothes, a clothes- 
horse. Tetak galah bAat ampai-an kain, 
^If ^jJuA &\^ J I? ^3^1 Cut posts to make 
a place on which to hang clothes. Per- 
ampai, ^JL^I^^ A. clothes-horse, a place 
for hanging out clothes. (See also 
Sampei, ^J^^^^ cuid Sibai, ^e--^*-»«) 

Ampai, ^JUl Long and thin, slender. Jari 
ampai, ^Jl»\ ^j^ Slender fingers. Pij. 

Ampai-ampai, f-«^' The jelly-fish, Me- 

ckisa. Bflrak ampai-ampai, V^J^^ i3Jj^ 

The arms or feelers of a jelly-fish. 
Note : In the dialect spoken in Kelantan, 
Petani, etc., the term Apar-apar Yy) 
is used for a jelly-fish, and Lawi-l&wi 
apar-apar, fy t Y^^^ is used for the arms 
or feelers of a jelly-fish. 

Ampai-ampai, f^^' The name of a climb- 
ing plant. 

Ampalam, ^JiiL.) The mango. P6kok am- 
palam, ^Jii-*! ^j-^ The mango tree. 
BAah ampalam, Jii-*) &\j-^ The*mango 
fruit. Note: The small mango is usually 
called P&uh, a^U 

Ampalas, ^^. U^l Ficus Ampelos. The 
name of a shrub, the rough leaves of 
which are used by Malays to polish wood 
prior to varnishing it. Sampir kris 
ini handak di-g6sok-kan dengan daun 
ampalas, ,^p^^^ J)^^^*^ cH' u^^ J^^^-^ 
cT^' O-^'^ c)^^ The cross-piece of the 
scabbard of this dagger must be rubbed 
with the leaves of the ampalam shrub. 
Ampalas-kan, ^^^XJii^l To polish by 
rubbing with the leaves of this tree. 
Note: In some parts of the Peninsula 
the leaves of this tree are called Daun 
g6sok, ^^ ^^1*3 or rubbing leaves. 

Ampalu, jli-^l Gum-lac. The purple dye 
procured from the nidus of the lac insect. 
Ampalu iang banyak di-bawa' orang deri 


Ampang. ^i^) 

negri Siam dan negri Kambdja m&ka 
herga-nya s'pikul di-lapan r^al, ^ ^iL.) 

Jj^ ^Ja J5C^J • ^l?yb v^A^ g^^ 

Most gum-lac is imported from Siam 
and Camboja, its price being eight dollars 
a pikul. JSote : The forms Ambdlu, ^^^\ 
and Memp&lu, ^ \lu^ also occur. 

Ampang, *&-•) A dam, a barrier built to 

stop up a stream. Ampang-kan, ^jj^Ai^' 
To dam, to stop up; also Meng-ampang, 
AJL«JL* and Meng-ampang-kan, ^^X^JlJu^ 
Siiat ampang, M^t &)j^ To make a dam. 
Ampang pay a, ^^ U ^i^l A dam made for 
the purpose of irrigating land. Ampang 
ikan, ^Jk^ M^\ A dam made for the pur- 
pose of catching fish. Note : The ordin- 
ary dam made by the Malays is of two 
kinds — viz., the ordinary Ampang, ^JL.) 
and the Ampang tambun kotak, A&^l 
jjj^ ^^^ The former is made in the 

following way : — First, piles (Kayu pen- 
ftnggul, J.C AjLi *-ji^) are driven ; be- 
tween these, smaller piles (Chachar, y^ U. 
or JAjor, y^y^) are inserted; then a beam 
(Bantal tda, ly J«^) is laid horizontally 
along the feet of these piles ; next, beams 
are placed horizontally on the top of the 
Bantal tda, \^ Jx;j and at right angles 
with it. These are called Rakek, ^^\j 
On the top of the Rakek ^^^J another 
layer of Bantal, Jx*j is placed, and on 
the lop of these again a row of beams 
called Ranggas, ^j^-^j is placed parallel 
to the layer of Rakek ^^^j The inter- 
stices are filled up with clay, and a 
layer of clay is also placed between 
each layer of beams. The Ampang tam- 
bun k6tak, ^^ c)>!-*^ ^^^ is made in the 
following manner. Piles, etc., are driven 
as before. Beams called BerAmbun, 
^^^ji are then fixed at right angles to 
the poles. A similar barrier is also 
made at a distance of a few feet from the 
first barrier, and the interval between 
the two is then filled in with clay and 
stamped down. Note: The main piles 
of a dam are sometimes called Balan, 
J\i the smaller piles being called Pantak; 
^jwJ the term Tdrus ^jji is also applied 
to the piles driven to form a dam. 
Occasionally, and notably among the 
natives of tTlu Pahang, the term B&lan 

Ampat, 3Ju») 

^jj)li is used to express the whole of a 
dam, although its correct meaning as 
given above is more restricted. Note : 
The small dams which divide one piece 
of pddi land from another are called 
Batas, ^Ij 

Ampar, yut A carpet. B&tu ampar, yl^ 

jiL»] The stone or rock which is supposed 

to be the lowest stratum of the earth's 
formation. Bed-rock. (See Hampar, yu^ 
A carpet, etc.) 

Ampas, ,j.JL«) Pulp. Ampasnyior, ^jJL#l 
jjd The pulp of the coconut. 

Am pas, ,j-J^' To throw down, to cast 
aside, to throw away. (See Hampas, 
^j^Ju^ To throw away, etc.) 

Ampat, 2Jl^\ Four. Ampat-blas, ^jJ^ ^^' 
Fourteen. Ampat-pMoh, Jy aiUl Forty. 
Ampat-ratus, ,j— J'^ ^LL«i Four hundred. 
Ampat-ribu, ^^ aJL.! Four thousand. 
Ampat-laksa, ^j^^ 3Jl»] Forty thousand. 
Ampat-ratus ampat-pdloh ampat, uz^JUl 
ut-i^l Jy 2sL»\ ^]j Four hundred and 

forty five. Langsong me-lipat sirih tiga 
kapor s'kapor lipat ampat-pMoh ampat, 

iJL#l d)y Then straightway she folded 
three quids of betel-nut, each quid 
having forty-four folds. Maka hMub&- 
lang itu pun segra men-drun-kan sambok 
mdat tengah di-lapan koyan dengan 
ampat-pdloh ampat anak pe-dayong-nya, 
^y,^ ^jy^ IjJl-^ ^jMl ^LJ^ ciL-* 
^1 aJL.1 dJy^.^X.1 ^a ^/ ^Sj M s\y» 
^^Ijj Then the warriors forthwith 
launched a boat which could hold eight 
koyan and forty-four oarsmen. Maka ter- 
laluelok rApa-nya seperti ampat-blas hari- 
bWan, ^ aiUl ^yu ^U;j; ^^] ^^ji <aU 

^yAj^ Her appearance was very beauti- 
ful, like unto the moon on its fourteenth 
day. Maka Sang Seperba pim mem-ileh 
dayang-dayang ampat-puloh dan inang 
peng-asoh pcrw^ra ampat pMoh, ^ tiU 
^1 ^lj Jy uuJL.1 t'^b dL^ ^y 4^y^ 

dJy aiUl l^^y es^Ui Then Sang Seperba 
selected forty female attendants and forty 
nurses, and male followers. Ampat-likor, 
yy aiL.1 Twenty-four. Note: S'likor, 
yyu© or S&tu likor, ^^ Le==Twenty-one, 

DAa likor /^ l^a = Twenty-two, and so 
on, up to Sambilan likor, yy ^t^^n^* i.e.. 


Ampat, 3Jl»\ 

Nine and twenty. (See Likor, yy ) DAa 
kaii pdkul ampat likor paku lekat, ^ l^ 1^ J 
iXJ ^U ^<^ uuJL«l JSy In two strokes 
two-and-twenty nails were driven home. 
Tengah ampat-pAloh, dJy afi^l dA5 Thirty- 
five, A^ofe; The Malays use the word 
Tengah, dW Half, before numerals idio- 
matically, meaning not half of the numeral 
named, but a quantity half way between 
that numeral and the one preceding it 
in numerical succession. Thus : Tengah 
ampat, 3Ju\ M = Three-and-a-half. Ten- 
gah ampat-blas, ,jJ^ 2i^\ M Thirteen- 
and-a-half. Tengah ampat-pdloh, SJu*) dAJ 
dJy Thirty-five (i.e., half way between 
forty and the preceding ten — i.e., thirty.) 
Tengah ampat-ratus, ^\j SJu) 6^ Three 
hundred and fifty, etc. Hfingga kuala 
Brdas tengah ampat-pAloh blanja tebus- 
an-nya, ^ dJ^ 5i^l 6^ ^hy^ J|^ <— <i^ 
,^jjuA^ As far as the mouth of the Brdas 

river, the money to be paid for his (a 
slave's) recovery is thirty-five dollars. 
Ka-ampat, 3Jl^''\^ Four, all four. Ka- 

ampat-nya, ^^sJl»^^ All four of them. 
Mlika Sang Seperba pun tahu akan 
ananda Baginda ka-ampat-nya itu men- 
jadi Raja Besar d&tang ka-p^da akhir 
zaman, ^j^\ ^U ^^ i^^y^ k^ c^\— * 

^U) ^^1 jA? Sang Seperba knew that 

all four of his sons would become great 
rulers even until the end of time. Maka ia 
pun ber-tangis-tangis-an ka-ampat ber- 

anak, ^\^ Uu^^^ ^tsj^^Ji ^y s?' "^^ 
Then the parents and children, all four 
of them, fell to weeping. Patek-lah 
chakap mem-bri nasihat serta meng-ajar 
paduka ananda ka-ampat ini, dkCjU 

JjLfi3l J^jii ^UU vioj^ ^Wgygx^ v^.^^'^ ^-^^^ 

^1 aiU'l^ I (thy slave) am willing to 
undertake to advise and to reprove thy 
four sons. Per-ampat, ^iiUly A fourth, 
a quarter. S'per-ampat, ILA^ One 
fourth, one quarter. lang ka-ampat, 
afi-^'K-Ai The fourth. lang ka-ampat-blas, 
^jj^ ^iU'^K^ The fourteenth. Bab iang-ka- 
ampat-pdloh ampat pada me-nyata-kan 
hukum, fl^ c/^-* ^ ^^' d)y ai^'l5CAi <^l^ 
The forty-fourth chapter, setting forth 
the law. Noie: When using any numeral 
to qualify objects, it is necessary in 
speaking Malay to make use of appropri- 
ate numeral co-eflBcients. The following 

Ampat, 2UU1 

are the principal numeral co-eflScients. 
For the exact use and meaning of each, 
see each term separately. Ampat batang 
torabak, ^^y^ ^U ^UL.' Four spears. 
Ampat bengkawan atap, <-JiI) c)-^^ ^^' 
Four pieces of thatch. Ampat bidang 
tikar, /^ ^J^ UlA Four mats. Ampat 
biji kreta, l»i^ ^^^ UlA Four carriages. 
Ampat bilah kris, ,j^^ <Jw ^^J*^' Four 
daggers. Ampat bAah rAmah, es|^ ^JlA 
&^j) Four houses. Ampat bAtir dorian, 
cjly *^ y^y '^^^ Four durian. Ampat 6kor 
lembu, *--J ^1 &L^\ Four cows. Ampat 
hel6 ba]u,"^ \y. ^Jja 2UL«) Four coats. Ampat 
kajang kertas, ^j-t^ ^ ^ SJu*) Four sheets 
of paper. Ampat kaki payong, ^l? 2Sl») 
^^.U Four umbrellas. Ampat kapor 
sirih, &y(f^ jil? 2Jl0\ Four quids of betel- 
nut. Ampat kayu kain, ^^^ji^ ^ii^l Four 
pieces of cloth. Ampat kuntum bAnga, 
L-^^ l^sL^S «*JL«) Four flowers. Ampat 

laboh tirei, ^^^ &^^ aiU) Four curtains. 
Ampat perdu senMoh, &y^y^ ^jy Jo^l 
Four senudoh bushes. Ampat pAchok 
senapang, ^II-^ <3^y ^^-*^' Four guns. 
Ampat pdchok sdrat, Sjy^ S^y «tJL»l 
Four letters. Ampat rawan jaia, u^JUt 
JL_fe. ^y]j Four casting-nets. Ampat 
rdmpun tebu, yJ ^^i^ ^^^^ Four sugar- 
cane plants. Ampat sikat pisang, dJum\ 
^-y^ SSiff>j> Four rows of bananas. Ampat 
tampang lilin, ^^^ ^uS aiU) FouV cakes 
of wax. Ampat tandan nyior, ^JoJ 3Jl^] 
j^ Four bunches of coconuts. Ampat 
tangkei bAnga, L-^j-j ^^^ u^JL*) Four 
flowers. Ampat Arat benang, Sj)\ 2JlA 
^ Four threads. Ampat Atas piikat, 

^y u^l^' ^^^' Four nets. Ampat Anting 
benang amas, ^j^ A^ h^^^ ^^' Four 
skeins of gold thread. Ampat taii nyior, 
A^ ^iJ aslA Four coconuts. Ampat 
rangkei jagong, ^yW* ^^^J ^^-^' Four 
pods of Indian corn. Ampat sagi 
^L« iLA and Ampat p5r-sagi, ^J^j^ ^"^t 
Square, four-sided. Ldas-nya tanah itu 
ampat batu ampat per-sagi, 5-il d3lJ ^^j^ 
,/^j^ ^LfL.1 jS\i 3JL.] That land is 16 
square miles in extent. Kote : In collo- 
quial Malay Per-sagi ^J^j^ is often pro- 
nounced l*^s^gi, but this form is not ad- 
missible in writing. 


Ampei-kan, ^^-J^\ 

Ampei-kan, j^^l To cut out, with a 

sort of sickle, the weeds from among 
the young jj^i. This same word is also 
used in a very different sense, meaning 
to insist, to persevere with. An order is 
given, but disregarded, and then, if re- 
peated, it is said, Di ampei-kan jiiga, 
%J!y^ ^j5<JUla He insisted upon it. Note : 

The ^terms Rembas ^/--^j Me-rembas 

^j.-.--^^, and Kri v^^ Meng-ri s^^ are 

also used in this sense. Both Rembas 
^^^j and Kri v^/ are the names given 
to the sickle used for this purpose. 

Amping, AiA^I A peculiar preparation of 
newly-gleaned pddi parched over the 
fire, and eaten dry with the pulp of the 
coconut and sugar. Tiimbok amping, 
A-j^l <5<^^ To thresh out amping. 

Hfdubalang iang ber-nama Panglima 
Angkob Besi dan Panglima Amping 
antah, ^b ^ i^/^\ (^ ^li^ ^ ^Lh> 
dail AJUl (^^ The warriors who bore 
the names of the Iron Pincers and the 
lU-cleaned Amping. 

Ampir, y(i^\ Near, nigh to, nearly, almost, 
very nearly. (See Hampir, jju^ Near, 
nigh to, nearly, etc.) 

Ampo' yt^l Soft, especially of things that 
are sometimes hard and become soft, 
like ripe fruit. 

Ampoh, &^\ To overflow, to flood, to 
overwhelm with water. Also Meng- 
ampoh, ^syL»UU and Ampoh-kan, ^^f^^\ 
To overflow, to flood, etc. Di-lihat-nya 
ayer ampoh padang, ^jU 6^\ ^1 .^Hr^^ 
He saw the waters overflow the plain. 
Meng-ampoh-kan negri, ^J^ ^^f^yu»\iL» 

To flood the country. Meng-ampoh- 
ftmpoh, f^s»y^l^ To be in flood. 

Ampok, ^^\ To beat, to strike. Also 
Ampok-kan, ^.5^^-*! To beat, etc. 

Ampok-ampei, ^^l ^^\ To sway about 
(like trees in a high wind.) To sway 
backwards and forwards. Maka kayu 
di-rimba pun ber-ampok-&mpei ka-sana 
ka-mari di-tiup Mih angin iang S.mat 
kinchangitu, ^5*^'^ j^y sr-^;^ >l^ <-sU 
LA ^ ^\ djy cJ^^ ^^l^ ^L^ ^1 
«^l ^4^ The trees of the forest swayed 

about hither and thither, blown by the 
violent wind. 

Ampun, ^^y^I 
Am pong, ^yi^l Light in weight. 

Ampdyan, ^>i^t The reel on a fishing- 
rod round which the line is coiled. 
Note : This word is used in Kelantan and 
Petani. In Pfirak, Selangor, etc., Kekili 
J<tS^ (xr Kili-klli rjls is used, in 

Trengganu Pr^t, 4ij-3 and in Pahang, 
PApul, Jiy (See Kaa, Jil^ A fish- 
hook, etc.) 

Ampu, y>i^1 To support, to sustain, to 
stay, to uphold, to hold up with both 
hands from underneath. Jaga baik-baik 
peti itu t Along ampu-kan deri-b^wah, 
s>^\^,^ JjlL.) ^y ^il ^ YLsXi\i ^\^ Take 
care of that box : hold it up from under- 
neath. Peng-ampu sAsu, ^^ yL»Ui A 
kind of corset worn by dancing girls. 
Per-ampA-an, ^\jIl^^ A woman — i.e., 

the supporter of the man. Ampd- 
an ^^yS-^' and PAan, ^ly Titles borne by 
ladies of rank. Tungku ampA-an, j^ 
^yL»l 07' Raja per-ampd-an, ^^'^^y g'^ 
The Queen, the title of a Sultan's chief 
and royal wife. To' Pdan, ^ly yr The 

title borne by the wife of a Chief. 

AmpQan, ^^y^l A betel-nut stand or box. 
(See Pdan ^ly A betel-nut stand, etc.) 

Ampul, yL»\ and Meng-ampul, J^Ul* To 
swell, to grow, to thrive (of fruits). Pij. 

AmpQIar, ^y^i Pith. AmpMar nibong, 
6j^ ^y>' The pith of the nibong palm. 

AmpMar kampai, ^J^>|y^t The pith of 
the Kampai tree from which lamp-wicks 
are made. 

Ampun, ^^y^' Pardon, forgiveness, mercy; 

to pardon, to forgive, to show mercy. 
Maka sembah seg&la ahlun-nujum dan 
strftan " Ya Tdan-ku Shah aalam patek 
mohun-kan ampun be-ribu-ribu ampun 
dan kernia pada ka-b&wah duli shah 

aalam," ^^1^ r>^'^^' J^^— -* ^^ — ^ 
^^^^ Jif[h ^Lo esLA>y3ly U. ^^hj^ 
&^LS Jwi l^jS ^\^ ^y^l Yj^j^ o^^' 
Jl^ esLio Jj Then all the astronomers 

and magicians made representation to 
the king, saying, "O monarch of all the 
universe, we (thy slaves) beg for pardon, 
and thousands and thousands of pardons 
from Your Majesty, ruler of the world I*' 
Jikalau ftda lempah ampun jangan-kan 


A.mpun, ^^>A^t 

Laksamana s'6raiig jikMau negri Malaka 
s'kali dapat aku alah-kan, iJuJ j1 ^^C-e. 

^g^ y <.. ts > ^jy-^ ^U-^ o^^W o-^' 

^^l/l ail J ^K-- -sJX^ If mercy is 

shown to me in abundtoce, not only the 
Laksamana but the entire country of 
Malacca shall I be able to defeat. Ampun 
tAan-ku be-ribu-ribu ampun apa-lah 
titah patek di-panggil ini, j^'^ O-^^' 
^1 J&Uj caUU dx^ dbl ^yu) Yj^ji Par- 
don, King, thousands and thousands 
of pardons, why hast thou ordered me to 
be summoned ? Baik-lah kita pergi men- 
ddpat-kan raja bftrong itu kita minta 
ampun sepaya lepas j^wa kita sekelian. 

We had better go to see the king of the 
birds, and beg his pardon, in order that 
the lives of all of us may be saved. Harap- 
lah hamba akan ampun dan maaf tdan- 
tAan sek61ian, ^)J ^^y-' ^^' s-^ ab^U 
^< -^o t*^|^ *-iju# Thy servant hopes 
for the pardon and forgiveness of his 
masters. Ampun-i cq^y^' Ampun-kan, 
^yL»l Meng-ampun, ^^^i-*^ Meng- 
ampun-kan, ^yL»UUandMeng-ampun-i, 
jyL»UU To pardon, etc. Maka d6sa tAan 

hamba telah di-ampun-i-nya-lah, c^L-^ 
di^yL^lj diJ <-,--aJb ^ly ^^J Your sin, O 

master mine, has been forgiven by him. 
Harap-lah di- ampun-i kira-nya sembah 
patek, *^U d.j.4-u) ^1^ ^Jjl^^^ ^.j^ 
I, thy servant, trust that Your Highness 
will forgive my words. Dosa iang tiada 

di-ampun-i Allah, ^Jyi-^l^ ^^ A— i ^j^ 
dUI A sin which God cannot forgive. 
Lalu di-ampun-kan segala d6sa-nya, 
^Lo^a JSlo ^yL.|j yi Then he forgave 
him all his offences. Ampun-ampun-nya, 
c^^e>y^' Pardon! Pardon! Note: The 
above expression is commonly employed 
among Malays when they are about to 
make imavoidable use of a coarse expres- 
sion, or before naming or exhibiting any 
part of the body in the presence of a 
superior. Ampun-ampun To' ! Bengkak- 
nya s'besar lengan hamba dato' ini, 
^^1 y)j s,..4Jb ^ ^^-..-^ Ji^. y ^oJ^^ 
Pardon ! Pardon ! O Chief ! The swell- 
ing was as large as this arm of mine. 
Note : The word Ampun, ^^yt^l is almost 
invariably used by an inferior to a 

AmpAnya, ,^^1 

superior, the word Maaf i-iju» being 
usually employed by equals among them- 
selves, or by superiors to inferiors. 

Ampunya, ^^^\ Belonging to, own, of; 
a possessive adjunct. Maka di-s&mun- 
nya seg&la isi kedei 6rang di-situ maka 
6rang iang ampAnya kedei pun di-per- 
bdat hAru-hara, ^^wil J51-^ ^^Ua csi^ 

s?^ ^^1 ^—i l)^\ c^^^s^a Ijj) ^^ 
VjU jj^yb &|^y J ^ They robbed all the 

contents of the shops and routed those 
to whom the shops belonged. Maka 
be-berapa kali ber-temu ka-pada iang 
ampiinya ladang itu maka ka-takut-an- 
lah ia sangka-kan-nya harimau, c^ 

^^^ «-4» l^^ ^y^» ^ J^^^ J\^ ^\j^ 

^yb ^KiLo ^\ Aj2^\sS Many times he 

met the man to whom the field belonged, 
but the latter was afraid, supposing 
him (the donkey) to be a tiger. Iang 
ampftnya suara itu bahwa handak-lah 
angkau ka-dda segra pergi pereksa 
akan dia, <)Jj1jaJb 1^ u^^l )j)^ ^^^' M 

You two must quickly go and make en- 
quiries as to whom that voice belongs. 
Damikian-lah chetra-nya di-chetra-kan 
Alih 6rang iang ampAnya chetra ada-nya, 

^^IjI Such is the tale which is related by 

him whose tale it is. Jika tiada ampdnya 
herta itu di-bawa-nya pada mentri, t^sAe^ 

^yL^ j^ ^i^bj ai vio^b ^yL.Kjgf If 

there is no one who owns the property 
it must be taken to the minister. 
Sultan Ahmad Maatham Shah iang am- 
pdnya-i tahta ka-raja-an negri Pahang, 
3^ v^^ljy-lM ^L-^ ^Jwt-^ Jurul ^Ik-L.^ 

^ ^J^ c)*^'->^ Sultan Ahmad Maatham 
Shah, who possesseth the throne of 
Pahang. Meng-amp6nya-i, v^*ljyL-#Uw* 
Mem-pdnya-i v^*lj.yu^ To possess. Peng- 
ampunya-an ^g^liyUU-^ Possession, ap- 
propriation. Note: In colloquial Malay 
this word is vulgarly contracted into 
PAnya, ^^y Note: In both conversa- 
tion and writing, the use of this word 
is to be avoided, the possessive case being 
far more commonly and more correctly 
expressed by placing the word denoting 
the possessor immediately after the word 
denoting the thing possessed; thus: 
Kdmah tdan, ^1^ d^jj The master's 


Ampus, Bat., ,j-J^I 

house, not Tftan ptiiiya rAmah, ^ji ^ly 
<uj; Rftmah si-apa, t-jLj^ «u;j; Whose 
house, not Si-apa ampdnya riimah, (^ l^^ 
^Jt> *^i>^' The expression Hak ini, 
^1 <-3L*« ^ Le.y the property of whom 
is this? is more usual than the phrase 
Si-apa ampflnya ini, ^ — 1\ ^^y^l w3L— -» 

Whose is this ? Malays when speaking 
to Europeans will very frequently make 
use o| this word, as of other incorrect 
words and phrases, with the supposed 
object of facilitating the comprehension 
of their language by their European ac- 
quaintances, and in imitation of them. 
The example thus set is not to be 
followed, however, and it will be noted 
that when speaking among themselves, 
in every part of the country where pure 
Malay is spoken, the natives very rarely 
make use of this word. 


Ampus, Bat., ,j-A^) To wipe out, to erase, 
to obliterate, to abolish, to annul. Maka 
titah raja aiu-hai mS,mak Bendahara 
ampus-kan apa-lah arang di-m£lka kita, 

*a^ -sJ^a ^l;l dbl Then quoth the 

king, " O Father Treasurer, wipe out the 
stains of soot which are upon my coun- 

Am put, syu) To copulate. Amput ma', 
*U syui A common term of abuse. 
Note: The form Hamput &Ju^ is also 
met with. 

Amzat^ &y\ The name of the Malay and 
Arabic letter • which is used to replace 
the second of two alifs (t) when they 
occur together in the same word, thus : 
Ka-ampat, UU'l^ Ka-atas, ^wJ'lS" etc. 
Amzah • is also used at the end of a word 
which ends in a vowel, to give a sharp 
final sound similar to that denoted by 
the presence of the silent final i, thus : 
Ma' 'U Mother, Dato' yU A grand- 
father. It is also used when two words 
follow each other, the first of which ends 
in, and the second begins with a vowel, 
as la-itu <ji^^ 

An, ^ An inseparable suffix added to a 
raaical, which may be of any part of 
speech, in order to form a substantive. 
iNouns thus formed usually denote an 
agent or instrument of the meaning con- 
veyed by the radical, thus : Adu, ^al To 
complain, etc. Adu-an, ^^*3l A plaintifE or 

Anai-anai, t*^J' 

complaint. MAat, Sl^ To load. MAat-an 
^\^ A cargo. BAat, Slj^ To make, to do, 
etc. BAat-an, ^1^ Manufacture. Pikir, 
/Li To think. Pikir-an, ^^^^ Opinion, 
thought. Occasionally, however, no per- 
ceptible difference in the meaning of a 
radical is made by adding the suffix 
-an, ^ thus : tTtang, ^^1 and tTtang-an, 
^•) A debt. TJntong, 4^1 and TJntong- 
an, ^ys^\ Profit, fortune, chance. I'rin* 
bang, ^ Tambang-an, Juj^ Freight. 
The suffix -an ^ is often used in con- 
junction with the prefix ka^ $ or pei%j3 or 
the derivatives of the latter ;><?, tJ peniy 
(^ P^n, s^ p^ng, ^ or peny, ^ Thus : 
Ka-ada-an, ^'tjl^ Existence, Being; 
from the root Ada, a I To be, etc. Ka- 
besar-an, ^L^ Greatness, rank, etc., 
from Besar, ^ Large, great, etc. Ka- 
tda-an, oj*l>^ An elder, a chief, from 
TAa, ly Old. Ka-bakti-an, ^^iifi^ Good 
offices, good services, from Bakti, ^v^ 
Pious, good offices, etc. Per-bdat-an, 
^l^ji A deed, an action, from Biiat, 

&\ji To do, etc. Pe-kerja-an, ^"^^^^ 
Labour, work, from Kerja, g^ To work, 
etc. Pem-andang-an, ^^Jsx^J Sight, 
view, etc., from Pandang, &syj^ To see, 
etc. Pen-Adoh-an, ^^^ An accusa- 
tion, from TMoh, esJ^ To accuse. 
Peng-&rang-an, ^J^J^ Style, composi- 
tion, from Ksirang, ij \^ To compose, etc. 

Peny-amun-an, ^^^ Highway robbery, 

from Samun, ^^>^*--» To rob, etc. See 
Notes under Ka, ^ and under Per, y and 
its derivatives. 

Anaanda, JujJt A child, a son, a daughter, 
a nephew, a niece. Note : This form is 
sometimes used in writing and is, more- 
over, a correct rendering of the pro- 
nunciation of the term, which is more 
frequently written Anak-Suda, JoJlil It is 
used in speaking to a Raja of his relations, 
and in writing reciprocally with Ayah- 
^da, Juu^i Father, imcle, or Bonda, Joj 
Mother, aunt. (See Anak-anda, JulMI A 
child, etc. 

Anai-anai, t^^l White ants. Strang &nai- 
&nai, t*^t ^j^ A nest of white ants. 
Tiang riimah di-m&kan {Qih d.nai-&nai, A^ 
V^^ dJ^t ^^^^ ^Ji^ The posts of the house 
are eaten by white ants. Kena di-m&kan 
8,nai-Snai, t*^l ^^t•^ ^ Eaten by white 


Anak, ^1 

ants. BAsut S.nai-fi,nai, t»^l ^i-**>^ A 
white ant heap ; a hillock made by white 
Anak, ^1 A child, a son, a daughter, a 
nephew, a niece, an infaiit, offspring; 
the young of any animal, bird, fish, or 
insect ; a young plant, a cutting, a shoot, 
a sapling. Anak raja, gb <5^' ^ prince, a 
princess. Anak raja-rA,ja, fsb <5^' A man, 
who, although of royal blood, is but dis- 
tantly connected with the ruling house, 
holds no office, and occupies no recog- 
nised position in the State. Anak jaja- 
jaja, rgW <5^' The term applied by the 
Malays of many parts of Sumatra to 
men who, although of royal descent, are 
even more remotely connected with the 
ruling house than are the Anak raja-raja 
t'cb ^' Anak geh^ra, \j^ ^\ The 
offspring of two persons of royal blood. 
Anak gdndek, ^^^ ^t A child born of 
a Raja's concubine. M&ka sudah-lah ka- 
tahu-an di-dalam pe-tda-nya pada patah- 
patah-an 6rang t<!la-t<ia dan ka-pada 
elemu-nya anak raja itu laki-laki. 

r^s u^i ^\j ^\ ^y^ ^yiJ ^tJ f»jJ e>>^» 

They had ascertained by means of their 
inherited knowledge, and the interpre- 
tations of the men of old, and by means 
of their science, that the royal child 
would be a boy. Maka dengan rdpa- 
nya anak raja itu di-nama-i Mih ayah- 
anda Baginda Tiian Petri Gemala Rakan 

c/b^ ^J^ i^'y ^^ '^^^' ^^ account 
of her appearance, the Princess was 
named Princess Gemala Hakan by her 
father. Maka Raja Pikas itu pun pada 
tiap-tiap hari turun ber-main meny- 
abong ayam dengan segala anak raja- 
raja dan orang besar-besar, g|^ 

r>^ tj^^ c)'^ ^e'>^ ^' y^ J""^ (^' t^^ 

Raja Pikas used to come out every day 
and amuse himself by cock-fighting, in 
company with all the inenof royal descent 
and all the chiefs. Anak laki-laki, ^1 
^^J) A son. Anak jantan, ^^fj^ ^1 A 

son. Note: The term Anak laki-laki 
Y^J^ ^1 is often used to signify a male 
human being, a brave man. Pantang 
anak laki-laki tdndok di-tengah mfidan^ 

^jw. aAJJ jjjjy r^/i ^' ^ It is for' 

Anak, ^1 

bidden for a brave man to surrender on 
the field of battle. Maka TAan Petri 
pun ber-anak s'6rang anak laki-laki, 4.sU 

Y^^ ^^ tJj^ i^y v^y ^J^ o'y The 
Princess bore a son. Anak per-ampA-an, 
^lyL.ji ^1 or Anak betina, ^^ ^^) A 

daughter. Anak s Along, ^^^ ^1 The 

first-born child. Anak bongsu, ^^ ^l 

The last-born child. Anak tiri, ^^^ ^1 

A stepchild. Anak sudara, ^l«^ .^ ^5Jl 

Anak sanak, ^3^*^-^ ^' and Anak kem- 
anak-kan, ^^SJi^l^ ^1 A nephew, or 

niece. Jikalau sAnggoh lagi aku sama 
s'ibu dan s'bapa dengan Raja Besar itu 
barang di-sampei-kan Allah Taala kira- 
nya anak sudara-ku itu ka-mari, ^ r> 
sb cj^^ *^^ ^)^ ^^ .^ |»U^I ^i dS^^ 

^gpU^ ^il^sl;! Jj-d If, in truth, I am still the 
child of the same mother and father as 
Raja Besar, may God Most High permit 
my nephew to come hither ! Anak pi&tu, 
^L-^ ^1 or Anak yatim, ^^-c^i ^' An 
orphan. Remak-lah b^ta mem-bAang 
diri ka-dalam hAtan finggan men-jadi 
anak yatim piatu iang tiada ber-ibu bapa 
dan kaum kelArga, i^ji^ ^|>5-*-^ «^^ ^^J 

^^^ r^^ o'^ *^^ ^j^ ^^ 6-^ ^^^ 

me cast myself away into the forest and 
let me become an orphan, having neither 
father nor niother, neither relations 
nor family ! Anak angkat, 3^\ ^1 An 

adopted child. Angkat anak, ^ I ^<^ I To 
adopt a child. Laksamana itu bagai- 
mana maka Bendahara tiada kasih akan 
dia karana anak-nya angkat anak Alih 
Bendahara, ^ IfcJj^ <^\^ 4:)W^ «^l ^U-J5J 

J Ifc Joj How could it be that the Bendahara 
bore no love to the Laksamana, seeing 
that his son has been adopted by the Ben- 
dahara ? Bab iang ka-anam-pAloh lapan 
pMa me-nyata-kan pri hukum segala 
6rang meng-ambil anak angkat akan anak 
hamba 6rang lain, d3^ ^'"K-JL^ <^l^ 

Ij}^ d^ — ^ (^^^-^ ^y^ cr^^^ ^^-^ v:>*S 

Chapter the sixty-eighth, setting forth 
the law concerning those who take 
adopted children from among the chil- 
dren of other people's slaves. Anak 
dara, Ipb ^1 A virgin. Note .; In 
Pfirak and Kedah the expression Anak 


inak ^1 

6rang, ij^\ ^Jl is used to signify a 

virgin, whereas in other parts of the 
Peninsula it merely means someone's 

child, the child belonging to some other 
person. Dia dnak dclra lagi, |;b ^\ ^^J 

^^i She is still a virgin. Nikah dengan 

anak dara, \j)*^ ^^\ ^^^ j-<-J To marry a 

virgin. Anak gampang, A-fl-*? ^3^' or 

Anak haram, /^\^c^ ^1 A bastard. Anak 

sAmbang, At^j-^ ^5^' A bastard born of 

incest. Anak ta' nikah, jX-J *l3 ^1 A 
bastard, one who is born out of wedlock.' 
Note : The above are all common terms 
of abuse. Jika kita khabar-kan anak- 
nya ini ber-tiiah tentii-lah di-taroh-nya 
dan jika kita khabar-kan chelaka anak- 
nya itu neschaya di-buang-nya, &^ ^-sA-ck 

^t^ J If we tell him that his child is 

fortunate, he will certainly keep it, and 
if we tell him that his child is accursed 
he will surely abandon it. ChAba-lah 
diri lihat-lah di-dalam r^mal itu anak 
b6ta iang di-dalam kandong-an TAan 
Petri, «t^) J^t; ^lJa d^J v^^*3 di?^ 

^^ ^1^ J>^J^ ^IJJ^ u^ ^1 Try 
to see in your magic concerning my 
child who is in the Princess's womb. 
Hukum 6rang meng-ambil anak 6rang 
iang ter-bAang Mih ibu-nya, ^j^\ ^%< e^ 

The law as to people who take other 
peqple's children, who have been aban- 
doned by their mothers. Pa' Sayang 

pfdang meng-ambil anak, A)y Al^— ^ "^ 
^1 J--^U-« Pa' Sayang returned home 
to fetch his children. Karana Tan Megat 
pun anak ka-pada kita, ^y 2Ji» ^J ^^J^ 
«^ jJi^ ^) For that Tan Megat is to us 

^is a son. Maka Tftan Petri pun men-angis 
ber-chAchor-an ayer mata-nya karana 
sangat-lah kasih akan anak-nya itu, 

i^j^j^y- u-rft^^ e)^ ^j^ oIh '^^-^ 

w^l ^1 ^1 a^lf dU6U. ^j\^ ^U^ ^1 

Then the Princess wept and her tears fell 
in torrents, because of her great love for 
her daughter. Maka Sang PertedSwa 
tahu Akan diri-nya akan ber-dlih anak 
maka anak-nya itu Akan men-jadi raja 
besar, ^) ^ji^ ^) ^\S l^jjy ^ ctL-* 

j^ eb s?^^ o^' ^' ^' ^^^ ^' ^j^y 

Sang Pertedfiwa knew that he would 

Anak, ^1 

have offspring, and that his offspring 
would become great kings. Anak bini, 
^eJ^ ^5-it Wife and children; family; 
those relatives immediately dependent 
upon a man. Anak laki, ^Ji ^^) 

Husband and children; a woman^ family 
or nearest relations. ^ Note: In colloquial 
Malay^ the terms Anak bini, ^^^ c5*' 
and Anak laki ^J ^1 are used by 

men speaking of their wives, and wives 
speaking of their husbands, even when 
those who speak have no children, and 
when in English the phrase " my Avife," 
or " my husband," would be employed. 
Dan akan anak bini-nya pun di-bri 
angraha, ^?j-^^ ^^ ^^^t^^. ^1 ^) ^)^ 
Ifij^l And he also gave presents to his 
family. Anak biiah, &)ji ^^) The depen- 
dents of a Chief — viz., the children of 
his loins. Maka segra di-krah-kan-nya 
segala anak bliah-nya, ^^ja<^I^j I^Lo c£U 
^^y <3^' J^— ^ Then speedily he called 
together all his dependents. Anak 
chAchu, y^y^ ^1 Offspring, progeny 
(lit.y children and grand-children.) 
Maka deri-pada anak chdchu Baginda 
itu akan men-jadi raja besar pada 
S,khir zaman, y^j-^ ^1 J^jJ <-gA«.^ 

And that the progeny of the m6narch 
would become great kings, even unto the 
end of time. Anak linjing, A^^t ^1 A 
puppy .^ Anakkftching, ^^^^1 A kit- 
ten. Anak kambing, A«-^ <5^' ^ kid. 
Anak biri-biri, fs?^ ^5^' A lamb. Anak 
kftda, ) ^^ ^33 1 A foal. Anak kAda betina, 
ejft^ lay ^1 ^ A filly. Anak lembu, ^1 
j^ A calf. Anak rAsa, ^^j ^1 A fawa, 

Anak ikan, ^1 ^^) Spawn, young fish. 
Anak ikan s parang-parang anak ketam 

di-dalam padi, ^ ^1 f^^lii-^ ^^1 JJl 

^^jU ^1 J J The spawn of the " knife '* 

fish ; a young crab in the rice. Anak 

ay am, ^) ^1 A chicken. Anak itek, 

<-ai^l ^\ A duckling. Anak angsa, ^1 
Li>l A gosling. 

Anak merpati terbang ka-hMu, 
Anak enggang meng-angkut sprang, 
Jauh-kan hati tdan peng-hAlu, 
Tidak men-egor s'bdrong Iang. 


Anak, ^^\ 

The young pigeons fly to the interior, 
the young hornbills carry materials 
backwards and forwards for the making 
of their nest : Are you offended, my 
chief, that you do not speak to me? 
(i.e. J a hawk). Maka anak ikan itu-pun 
bernang-lah pergi ka-m4na-mana me- 
Ithat danau itu, ^^y ut^t ^\ ^) <.£Aw» 
«^l ylJ «-fJ^ re)U_f ^j^ dU3^ The 

young fish swam about and viewed the 
pond. Note: The word Anak ^1 is used 
to express any object subservient, inferior 
to, or dependent upon any other thing 
with which it is closely connected. Anak 
negri, i^j^ ^' A native. Anak dagang, 
^|J ^t A foreigner. Anak kfi,pal, ^1 
^IS" A sailor. Anak prahu, >^ty ^33 1 
A boatman. Maka ber-apa 6rang anak 
dayong-nya dan si-apa nama jAru-b&tu 
dan jftru-mddi-nya, ^1 ^j^\ <^tj-3 tsL^ 

^a^ How many oarsmen has she, and 
what are the names of her pilot and her 
steersman ? Anak kdnchi, ^^^ <3i' A 
key. Anak k{lnchi jahat peti derhaka, 
*J [^j^ ^ toU ^jT ^) If the key is bad 

the box turns traitor — Prov.^ meaning 
that if a husband is unfaithful, his wife 
will probably follow his exanlple. Anak 
161a, ^ ^1 The ball of a swivel gun. 
Maka ia pun bangkit meng-ambil anak 
161a iang panjang s'jengkal jari manis, 

^— i ^ ^> J^l^ ^-^ o-^l ^^^ 
,j^l» ^g;l — CK J5CL^«^ ^^ Then he 

arose and took a swivel gun bullet 
which was a span in length. Anak 
meriam, ^^ ^t A cannon ball. Anak 
mS,ta, v**U ^1 The pupil of the eye. 
Anak telinga, ^JJ ^1 The drum of 
the ear. S'61ah6-lah seperti pichah-lah 
rasa-nya finak telinga-ku, &ji~^ Y^y--^ 
^ ^Jj ^1 ^^^> <3if^ It were as though 
I felt that the drum of my ear was 
broken. Anak panah, dJU ^1 An arrow. 
Akan tetapi anak panah itu Ma jdga 
ter-kena ka-pada bftsor-nya, ^^ ^' 
^^y jJL^ LtSy c-?^ Jl uu*il aJU ^\ But 

the arrow was fixed in his bow. Anak 
murid, ^y» ^\ A scholar, a student. 

Anak amas, ^f*^ ^1 The ofEspring 
of two bought slaves (Aabadi, ^^J^-^), 
who is liable to be sold at the will of his 
master, without reference to his own 
wishes in the matter. Anak filyer, >' ^3^' 

Anak, ^1 

A tributary stream, a spring, a rivulet, 

a brook, a creek. Anak tangga, c-Ctf ^\ 
A step (in a ladder). Anak tekak, ^\ 

^ The uvula. Anak daching, ^fj^^^ ^l 
Weights (for scales). Anak 16ching, 
^t^y ^t The clapper of a bell. Anak 
16mbong, ^y^ ^-i' A miner. Anak 
iiyior, j>^ ^\ A young coconut tree. 
Anak pala, J^ ^' Nutmeg cuttings. 
Ber-anak, ^\yi To bear a child, to 
have ofEspring, to have young, to in- 
crease, to have issue, to be a parent, etc. 
Maka akan PermeisAri pun ber-anak-lah 
s'6rang per-ampd-an, v^^>--fr^y ^^ <^^ 
^lyuy ^^^ difiJl^ ^y The Queen bore 
a female child. Maka segala 6rang iang 
ber-anak istri itu banyak-lah sudah cherei 
karana suami-nya ter-lftpa ka-pada segala 

anak bini-nya, ^1^ ^ ^)j\ JSI — ^ «.sU 

,£^!>-^ e)-^^ ^y^ ^"^^^ ^^ "^' ^y^^ 

^^f^i^ ^\ JSlo jA? <-*y^ Those who had 
wives and children were many of them 
divorced, because the husband forgot his 
wife and family. Jikfi,lau ber-anak ikut 

kata bidan, ^J^ h^ &^\ ^)^ j)^ If you 

bear a child, do as the midwife tells 
you — Prov. Ber-anak kembar, j^ ^1^ 

To bear twins. Si-apa iang ti&da t&hu 
ber-anak bawa'-lah ka-mari aku iang tahu 

ber-anak, dJ'l^lj <5i'^ ^^ ^^J ^ c3L^-u» 
^1^ ybU ^ ^\ i^j\^ Who is it who 

does not know how to treat her child ? 
(i.e., how to be a parent.) Bring it hither, 
for I know how to treat chCldren. 
Hamba tiada ber-anak, ^1^ Jl^J <-,-.4Jb I 

have no children ; I am not a parent. 
Note : In netting, etc., the term Ber- 
&nak ^1^ is used to signify increas- 
ing the number of stitches, etc. Anak 
ber-anak, ^J^ ^1 Child and parent. 
Tiga ber-anak, ^1^ ^tf The three 
people who were related to one another, 
as child to parent. Note: This phrase 
may be applied to two parents and one 
child, or to two children and one of 
their parents. Wa-hai anak-ku 
daya upclya kita dAa ber-anak handak 
me-lawan stru iang datang itu, ^\^ 

ut^l ^Ijdkjt jjSL-^ i^^^ O my child, 
what means can we two, child and 
parent, find to resist the enemy which 
is approaching? GAgor &nak, ^\ ^^ 


Anak-&nda, JuJBl 

To miscarry. Biiang anak ^l 61^ To 

procure abortion. Per-dnak-kan, ^^^'y 
A native of any place. Per-anak-kan 
Singapftra, jyU^— ^ ^^^\j^ A native 

of Singapore. Jawi per-ftnak-kan, v^^W^ 
^jjCfiJly The name given by Malays to the 

offspring of a Malay and a native of 
India. Ber-ftlih slnak ^1 dJ^t^ and Per- 

Mih ajiak ^^) ^^^j^ To obtain offspring, to 
have children. Maka be-berapa lama-nya 
iang Baginda di-atas tahta ka-raja-an 
tiada jAga ber-Alih anak, ^^U) <^lj^ <-sA^ 

^1 The king had been upon the throne 
for a long time, bat he had not obtained 
offspring. Anak-anda, JuJJ3l A son, a 
daughter, a nephew, a niece, offspring, 
children. Note: This form is used in 
speaking to a raja of his relations, and 
in writing in conjunction with Ayah- 
anda, Juu^l Father, uncle, etc., or Bonda, 
Jj^ Mother, aunt, etc. Kanak-kanak, 
Vi^^ Children, infants. 

Anak-llnda, JoJUl or JsahJ I Ohild, son, daugh- 
ter, nephew, niece. Note: This word, 
which is formed from the root Anak, ^1 
A child, a son, etc., is only used in writing, 
or in speaking to^ a raja of his relations. 
(See Note under Adinda, Ja^i*3l A younger 

brother or sister, etc.) In writing, 
Anak-anda JoJlil is used reciprocally with 
Ayah-anda, Jul^I Father, uncle, etc., or 
Bonda, Jo.? Mother, aunt, etc., as a polite 
and^elegant substitute for the personal 
pronoun. It is applied to the junior of 
the two correspondents, and does not 
necessarily imply any blood relationship. 
Hal paduka anak-anda itu lebeh-lebeh 
maalum ka-bawah duli iang maha-mulia, 

\ X ^ L^ « — i Your son's affairs are 

fully known to Your Majesty. Sudah 
Baginda me-raja-kan anak-Anda Baginda 
itu, 4«^1 J<j^ JoJUl ^U)^ JuJj esj^ When 
the monarch had made his son a king. 
Men-datang-kan sembah ka-pada Ba- 
ginda serta meny-ampei-kan sembah 

anak-anda itu, Oui^ jJL^ 6^ o ^'*^J-? 

4a.^l JuJUl &^iJ^ ^ ^.jJL»y^ vioj— i^ He made 

obeLsance to the monarch and gave him 
his daughter's message. Bahwa sftrat 
deri-pada bonda Che' Long &pa-lah jAa 
kira-nya b&rang di-sampei-kan Allah 
Taala ka-hadS,p-an anak-anda Che' Abdul 

Ananas> ^j^\ 
Rahman, dUI ^y »^ ju^ jj^a 3;^ \y^ 

^^^ySS^x^ »^ This letter from thy 
mother, Che* Long, may it be permitted 
by God on High to come into the pre- 
sence of her son Abdul Rahman. Note : 
The form Ananda J^l or Anaanda JjliJI 
is also met with. The ^, i in Anakanda 
JuJUl is silent. 

Anakhdda, j^I The master of a vessel. 
(See Nakhdda, J^) 

Anam, ^1 Six. Anam-blas, ,jJii aJI Six- 
teen. Anam pAloh, <0y ^1 Sixty. Anam 
ratus ^V> ^1 Six hundred. Anam ribu, 
^^ fiS Six thousand. Anam laksa, siS 
^jJS^ Sixty thousand. Anam ratus anam 
pMoh anam, ^t d)j-i ^1 ^ — Jl^ ^1 Six 

hundred and sixty-six. Tiga kali pAkul 
tiga-pMoh anam pdku lekat, Jl^ «-^ 

a-O /Li f^\ dJ^ ULj js:^ With 

three strokes thirty-six nails were driven 
home. Maka raja pun mem-bri angrahft 
per-salin-an akan adipati Jemllja dan 
batin-batin iang ber-gelar anam orang 
itu, ^Uy Ifc^l ^y^^ ^^y gl; csU. 

«w' The king gave presents of suits of 
clothes to the Chief Jemaja and to the 
other Chiefs who bore titles, and who 
were six in number. Akan tetapi ada-lah 
istri-nya bharu anam-blas tahun iimor- 
nya eerta dengan 61ok-nya, ^q>^ e/' 

^^^ ^vi vttd^ But his wife was only just 
sixteen years old, and she was comely to 
look upon. Tengah anam, aJ) dAJ Five- 
and-a-half. Anam likor, /-J ^1 Six 
and twenty. Anam kali, ^IS" ^1 Six 
times. Anam kali anam tiga pMoh anam, 
^1 d)y c-^jsJ ^1 ^IS" ^1 Six times six is 

thirty-six. lang-ka-anam, ^'K-JL^ The 
sixth. (See Ampat, i!L»\ Four.) 

Ananas, ,j-jjj The pine-apple : Vomelia 
amanas. Note : In colloquial Malay this 
word is always contracted into Nanas, 
^IJ the initial a \ being dropped. The 
Malays only distinguish between two 
kinds of pine-apple — viz., Ananas pAteh, 
d^jjy ,j-— »3l the white pine-apple, and 
An&nas m6rah, &jtr^ ^j^\ the red pine- 


Ananda, JuuiJl 

Ananda, JojJ) Child, son, (daughter, 
nephew, niece. (See Anak-anda, JujJ) 
of which this is a common form.) 

Anau, Jl The name of a palm : Saqueiiis 

Anchai,^^! Loosely ; to loosen the hold. 
J&ngan di-anchai-kan pegang-an itu, 
uu^l ^Jj^ v:r^'"^ vD^^ 1^0 ^ot hold 
loosely what you have in your hand. 

Anchak, ^3^! A hanging tray or platform ; 
a hanging meat-safe; a small hanging 
tray or shelf in a Malay house on which 
articles of food are placed to prevent cats 
from eating them ; a tray used in magic 
ceremonies. A small frame of bamboo 
or wood suspended from a tree, on which 
perfumed woods, sirihy tobacco, betel- 
nut, &c., are placed as an offering to the 
spirits. Note : There are two kinds 
of Anchak, ^3^! according to Malay 
medicine-men— i.e., Anchak bingkas, 
^j-^^ <5**' or Anchak per-bingkas, ^^\ 
^j.J^%i and Anchak pe-ldnus, ^^ ^5^1 
The Anchak per-blngkas ^j^Sx^j^ ^3^1 

are of two kinds. The most ordinary 
one is the frame found hung upon trees 
loaded with offerings (Jamu-an, ^y^W) 
for the spirits. The second is fastened 
to the end of a branch, which is pulled 
down almost to the ground and held 
there while the medicine-man goes 
through his incantation or invocation, 
after which it is allowed to fly up, and 
all the things placed on it are scattered 
by this means. Bingkas ^j^S^ means to 
let go a bent-down branch. The Anchak 
pe-lAnus ^^ ^3^t is placed at the feet of 
a person suffering from illness while an 
incantation is repeated ; when this is done 
the evil is supposed to have left the 
patient and entered into the Anchak ^§^1 
which is then thrown into the nearest 
river. Sometimes small rafts are made 
and floated down nver, offerings to the 
spirits being placed upon them in a 
similar manner; these rafts are called 
Ldnchang, ^^or Balai limas, ,j--4-J Jlj 
Gantong anchak per-bingkas, ^3^) t^^ 
^ ,j C# ... j ^^ To hang up a frame with 
offerings upon it to the spirits. 

Anchai, J^l To pretend. 

Anching, ^^^1 Evil-smelling, rank of 

smell. (See Hanching, ^yt^^^ Evil smell- 
ing, etc.) 

Andai, v^j3l 

Anchok, ^^l To copulate. Note: The 
compound form Ber-&nchok ^5^'^ is 

more common. 

Anchor, ^1 To pulverise, to reduce to 
powder, to break up, to destroy; to 
decay, to putrefy, to grow soft from 
putrefaction, to dissolve, to melt, to fall 
to pieces, to smash ; powdered, broken 
to fragments, decayed, dissolved, torn, 
worn out. (See Hanchor, j^ii which 

is the more correct form in writing, 
although the initial h is often dropped 
in colloquial Malay.) 

Anchu,^! A kind of raft. Note: This 
word is not used by the Malays of the 
Peninsula. (See Rakit, S^\j A raft.) 
The following terms are in use in P6rak, 
Pahang, and Kelantan respectively to 
signify a small raft made of bamboo and 
not covered in : Lanting, ^^^xJ Terlatap, 
«-ftJjy or Telatap, «-ftJAj and J<iriau,^j»^ 

Anda, Hind., jJ) The musk of the civet 
cat. Note: Jebat i^e^ is the common word 
for musk, and the animal itself is called 
Jebat, ^L^^^ or MAsang Jebat i^os ^y* ^J 
the Malays. Anda setiiri, i^jys^ Jil The 
name of a sweetmeat. Pij, 

Anda, JJt An inseparable affix which is 
added to terms of relationship in order 
to render them more formal and polite. 
Anak, ^1 Anak-anda, JoJlil A child, etc. 
Ayah, <Jil Ayah-anda, Jo4il A father, etc. 
Note: The original terms are occa- 
sionally somewhat mutilated for t^e sake 
of euphony, thus: Adek, ^Jl Adinda, 
JJvil A younger brother or sister. ChCl- 
chu, ^y^ ChAnda, J3^ A grand-child. 
Kakak, ^IS' Kakanda, Jo^S" An elder 
brother or sister and Nfinek, ^^t^^ Ninda, 
JoJ A grand-parent. Note : Ibu, j^l A 
mother, aimt, etc., is formed into ^oonda, 
Jj^ which is probably a contraction of 

the form Ibu-anda, JJ*^) which has now 
become obsolete. 

Andai, ^^JJil A possible event, a possi- 
bility. Andai-nya, ^Jil Perad venture, 
sometimes. Ber-andai, v^^J^ To talk 
over possibilities, to discuss the prac- 
ticability of anything. Ber-andai-andai, 
t*^jJlj-j To talk nonsense, to jabber. Pij. 

Andai, v^JJl A friend, a companion, an 
associate, an acquaintance. (See H&ndai, 
^^JoJb A friend, etc.) 


Andai-andai, rs?^^' The stays to which 
the cordage of a sail is secured against 
the bulwarks of a ship. Kena-kan tali 

ka-^ndai-andai, Y^^^^\^ ^l5 ^^\jS Fasten 
the rope to the stay. 

Andai-andai, t^v^^l The name of a plant, 
Grewia ohlongifolia, F^ij. 

Andak, ^a3) and Meng-andak, ^^^ To 
shorten sail, to reef; to curtail one's 
expenses. Fij. 

- — Andak, ^jjI To will, to wish, to want, to 

choose, to desire, to be inclined, to tend 
to, to intend, to be willing, to be anxious; 
to be about to ; must, ought, it behoveth. 
This word is often pronounced Endak, 
^3Js3l (See Handak, ^JjJt* To will, to 
wish, to want, etc.) 

Andak, ^jji) A common Malay proper 

name usually given to women, and to 
which a second name is usually affixed. 
Note : This word is a contraction of 
Pandak, ^sXjJ Short. In Pfirak it is 

applied to the fifth child in a family. 
(See Note under Alang, ^\ Medium, etc.) 

Andlika, JtJlJJl A wild bull. Note: In the 
Malay Peninsula the terms Sladang, 

^jJLo and Sftpi ^V^ ^^^ ^^^ o^lj ones in 

Andal, JJil Proficient, reliable, trust- 
worthy, able, clever, shrewd, one who 
inspires confidence, one in whom con- 
fident may be reposed, one who has 
superhuman attributes. (See Handal, 
Jjujb Proficient, reliable, etc.) 

Andam, Pebs., (•Jil The short fringe of hair 

worn on the forehead by newly married 
women and prostitutes. Seperti Anak 
dara mAbok fi,ndam, cJJt ^U^M ^1 syLo 

Like a virgin overcome by the fringe upon 
her forehead. — Prov.^ said of any one 
who is extremely self-conscious. Andam 
dtea tengkah laku peil perangai-nya, 
^a4>ly J^ ^3 d5CAJ ^^j j#JJl She was 

the ornament of the land (Z^f ., the fringe 
upon the forehead of the land), and 
elegant in her behaviour and in her con- 
duct and manners. Peng-andam rambut, 
&y^j pXiUi A barber. 

Andam, Pers., |»Ji1 Justness, symmetry, 

I arrangement, to adjust, arrange, system- 
atise. Meng-&ndam misei sltau janggut, 
l^^\t>. yt ^^^'it^ l*JuJL« To arrange or 

Andoh, &^\ 

adjust the moustache or beard ; to trim, 
make symmetrical. Bdkan-kah £lok 

jaian itu bagai di-^ndam-kan 6rang, d<^y 

£;^' c5^^'^ ^^ «^' JW ^3>^' Is not 
that road nice, as though it had been 

Andam, (•Julo To take refuge, to take 
sanctuary. (See Aandam, (•Ju^ To take 
refuge, etc.) 

Andan, ^JJl An albino. Fij. (See B&lar, 
yi? and Sabun ^^,^ An albino, whiter 
dirty white.) 

Andang, ^jJI A torch made of the leaves 
of a coconut palm. Note : In the Malay 
Peninsula SAloh <0^ is the more common 

word for a torch of this kind. Fij. 

Andang, AjJI A spot, a speckle, a birth- 
mark. (See Kenan, ^ A birth-mark). 

Andang-andang, t^^l The yards of a ship 
on which the sails are furled ; the boom. 
Andang-andang atas, ^1 t*?^' or Per- 
bahu, ^l^ ji The upper yard which sup- 
ports the sail. Andang-S.ndang bawah, 
es^li t'^JJl or Per-kaki, ^IS> The boom 

or lower yard round which the sail 
is- furled. PMas slndang- andang dengan 

achi-achi, Y^^ ^*^ f^' u-J^ To turn 
the boom over and over by means of a 
lever, in order to furl the sail upon it. 
Note : The term Dftgang ^^a is applied 

to the piece of rotan which fastens the 
boom to the mast. 

Andas, j-oJil and Meng-dndas, ^j-oJJU- To 

rest one thing upon another prepara- 
tory to cutting or hammering it ; to rest 
anything on a block or anvil. (See also 
Kandas j-^Jo^ and Landas, ^^ A block, 

etc.) Fij. 

And&wiii, ^1^IJ^3l The name of a plant, 

Gissus papulosa. 

Anderik, ^^' A trap for catching 

animals. Fij. 
Andika, Jav., ciA^JJl You, thou. Fij. 

Andoh, 6^JJl and Meng-d.ndoh, es>uU^ To 
carry anything which swings or flutters, 
as a cloth thrown over the shoulder, or 
as an injured arm swings by a man's 
side; to fasten, tie up. T&li andoh, ^U 

fi^jJl The pieces of cord or rotan which 
secure the laths used to prevent the 
palm-leaf covering of river boats from 


Indok, ^3^JJl 

being displaced by the wind. Andoh- 
an, ^^yy^^ A bandage for an injured 
arm, a chain, a rope. Andoh-an sekdchi, 
^^^^ o^^^' The ropes by means of 
which a ship's gig is suspended from 
the davits. Pij. 

Andok, ^>v3l and Meng-andok, JJ^J^Uu 

To support by means of a band ; to wear 
in a sling, as a broken arm. Pij. 

Andom, |»^Jil The name of a bird. Maka 
di-k61am itu ada dAa 6kor bArong andom, 

that pond there were two Andom birds. 

Andong, $^Js3l A shrub sometimes planted 
about graves : Galoiracon sp. Note : The 
Malays distinguish between the following 
kinds: Andong batu, ylj ^>vil Andong 
hijau,^^A«»<t> c^jil and Andong m6rah, £^JsJl 

Andong, ^>v3l A cloak. 

Andor, ^Js3l The name of a kind of buffalo- 
sleigh which has no wheels and is used 
for transporting grain from the rice- 
fields. Note : This term is chiefly used 
among the natives of Perak. The other 
names for buffalo-sleighs are as follows : 
Bentang A»j^ a very rough sleigh, used 
for dragging timber. The terms JenAar, 
j]yj^ Nftar, j\y and Pedati, ^^^ are 
applied by the natives of Pahang, 
Kelantan and P^rak respectively to a 
buffalo-sleigh which runs on solid wheels; 
these wheels are called G^rek, ^§ljt^ 

Andor-kan, ^^^^i To make a steep place 
sloping, and therefore more easy to climb. 
Andor-kan tebing ini, ^1 ^-«J ^^o^l 
Slope this bank. 

Anfas, Ar., ^j^I Very costly. Tuhfah al- 

anfas, ,j^SldS^ A very costly gift. 

Note : This phrase is used by Malays in 
the complimentary preambles of letters. 

Ang, $1 Thou, thee, you, ye. The second 
person singular or plural. (See Hang, 
Aa> Thou, thee, etc.) 

Angah, <J^I The proper name given in 
some parts of the Malay Peninsula to 
the second son or daughter in order of 
birth in a family; a second name is 
usually added. Note: Though usually 
written Angah <J^1 this word is invari- 
ably pronounced Ngah <j^. It is a con- 
traction of Tengah, a^ middle — i.e., the 

Anggal, J«>l 

child which comes between the first- 
born and the third. (See Note under 
Alang, ^1 Medium, etc.) 

Angan-Hngan, f^l Thoughts, notions, 
ideas, opinions; to suppose, guess, specu- 
late, imagine. Pada angan-&ngan-nyai 
handak langgar ka-Indera-an, ^^\'^\ J^ 
^•|;juLi*l^^^i JJvUJb He speculated about 
invading the heavens. 

Angat, ^1 Hot, very hot, warm, heat; to 
be hot, to glow. (See Hangat, 2£>[^ Hot, 

Angau, ^1 A tick; small ticks which are 
met with in dry jungles and which 
infest the bodies of wild animals. They 
sometimes afflict human beings. Kena 
angau,^! u^ To become infested with 
jungle ticks. Note : A large kind of the 
same tick is called KAtu babi, ^b ^^ 
(See also Chenangau,^U^) 

Angga, 4-^1 Pretentions, brag. Btlkan- 
kah besar sangat angga bAdak ini seperti 
pipit na' meng-elan gajah, 2^Li j^ ^^^}k 

Has not this child got vast pretentions — 
he is like a sparrow going to swallow au 
elephant ! 

Angga, c-^1 or Riisa ber-&ngga, ^^^ 

^^Si>\j^ A stag with branching horns, or 
wild goat. Pij. 

Angga, %,S£>\ An elephant. Pij, 
Anggal, JJ:i>l Lightly loaded. Note: This 
word is usually applied to bokts and 
ships only. Sfinggoh penoh kfipal ini 
tetapi anggal jAga lagi, J>1^ &y^ dS^^ 
^i ^^ J«>l ^Uj ^1 It is true that 

this ship is full (i.e., so far as space goes) 
but she is still lightly loaded. Anggal- 
kan, ^j5^3lS16I To lighten the load of a 
ship or boat, also Meng-anggal-kan, 
^jOiSIfi^l*^ Jikalau prahu sarat sangat 
baik di-anggal-kan dahftlu, &;Lo^ly ^1^ 
Jybj ^/l«>b ^Ij afi>U If the boat is 

very much overladen, you had better 
lighten her a little. 

Anggal, y^\ A kind of shelf suspended 
from the roof in the interior of a Malay 
house. Anggal tikar, j^^ J^'^-^' A 
hanging shelf used for storing mats. 
Note : A shelf of a more permanent des- 
cription is called Para 1^ U by the Malays. 
(See also G^yang, ^l?) , 


Anggap, €-iSIi>l 

Anggap, <JiX£>] To invite, to challenge. 
Note : This word is usually used of 
inviting a person to drink or dance. 

Apa-bila ia mabok maka kita ftnggap 
men-ari maka tetekala itu ktta tikam, 
i^U ^j\x^ .JS:£>) 2^ csU ^U ^^1 J^l 
^♦<-J i^L^ ca^l Jl^ When he is drunk 

we will invite him to dance, and then 
we will stab him. Maka segala raja- 
raja • chetraya Malayu ber-anggap-lah 

tuan sekelian, ^A^ v^'>^ t*cb J^ — » ^^^ 
^jjJ<-* ^\y ^Y*^JSjt>\ji All the princes 

and nobles challenged them (to dance). 
Maka Pateh Gajah Mada pun s'bagai ber- 
anggap-anggap ka-pada Laksamana di- 
per-tAbi-iAbi-nya, ^y jL. <i«^l? dJU cs^ 

And in like manner Pateh Gajah Mada 

invited the Laksamana to dance over and 
over again. Maka Megat Trengganu 

pun di-anggap Alih Raja Mftda, sSi^ <^U 

'^^ eb ^-^' ^5:^1^ yl«>y The Megat 
of Trengganu was also invited (to drink) 
by the Raja Mdda. 

Anggar, ^^1 To reckon, to reckon up, 
to estimate, to judge. 

Anggara, j\S^\ The name of a mythical 
animal : sea-bream. Pij. Note : The form 

Onggara^U^^l also occurs. 

Anggar-an, ^j)^!^' More or less, about, 
approximately. (See Anggar, ^^1 To 
reckon, etc.) 

Anggei, ^^' Interwoven silk and gold 
thread. Maka ia meng-ambil selftar-nya 
iang ber-nama ber-adii anggei, ^^\ vM^ 

^1 ^^\ji f^^ji ^ ^»>^ ^\^ He took 
his red silk trousers interwoven with 
gold thread at the feet. 

Angg6rka, ^^^1 A long upper garment 
worn by men. The breasts overlap ; it is 
of an Arabic pattern. Pij. 

Anggit, ^uiH^l To tighten, to make taut 
(as a drum) ; to fix on the leathern face 
of a drum; to loop up the chains of a 
casting-net. Anggit gendang, ^J^ M^' 
Tighten the drums. Anggit-kan jala, 
JU. ^^j5CftJ^I Loop up the chains of the 

casting-net. Peng-anggit reb8,na, 2.J^\ki 
^\ij The cords which secure the leathern 
face to the frame-work of a tambourine. 
(See also S6dak, ^-)w^) 

Anggor, ^1 

Anggit, ^i<»^l To thread (as beads), also 
Meng-anggit, M^UU. Lalu di-anggit- 
kan manik-manik itu mem-bAat chin- 
chin, &l^--*^ ca-il r^l- ^j5<»-^la ^i 
^jjft^^ Then she threaded the beads 
and made rings of them. The usual 
word for to thread as beads is Meng- 
arang, $^^ 

Anggo', *yCfi>l or Anggok, Jj^^l To nod 
the head, to bow. Maka bangkit-lah ia 
deri-pada tempat ka-dudok-kan-nya itu 
serta meng-anggo' kapala-nya tiga kali 
kemdian bharu dftdok balek s'mAla, t&A^ 

o^^^ -^-H^ vji^^ J^ "-^ ^^^^ ya^u.! 

^]y^^ ^5^^ He arose from his seat and 
bowed his head three times, and then 
once more reseated himself. Note: The 
term Anggo' "jf^) is sometimes applied 

to the bow of a boat bobbing up and 
down on the waves, but the word Ambul 
^^j^\ is more correct. 

Anggoh, &j!^\ A net which is used for 
fishing. Patok anggoh, &/>\ ^Li The 
wooden support of the net, which is held 
in the hand. Baur anggoh, &ji>)j^\i The 
long bamboo which supports the whole 
length of the net. Note : This net, which 
is worked by a single man, is chiefly 
used for fishing in rivers. This net is 
also called D6ran, ^j^^ 

Anggong, g^^l ^/?trfMeng-£tnggong, ^J^ Ul. 
To lift up, to raise up. Pij. 

Anggor, Pers., jS^\ The grape; wine. 
Anggor mfirah, 6^-^ ^?^i>l Claret, red 
wine. Ayer anggor, ^^1 ^1 Wine, the 
juice of the grape. Anggor krinsr, j!^\ 
Mj^ Raisins. Dan kemdian-nya de-bri- 
nya-lah pAla akan kami sekelian s'orang 
suatu piala iang ber-isi dengan ayer 

anggor, ^l^ ^' Jy ^.^^ ^^^^ o'^ 

jS^\ ji\ Then afterwards he also gave 
unto us each a goblet filled with wine. 

Anggor, jS^\ To transplant (of trees, 
plants, shurbs, etc.) Anak pala di-anggor 
ka-halaman rAmah-nya, j^la JU ^l 

a^V cx*'^ -^^ transplanted the young 
nutmeg plants to the lawn before his 
house. The branch of a tree, a fork in 
a tree. (See Chabang, ^l^. A fork, 
Dahan, ^\*s A branch, etc.) 


luggor. j:£>\ 

Anggor, J^\ To stand empty, to go empty, 
to do nothing, to idle, to loiter. Anggor- 
an, ^^'^^^t A place to stop in. 

Anggrek, ^^^' A tribe of parasitical 
plants, E/jidendruffi, 

Anggu, ^X61 A set, a collection, a com- 
plete assortment. (See Per-anggu^SI6ly 
which is the more usual form.) 

Anggul, jy^' avd Meng-fi,nggul, jyi£>UU 
To toss the head, to throw the head in 
the air, to pitch (as the bow of a boat), 
to toss with the horns, to butt with the 
head. Ter-anggul jy^'jJ or Ter-anggul- 
anggul, V^}jf^^J^ The pitching and toss- 
ing of a boat; to pitch and toss (of a 

Anggun, ^^y^' Handsomely and neatly 
dressed, well-bred, civilized, aristocratic. 

Anggut, &j?^\ Weak, undecided, hesita- 
ting, vacillating; to toss (of a ship.) 
Orang anggut-anggut, Y^jf^\ &j^\ A vacil- 
lating man. Pay ah ber-tAan peng-hAlu 
pada orang iang anggut-S,nggut, ^ly^ lyU 
f&yCi>l ^ ^^^1 j^ y^^ It is hard to 

regard as one's chief a man who is weak 
and undecided. 

Angguta, &jf^\ A limb, a member of the 
body, a joint. Maka gementar-lah segala 
anggilta tfdang sendi-nya serta dengan 
ka-takut-an-nya, &j^\ ^^ — a ^jsl;^ «-sA^ 

^/^ J>^ ^j^ ^^J^—* ^^ All his 
limbs, bones, and joints trembled with 
fear. Lemah-lah segala anggdta-nya, 
^ljyi£>l yL^ d)L^ All his members were 
enervated . Geletar segala anggftta-nya, 
^lJ^<^£>l JiLo y^ He trembled in every 
limb. Anggdta iang ter-ldka, Ai &^^t 
-sjyy A wounded limb. 

Angin, ^jtp\ Wind, breeze, air. Maka 

di-panggil-nya pMa ftngin maka kata 
angin aku tiada ber-kuasa be-berapa 
besar angin s'kclli-pun di-tclhan Alih 

s'bftah gfmong, ^1 JjJ ^^^^^ ^^^-^ 
j^ ^1^ ^1/^ ^LJ/» ^1 ^^ ^^^ 
^y/ &\y^ jy ^Uj ^yOSLo ^1 Then 

also he called the wind, and the wind 
said, " I am not powerful, for no matter 
how great is the wind it is resisted by a 
mountain." S'hari aku jadi di-dalam 
dunia s'hari di-bflang-kan ayahanda 
bonda ka-dalam laut besar mandi 6mbak 
mandi angin, LJi3 ^Ijj i^^^ ^\ ^g;l^^-^ 

Ingin, ^^1 

^^fjt>\ ^^Jou# ^5^-*^! i^^^-^ On the day on 
which I was born into the world, on that 
same day my parents cast me forth into 
the great ocean to be bathed by the 
waves and bathed by the winds. Jika- 
lau ber-temu dengan paksa angin iang 
baik tAjoh hari tdjoh malam sampei-lah 
ka-kuala negri itu, LJli ^ J ySy^ ^^^^^e^ 

Acfu^ ^U dcKy ^y\^ 6^^ ^l^ ^Z-4 ^1 

ut-^l i^jSj Jl^ If w® meet with a 
favourable wind, in seven days and seven 
nights we shall arrive at the mouth of 
the river of the country. Maka dras 
pergi-nya seperti kilat iang S,mat tangkas 
s'tapak dahAlu deri-pada angin, tsA-.^ 
,mU-^ ^j^J^ ^\h ^ &y— ^y ^^j 

^^\ j^^j Jy>j The speed of his 
journeying was like unto that of very 
rapid lightning, a pace in advance of 
the wind. Angin iang ber-gambar orang 
iang men-chabut chekor di-halaman dan 
men-chabut malai-malai di-lAmpor dan 
me-rebah kerbau di-padang dan meny- 
apu nyior dara di-halaman balai ber- 
gerenchang karang di-laut aku minta 
layar-kan kakap BAnga Rampai ini 
pergi ka-telok GAa Batu ber-temu den- 
gan Raja PetAkal, ^^^1 ^^ ^—^ ^\ 

'/ o^ Jy cH» >v ^y ^^ Jji^ 

Jf>^ eb cr^^ ^j-^ ^^ w^dl so 
strong as to be visible in human shape, 
so strong that you tear the chekor root 
from the lawn and the mdlai-mdlai plant 
from the mud, that you throw down the 
buffaloes in the field, and sweep away 
the young coconut trees from the lawn 
which is before the hall of state, that 
you dash one against another the rocks 
of the sea, I entreat you to sail my 
barque the Banga Rampai to the bay of 
Gfta Batu, that I may meet this Raja 
PetAkal. Maka pada suatu hari ia meny- 
Aroh bapa sudara-nya me-laboh-kan s&uh 
karana handak ber-senang-senang hati 
dan ber-senang-senang tAlang 
angin pun tiada, ^gl sa>^ &l^— ^ J>J «.5JL# 

^^ oy cJ^' ^^® ^^y ^^ h^e his uncle 
cast anchor, because he wished to amuse 



Angin, ^^\ 

himself and rest his limbs, as there was 
no wind. Ada cLngin be r- la jar dan 
sudah ka-mati-an angin ber-laboh dami- 

kian pe-tAa hamba, &x^ ^\^ ji^ji ^^^1 ^) 

there is any wind, sail ; and if the wind 
has died away, anchor : that is my rule 
of action. Maka asap itu di-pAkul-kan 
fllih angin, ^\ J^l ^^^ 3i\ Uu>] csA^ 

The ^rnoke was dispersed by the breeze. 
Maka pes^ban itu pun ber-grak-lah 
s^'perti di-tiup ulih angin ribut, csAw. 

Sysij cjft^' The gallery moved, as though 
blown by a violent squall. Angin utara, 
^LJj) ^jjl-s^l The north wind. Angin 
selatan, ^J^— ^ ^^j-*^' The south wind. 
Angin darat, &j\^ ^^) A land breeze. 

Angin laut, &^S ^^tA^ A sea breeze. 
Angin ribut, &^j ^;ysA^ A squall, a 
storm, a violent squall. Ada -pun ketika- 
nya datang lembu itu ta' dapat tiMa 
a^amat-nya tdtrun angin ribut dan hAjan 

lebat, a^la 'U uw» ^ ^'^ ,t^ ^y 1^1 

^ d^y^ o'^ ^-M^ o*^' o^y ^^ .^^ 

When that cow comes, for a certainty 
the sign thereof will be a violent 
squall of wind and heavy rain. Angin 
pftting bliong, ^^ ^y ^1 A whirl- 
wind. Angin kras ^^ ^^j^^l or Angin 
kinchang, ^^ ^^j-^l A violent wind. 
Angin haluan, ^^ ^jtA^ A head wind. 
Angin tdrut-an, ^J^jJ v:r«^' ^ Angin 
sArang bArit-an, ^jj^ ^jy^ ^) A fol- 
lowing wind. Angin timba rAang, ^^j-t^l 
4Vy i^^ or Angin rdang, ^^j ^^\ A wind 

which blows at right angles to a ship's 
course. Angin tamberang bdrit-an, ^^jjl^l 
cfOy P-^^^ ^ mainstay wind, or wind 
abaft the beam. Angin tamberang 
hslluan, ^1^ ^jtr^ v:^^^^' -^ f orestay wind, 
or wind on the bow. Angin kinchang 
klat, ^ A^ ^jtA^ A fresh breeze, which 
does no more than stretch the yards. 
Angin gdnong-gftnong-an, ^V^/ o^' 
A squall, a violent gust. Angin bidai, 
^^J^ ^jcgt'\ A wind which blows from the 
same quarter for one or more days ; a 
steady wind. Angin tikus, ,^;— ^ ^^1 
The first northerly wind which pccurs 
towards the end of the south-west 
monsoon, but which does not hold for 
long. Angin kelambu s'blah, j^ ^^j-t^l 

Angin, ^1 

ak---© A persistent northerly wind which, 
however, is not yet so strong and cold 
as to oblige one to^ sleep with both bed- 
curtains closed. Angin kelambu men- 

Anggal, J^^-^>»- j^ ,^^ A strong 
northerly wind with rain, which causes 
people to sleep with their bed-curtains 
securely closed. Angin ekor dAyong, 

^^j /Li\ ^j^\ or Angin tahun bhiru 
china, ^^yt^^ ^j^ ^\S ^\ A strong per- 
sjstent northerly wind without rain. 
Angin tenggara, ^ISliJ ^^^\ The strong 
south-westerly wind which blows during 
the south-west monsoon. Angin b&rat, 
h^ o*^' A westerly wind. Angin bUrat 
mdda, Ijy &jU ^;yA^ A westerly wind 
which comes in short puffs. P6kok 
&ngin, ^;y^\ ^y Heavy clouds which 
foretell the approach of a storm of 
wind. Daun balek angin, ^3<JLi ^^t*i 
^^fP\ The name of a tree the leaves of 
which are white on the reverse side; 
these leaves turn over in the sunlight, 
and at a distance have the appearance 
of white blossoms. Mappa gervanica. 

Kapala angin, ,^^\ A&-^ A squall, the 
wind which in the Tropics heralds an 
approaching storm; used metaphorically 
to describe a person whose anger though 
short-lived is violent while it lasts. Di- 
atas angin, ^^-^^1 ,j— Jl^ Windward; the 
western countries, with respect to the 
Malays — India, Persia, Arabia, Europe, 
etc. Di-bawah angin ^^-^^1 a^Ljj Lee- 
ward; the eastern countries — i.e., the 
Malay Archipelago, Malay Peninsula, 
etc. Karana pada zaman ini Kompani 
Inggris-lah iang meshhor warta-nya deri 
negri iang di-atas angin sampei ka-negri 
iang di-bawah angin ini. ^1 ^U) jj ^^If 

For at the present time the English 
Company [the old East India Com- 
pany] is most renowned in report from 
the western parts of the world even 
unto these eastern countries. Ber-angin, 
^^^Ji To take the air. Per-angin, 
^jj-^ly A place made for the purpose of 
enjoying the breeze. Per-angin pMi, 
^^jU ^^gA^J^ An erection on which rice 
is exposed to the air. Angin-kan, ^;^J^^ 
To hang out in the air, to air. Angin-kan 
padi, v^^l^ vj^^*^' To expose grain to the 


Angit, S^\ 

wind or air. Per-main angin, ^^\ ^^L»y 
A kind of weathercock often to be 
seen on the roofs of houses in Malay 
villages ; when the wind blows, it makes a 
loud humming sound. Note: These con- 
trivances are also called B&ling-baling, 
t*^— Jb and Angin-angin, Y^^ytA^ Maiilim 
angin, ^^^\ (^i^ The second in command 
of a sailing vessel ; the officer who attends 
to the sailing, etc., of the ship. Berapa 
6rang anak dayong-nya dan si-apa nama 
jAru batu dan jAru mftdi-nya dan si-apa 
nama tiikang p^tak dan maalim angin- 

nya, ^b <^L-^ ^i^ ^>i'^ c3^' ^J^^ ^^^ 

^^^\ (H^ ^^^^ <3^ How many are her 
oarsmen and what is the name of her 
pilot, and her steersman, and what is 
the name of the supercargo and the 
navigating officer? Angin-angin, Y^jtA^ 
Report, rumour. BAkan-nya benda iang 
sah hanya-lah S^ngiu-angin per-khabar- 

an-nya, )^,^\ ^\^ ^ ^ — i J^ ^^ 
^\j^y> It is not a matter of certainty : 
it is only a rumoured report. Bftal tahi 
angin, ^^^^1 ^\S Jl^ Exaggeration, 

foolish tales or reports. Khabar angin, 
^^ytA\ j^ Rumour, gossip. Perch&ya 
angin, ^^) ^^j^ To believe without 
good grounds; an ill-founded belief. 
Main angin, ^^\ ^U Fickle in speech 
and action; gone to the winds. Note: 
The expression Makan angin ^jj--^t o^*--* 
is commonly used in the Colony of the 
Straits Settlements and in other Euro- 
peanised places to mean " to take ex- 
ercise, to go for an airing," etc., but its 
use is to be avoided. 

Angit, 5j3l A sand-fly. (See also Agas, 
^\ and Rengit, 3^j A sand-fly.) 

Angit, 3^\ Smelling like burning hair, 
or anything singed or burning. 

Angka, Hind., 1^1 A number, a numerical 
cypher. Angka dAa, l^a K-i>l Number 

two ; the cypher Y which is the mark of 
duplication affixed to Malay words when 
it is necessary to show that the number 
is plural, thus : TAan-tflan, t'^ly Gentle- 
men, masters; Apa-apa, t'^-il Anything, 

Angka-angka, t*<-^^' To muse, to ponder, 
like. (See Sangka, tsAiU) 

Angkasa, Hind., ^l5C^l 

Angkak, ^§^) To tease, to chaff. J^^ngan 
kamu angkak-angkak-kan aku,^l^ o^W^ 
^' v:)^t'i5^' Don't you tease me. 

Angkar, ^^] Holy, sacred ; that which it 
is not lawful for the profane to handle 
or touch. 

Angkara, Hind.,^K^I Mischief, evil deeds^ 
violence. SAnggoh p\m ia me-laku-kan 
angkara ka-pada kami tetapi sebab ka- 
bakti-an-nya dahMu itu kami anfpun-kan 

^l? ui^l Jy>J .^i-ii^^ ^-^-^ ^^ ^^^ 

^^yL«l Verily has he done evil 
deeds in our regard, but because of his 
former good services we will pardon 
him. Ada-pun hukum-an 6rang iang 
me-laku-kan angkara itu tiada harus di- 
bAnoh fi^kan dia, ^ — i ij^\ y^-^-^ o>^'*^' 

The law is that it is not lawful to punish 
by death those who commit these offences. 
Angkara itu ber-laku berapa zaman 
sudah, &^ — ^ ^U) ^^]ji ^iji u:^] j\S^] 

That evil deed was committed a very long 
time ago. Pangkat apa ka-pada angkau 
iang ia me-laku-kan angkara itu, ^isOu 

What relationship to you is she to 
whom he has done violence? Meng- 
angkara-kan, ^j^^^ To do evil. Jika 
hurA itu meng-angkara-kan akan aabadi, 
^^j^^ ^1 ^^K£>U_^ u:^J ^ c^ If a 
freeman does evil to a slave. Note : The 
term Angkara^ K£>1 is usually applied by 
Malays to offences against morals and 
breaches of social customs, but not to such 
criminal offences as murder, robbery, etc. 

Angkara, ^K^l Astonishing, wonderful, 
magic, supernatural. 

Angkaran, ^^^^^' A supernatural con- 
veyance, by means of which flying is 
possible. Naik-lah ka-pada suatu ang- 
karan lalu mS-layang, &]j^^ JJL^ ^l5Ci^J 
Ajl-^yj! O-^^*^' Ascended a magic car 
and flew away. 

Angkasa, Hind., ,j-»l^l Ether, air, ethereal 
space, atmosphere. Maka ter-pandang- 
lah Tdan Petri pada s'ekor b^irong ter- 
layang-layang di-angkasa, dli>ljoLiJj 

The Princess beheld a bird flying about 
in the air. Bau-nya mem-enoh-i angk&sa, 


Ingkat, Si:£>\ 

^ K6 1 ^^A^i>^ ^^* l^ The perfume thereof 
filled the atmosphere. RApa-nya jemer- 
lang datang ka-udara dan ka-angkasa, 
^l5Cfi>*l? ^l^^'^yl^ ^t^ ^y^ ^^^j The 
glamour of his presence pervaded the 
aerial and ethereal regions. Maka pan- 

dang-lah T&an Petri pada s'^kor bArong 
ter-layang-layang di-angkS.8a,<sJ^|Ja3 <^\^ 

The Princess beheld a bird flying about 
in the air. Di-antara awan iang pftteh 
meng-andong m6ga iang biru ber-bakat 
kftning angkasa di-langit sayup-sayup 
bhasa, ^ v-<^ ^^^^^Ju. djy ^ o'-^'^^'^ 

Between the white clouds which held blue 
rain-clouds in their wombs he saw, but 
indistinctly, the yellow ether of heaven. 

Angkat, d<^l To lift, to lift up, to raise ; 
promote, adopt; taller, higher, larger; 
to set out on a journey, to walk, to go, to 
proceed. Note : In the latter sense the 
word Angkat ^Kfi>l is never used alone, 
the prefix Ber jk invariably preceding it. 
It is usually employed only in speaking 
of a person of royal blood, or of an 
expedition. Note: Though corruptly 
used in the sense of to carry, etc., Angkat 
S^\ only means " to lift," etc. M&ka 
setenggar itu pun langsong di-angkat ka- 
bahu-nya, 5<^|j ^y^ ^:)>Ml' J^ ^ ^ csX* 
^^Le— ^ He then straightway lifted 
the matchlock to his shoulder. Negri 
Gcdong Batu itu di-minta angkat-kan 
ka-ifdara maka dengan s'bentav itu jAga 
negri sudah ter-angkat, yU ^>)w ? ^-sAI^ 

S^\jj &s ^^ c_?^ «^l He asked 

that the land of Gredong Batu might be 
lifted into the air, and in a moment it 
was so lifted. Mata-nya m^rah dan 
segala bftlu rdma-nya ber-diri dan ekor- 
nya di-angkat-nya d^n mMut-nya di- 
nganga-kan-nya, y^ J^L- ^b &j^ ^U^ 

^\t'\£>^ His eyes were red, and all his 

hairs rose on end, and he raised his tail, 
and he gnashed his jaws. Angkat kadam 
jari s'pAloh kftnchop seperti sftsun sireh 
jari laksana sAlor bakong, ^g^W^ f>^^ ^^^' 
j^L«fl) v^^'*^ ^jts^ s^y^ SjiLjd <..a^3^ aS^i^ 
d^b y^ He raised his hands with their 

ten fingers furled like a sheaf of sirih 
leaves, the fingers resembling the tap- 

Ingkat, a<^l 

root of a lily. Lalu di-angkat-kan 
Hang Tdah itu men-jadi Laksamana,yj 
^U^ v^a^kju* u:^! fily ^ ^^5<»<fi>l J Then 
he promoted Hang Tftah and made him 
an Admiral. Anak S^ngkat, UL-Xfi>l ^1 
An adopted child. Bab iang ka-anam- 
pAloh lapan pada me-nyata-kan pri 
hukum segala drang meng-ambil anak 
S,ngkat akan anak hamba 6rang lain, 

r^ s?y v/^ ^^ ^^ ^y ^^'^ ^^ 

c^** £a^' Chapter the sixty-eighth, setting 
forth the law relating to those who adopt 
children from among the children of 
slaves who are the property of other 
people. Bapa angkat, i-5C^I <«*L^ An 
adopted father. Ma' ftngkat, 3S^] *L^ 
An adopted mother. Abang angkat, 
a-<^l ^1 An adopted elder brother. 
Adek angkat, i-<i>l ^j| An adopted 
younger brother. Maka meny-ileh 6rang 
iang ampAnya anak Angkat itu s'tengah 
herga jika ia mati jika tiada ia mati 
maka pe-kerja-an-nya s'bhagi di-b&yar 
Mih bapa ^ngkat-nya, A^ 6j^\ aL^ <-^ 
^tU ^^1 <^ ^yb dibu^ Jil a5Ci>) ^1 ^yL.1 

,^ss<^] €-*l^ aJ^I jilj J If the child dies, the 
adopted father must pay half its value 
to the owner ; and if it does not die, half 
the value of its services must be paid 
by the adopted father. Angkat anak 
J^l 5-<£>l or Ingkat-kan anak ^1 ^j5Ca5C£>t 

To adopt a child. Laksamana itu s'bagai- 
mana maka BendAh&ra tiada kasih akan 
dia karana anak-nya di-fmgkat anak 
Alih Bendahara, vjAm. ^ U J 1,. o «»-^) ^U^ 

^Ij&joj dJ^I ^1 How could it be that the 

Bendahara bore no love to theLaksamana, 
seeing that his son has been adopted 
by the Bendahara? Segala jraayat dan 
mentri hdlubalang bArong hantn itu ber- 
angkat datang mem-Akul gagak itu, JC« 
a<£>ly ^\ yix^ ^^^^ ^LJjb ^y^ c)'^ ^^J 
"W' ^3^^ J^>*^ C^'^ -^^^ *^® commons, 
and ministers, and warriors of the owls 
set out to attack the crows. Maka 
sembah Laksam&na " D61at tAan-ku insha 
Allah Taala meng-&pa pdla iang di-per- 
tAan-an tifi,da ber-&ngkat ka-Manjap&hit 
itu tetapi paduka adinda itu jangan di- 
bawa','' y3ly a5^J ^U^ a-u-^ ^^L^ 


Angkau, yC^I 

4jL^\ jiJi «)jli ^Idf uwl a^Uc^A^ asC^f^ 
j»Lo *l^ijj o^*^ Then the Admiral said, 
addressing the King, ^*God on High 
being willing, why should not Your 
Majesty proceed to Manjapahit ? But do 
not take your queen with you." Maka 
ia pun ber-ailgkat ka-lAar ka-balai besar 
balai me-lentang, j\^ 3^\j^ ^^^\ <^U 
^f-^ ^ k j^ ^ L^ He (Sri Rama) went 
out into the great hall, the hall which 
had an apartment running at right 
angles to it. Maka habis-lah samAa-nya 
ber-angkat pAlang, ^1^4 — ** dL^l^ 

^y d<^)j^ Then every one of them re- 
turned home. Apa-lah sebab sudah 
dAa hari tAan-ku tiada ber-angkat santap 

ayer itu, ^^^ s?^^ l?*^ a.v ><> c^^%>o d)jl 
ufc^l ^^— il i^OAf^ 2^)ji jljJ What is the 

reason that for two days Your Highness 
has not gone forth to drink of the waters ? 
Angkat-an, ^^jx^l An expedition, forces, 

an array, levies, a large body of men, a 
fleet. Angkat-an mana iang dsltang, 
AsIj ^ ^U ^^f^\ What expedition is it 
that approaches ? Di-pandang ftlih Tftan 
Petri nyata-lah angkat-an Raja PetAkal, 

The Princess saw distinctly that it was 
the warlike expedition of Raja Petdkal. 
Maka ter-sebut-lah pMa per-k3.ta-an 
Raja Chamar Laut di-dalam kapal itu 
mem-bawa' angkat-an prahu kilrang satn 
s'ratus halAan, ^"^j^ Jy dJJ^--u>y c^ 

^^1 'i^u^ «w' J>i^ ^»^^ h^ j^^ sb 

O^ ^j^l^ yL-a ^ji^^'y It is further 

related that Raja Chamar Laut (i.e., 
King Sea Gull) was in the ship, and had 
brought with him a fleet of one hundred 
ships save one. Dan badan dia angkat 
sedikit' deri-pada tAboh tdan-hamba, 

^\jj djy wU;j a^jc-^ J<^1 ^^ ^^li ^b 

ur^j^ And his body is somewhat larger 
than yours, my master. Meng-angkat, 
3S^\kA and Meng-angkat-kan ^j5<x<£>llU 
To lift, to raise, etc. Sanggop-kah 
angkau meng-S,ngkat, 3^\k^^^] a^Jj^m 
Do you declare yourself able to lift it ? 

Angkau, y^l Thou, thee, you, ye. The 
second person singular or plural. Note : 
This word is often contracted into Kau, 
^ (the first syllable being dropped) in 
colloquial Malay. In Kedah, Province 
Wellesley, and Penang the contraction 

Ingkit, a^l 

Hang ^, formed by dropping the second 
syllable and prefixing an initial A, is used. 
Angkau yC_^l and its derivatives are 
usually employed by a superior speaking 
to his inferior, or by equals between 
whom no courtesy is necessary. The 
words Aku ^1 and, more rarely, Kami 
^l^ are used to express the first person 
when the second person is represented 
by Angkau /L£>) or its deriw^atives. 
Nfinek angkau sejok s'6rang diri, <5-j4J 
^j-l^ ^jy^^ Ji>fl^ ^^C3I Your great- 
grandfather is cold all by himself. Maka 
titah Baginda **Hai ahlun nujum ber- 
kata benar-lah angkau ka-pada aku tiada 
akan jadi ka-merka-an," ^ J^ da^J c5^ 

^*lf^ s^^W* Then quoth the monarch, 
" astronomers, speak ye truly unto me: 
it shall not be a cause for anger.*' Aku 
ini raja iang besar bMih men-egah-kan 
apa-ftpa per-bdat-an 6rang di-atas diri 

angkau, r<-*l ,;^i^ ^ji j^ ^ cb o^' ^ 

/^\ i^jl^ u^'^ ^^^' o^b^y -'■ ^^ * great 
king, who can forbid any evil deeds being 
done to you. Maka sudah angkau kerja- 
kan angkau ka-tfljoh ber-sudara ini aku 
jadi-kan pegawei di-atas segala pegawei 
iang banyak ini, ^^^^ j^^ 5Jc-^ <.^ 

ch' ^^ 6^ ^^^^ y^^ u'^'^ s?-^^^ 

When you have done it I will make all 
seven of you (who are related one unto 
another) officers superior to all oi these 
my officers. Ada-pun arak itu bins 
m^ka kata Merka Paksi " arak ini kalau- 
kalau angkau bflboh rachun minum-lah 
angkau dahMu aku lihat," uw' Jj^' c)>*'*^' 

ty^ c)— i' 0>>' sT^ ^y' ^^ "^^ o^y^^ 

Now the liquor was intoxicating. Then 
said Merka Paksi, " In case you should 
have put poison in the spirits, drink first, 
that I may see." Note : The following 
are the principal words in use to express 
the second person : See Awak, ^b' Dikau, 
^^ Hang, ^Kamu,^— l^Kau,^Kita 
«u^ Mika, <^V* Mu, ^ TAan, ^b-^ etc. 

Angkit, 2^\ To lift up, to lift off, to lift 
out. Angkit kuali deri tdngku, ^-s^l 
j-Xi>y ^J cs"^ ^^^ *^® saucepan off the 
tripod. Angkit j&ring itu deri ayer. 


Angkob, «^j^l 

jil^j ut^il M^W ^^a^' Lift that net out 
of the water. 

Angkob, *^/^^ To snap the jaws; to pluck 
out; forceps, pincers, nippers.^ Sepit 
angkob, «^y^) &Ju^ Forceps. Angkob 
besi, ^^^ «^^C£>I Iron pincers. Lalu di- 
ambil angkob men-chabut bMu-nya, ^S 
^y^ S^\<^^ c^y^t J-^'^ Then he took 
some pincers -and plucked out his hairs. 
Ter-ffngkob-angkob, Y<^/^\y To open 

and shut the mouth, like a fish out of 
water, — said of old or tired people. 

Angkoh, &^^\ Proud, haughty. Pij. 

■Angkosa, ^y^' The rod with an iron 
hook at the end of it used for driving 
elephants. (See K6sa ^^ which is the 
more common form.) 

Angkot, &/:£>) To prick (of a boil.) Pij. 

Angkup, <-iy^l A bud, a shoot. Sepit 
angkup, <-i»j<fi>l dfjLji The name of a shrub. 

Angkus, j-«^^' To drive an elephant, 
riZ^o Meng-angkus, ^^^^^ Note: This 
word is not in use among the Malays of 
the Peninsula. 

Angkut, Sj<6l To carry little by little, to 

carry piecemeal, to carry in batches, to 
carry from one place to another. Maka 
dengan hal iang damikian itu be-berapa 
lama-nya di-angkut-nya segala ikan di- 

dalam k61am itu, ^jjts^^^-^ J-^^ J^^ csL^ 
^Ijj ^I yi^ ^>^»^ ^^^ ^^j^ «w' 
cfc-j ^ ^ji Thus, in the course of time, he 

carried by degrees all the fish in the pond. 
Baik-lah tAan-ku titah-kan BentaraHang 
Jebat meng-adap-i segala raayat ber- 
angkut herta di-Bfikit China itu, ^U 

ui^l ^^ygj^ 3^^^ «ojJb syC^I^ 2^j It would 

be well for Your Highness to order Hang 
Jebat, the herald, to bring into your 
presence all the people, in order that 
they may carry (in batches) all the pro- 
perty which is at BClkit China. 

Anak merpati terbang ka-hfllu, 
Anak enggang meng-angkut sfirang, 
Jauh-kan bati tiian peng-hAlu, 
Tidak men-egor s'bdrong Iang. 

d^ t^J^ ^^^ ^' 

Angraha, Hind., U^OI 

The young pigeons fly to the interior, 
the young hornbills carry backwards and 
forwards the materials for their nest: 
Are you offended, my Chief, that you 
do not address me (a hawk) ? Jikalau 
tiada dapat mem-bawa' samAa s'kali 
handak di-angkut-kan, 2Li|j jLJ j^Cok 

^j<fi>b jjvXa^ ^^^ ^y^ ''•^W^ If you 

cannot bring them all at once,* you must 
carry them in batches. 

Angkut-angkut, ^&^£>\ The mason bee ; 

a kind of hornet with two very long legs. 
Note : This insect derives its name from 
its habit of continually carrying pieces of 
mud backwards and forwards in order 
to increase the size of its nest. (See 
Ingkut, &/^\ To carry little by little, 

etc). Sarang angkut-angkut, Y^^^\ A;Lo 
A nest made by this kind of hornet. 
Sengat angkut-angkut, )^l/£>\ Siu> The 
sting of this insect. Kena sengat di- 
angkut-angkut, Y&/^^^ ^^^^ ^ To be 
stung by a hornet of this kind. . 

Anglong, Chin., ^^\ A pavilion, an 
arbour, a bower. Pij. 

Angrahi, Hind., l^^^l A gift, a bounty, 
a present, a favour, a grace ; to bestow a 
bounty, to grant a favour, to present a 
gift. Maka raja pun mem-bri angraha 
per-salin-an akan adipati Jemaja dan 
batin-batin iang ber-gelar anam 6rang 
itu dan mem-bri angraha per-salin-an 
akan 6rang iang ampat pAloh itu masing- 
masing pada kadar-nya, ^y gl; 

t>^U sj^\ aJy 6slA ^ ^^^1 ^1 ^L»y 
^Ijj j^ The king gave gifts of garments 
to the Chief Jem&ja and to the six titled 
Chiefs; he also gave presents of garments 
to the forty men, each according to his 
condition. Maka Sri Betara pun angrahS, 
akan dia amas dan p^rak dan pitis ber- 
pAloh-pAloh dan akan &nak bini-nya pun 

di-bri angraha, Ij^^^i ^^y ^l«i i^y^ csA--* 

\^^\ ^^^j ^y ^^.j^ ^\ ^\ ^Ij The 

Sri Bentara bestowed upon them gold 
and silver, and scores of coins, and to 
their families he also gave bounty. Kita 
handak angraha nama ^kan Hang Tiiah 
itu kar&na ia banyak ka-bfi,kti-an ka-p&da 
kita dengan tegoh setta-nya, ^^^^^ 


Asgrawan, ^^'^1 

Si^ s?» OJ^ «-4t &\^ ^ J\ (^^ ^/^^ 

^l<>a-» &^ ^ J ut-^ Ji^ ^ j ft y Jlt- < We wish 

to bestow a title upon Hang TAah, be- 
cause he has done good services in our 
regard, with loyalty and faithfulness. 
Maka di-angrah& &kan chunda itu dengan 
be-ber&pa pakai-an deri ka-Indera-an 
amas iang ber-tfttah-kan r&kna mAtu 
raanikam, ^^ u^^t Jo^ ^^\ l4>^lJ v^^ 

^♦CjjLJt^ y^ He bestowed upon his grand- 
son many garments from the heavens, 
made of gold and studded with jewels 
and gems. Note: The word Angraha 
l^ySI is only used of the gift, etc., of a 
person of Royal blood. Note : The n x 
and the g *-^ in this word are pro- 
nounced separately. 

Angrllwan, ^^'^1 The name of a tree 
the timber of which is used for ship- 

Angsa, Hind., ,j-w^) A goose. Angsa 
jantan, ^^js^^ u— ^1 A gander. Angsa 
betina, ^^ ,j^l A goose. Anak angsa, 
^j^\ ^1 A gosling. Itek angsa ^1 
,j^\ The solitary wild duck. 

Angsai, Jav., J--^t To get, to obtain, to 
acquire ; can, may, shall. Note : This 
word is not used or understood by the 
Malays of the Peninsula. 

Angsina, ^^Ui>' The name of a large 
forest tree. The lingoa, Pterocarpus 

Angsar, j^\ To pay by instalments, to 
pay a debt by means of instalments. 

Angsar-an, ^^>-^' An instalment, a pay- 
ment on account. Jikalau bftlih ber- 
angsar, j^^y, Jy ^^ If it is permitted 
to pay by instalments. Maka di-sAroh- 
nya mem-bayar ang-saran pada tiap-tiap 
satu bMan dAa-blas ringgit, ^^jy^^ "^^ 

5->iC^^ He ordered him to pay instal- 
ments of twelve dollars each month. 
Jftlan ber-angsar, ^^^1^ ^\e>. To walk a 
little and rest a little by turns. 

AngsOka, -sJ^-^l The name of a tree, 
Pavetta indi^a. 

Angus, ^^^ Hot, burning, heated by 
fire, very hot, too hot to hold. (See 
Hangus, ^^ Hot, etc.) 

Ani, ^1 A frame used for determining the 
pattern of a cloth which is about to be 

4ni&ya, s^^l 

woven. It consists of two heavy blocka 
of wood called Tapak ani ^^1 ^& joined 

together by a lath called Belira ani, 1^ 
^T into these two blocks are fixed a 

number of upright pegs called Anak^ 
^1 ^) on to which the bamboos on which 

silk has been wound, Bdloh gelendong^ 
^^JoJ? &^j^ are fixed; a long oblong frame 
called a Pem^tek ^ >Xf.». » is suspended 
from the ceiling above the Ani /Ul ; inta 

this frame a number of short rods on to 
which silk has been wound, Peleting 
A^ are fixed, and the silk, being drawn 

from one to the other, a general idea of 
the appearance of the cloth as it will 
be when woven is obtained. M8ng-ani> 
^U-* To arrange the threads on a frame 
in order to determine the pattern of a 
cloth before beginning to weave it on the 

Anidya, i^^^ Oppression, injustice, cal- 
umny; grievous, oppressive, unjust. Bdat 

aniaya, v^Lil &|y To perpetrate injustice. 
Jika dMi tdan-ku bAat aniaya atas kanak- 
kanak itu barang-kali hampir-hampir 
kita kena ka-ben&sa-an ini-lah pandang- 
an patek hamba tAa, aly yOly ^j ciX^ 

ly ^.^^ c^nS ^Ijoj dWI ^'UM ^ If 

Your Majesty does injustice to this child, 
we shall probably meet with destruction : 
that is the opinion of thy old servant 
(i^.,my opinion.) Tetapi bdkan-nya adek 
iang ber-bAat aniaya ini Raja Qhamar 
Laut j6ga iang dahdlu sekadar adek 
ini raem-bri balas jAga, ^^^\ ^^ s^^ 

<_J^ ^j^\^ ^r^^ cT-^' ^jI^jX^ J^j 

But it was not I, thy little brother, who 
perpetrated injustice : Rfi,ja ChS.mar Laut 
began it, and I only resisted in return. 
Jangan-lah bdat aniaya ka-pada 6rang, 
^^^1 jA^ s?^<^' ^'y dL6le. Do not behave 
with injustice to others. Sebab kasih-an 
hati hamba akan j6wa tAan-tAan sepaya 
jfirUgan aniaya mati, ^V^ ^^ietr^ <-t".;. n» 

^^ s?w' j>^ s^^t'o'y '^^ v/' ^-^ 

Because thy servant's heart was moved 
with pity for your lives, so that you 
should not be oppressed and die. Maka 
sebab aakal tAan-hamba ter-lalu kechil 
itu-lah di-bAat aniaya Mih bentara itu 
pada tiap-tiap h8,ri, J-fi-^ h--: — « 


AnJbong, ^^1 

j\suj d)y ^gi sly J ^] j^ysy ^r-^iy 

^j[^ V*^^ ^y^ uwl It is because thj 
intelligence is so limited, master mine, 
that this officer oppresses thee every 
day. Ani&ya-kan, ^^j^W and Meng- 
aniaya-kan, ^UUU To oppress, to mal- 
treat, to do injustice to, to behave badly 
to. Jikalau kira-nya s'drang mem-b&wa' 
diri-nya ka-pfi,da kita dan meny-erah- 
kan nyawa-nya ka-bawah hukum kita 
patut-kah kita meng-aniaya-kan dia, 

^gj ^LjIju If any one comes to us, and 
surrenders to us his life, would it be right 
for us to maltreat him? Ter-aniaya, 
^^Uly and Ter-ania,ya-i, v^liWIjJ Op- 
pressed, maltreated, etc. Maka handak- 
lah kamu sekelian men-61ek p^da ka- 
laku-an-nya sepaya jangan ter-ani3,ya 
kemdian, ^ ^ f) ^ ^ ^<>K ■■■« ^l^ dbljujb isJu» 
^j^ ^giy J>\^ ^li^ ^I^K j^ You 
should all of you watch his conduct, so 
that hereafter you may not be maltreated 
(i.e., by him). Di-pereksa dan di-sifi,sat 
ka-pada 6rang tfta itu dapat-lah khabar 
hal negri itu sudahter-aniiya-iftlihnujum 
tAjoh ber-Mek itu, 3^[<,^^ ^lj ^^^yj 

UW' ^/^ Je. j^ dU*lj v*-sil \yJ ^J^\ jji^ 

He enquired from and examined the old 
man, and learned the news as to how 
that country had been oppressed by the 
sevAi brother astronomers. Jangan-lah 
perchaya S,kan fetenah aniaya itu, <jJu.i>leK 
4B-sil v^UI «UKi ^1 v^l^y Do not believe 
that false and calumnious report. 

Antbong, ^^1 The nibong palm. On- 
co^perma tigillaria. Note : In colloquial 
Malay the initial a I is dropped, but it is 
usual to insert it in the written language. 
Tiang anibong, ^^1 ^^ Posts made 
of the nibong wood. (See Nibong, ^j^) 

Antka, Hind., <^» All sorts, several 
kinds, numerous species, great variety 
of. AnikabendajenisiangplekjJjt^ csJLjI 
i5»^ fr^ ij^-**^ All sorts and kinds 
of curious things. Anika per-main-an, 
^Uy csAjI All kinds of amusements. 
Anika-anika dan bagai-bag&i bftnyi- 
btknyi-an, ^V^j^ V^U ^b t'^&UI AH 
sorts and various kinds of musical instru- 

Anjal, ^\ 

ments. Anika bftgai per-mata, ^l? ca\^^ 
i^l^jk All sorts and kinds of jewels. 
Note: The term S'anika taJi^'L^ has 
a similar meaning. S 'anika penganan 
santap-santap-an, ^t'l.Jb&iuo ^Ui c5JL3*L» 

A great variety of sweetmeats for the 
royal feast. 

Aning, ^1 To waylay, to lie in ambush, 
an ambuscade. Kena ftning, A^l L^ To 
be waylaid. Ada jdga 6rang lang handak 
meng-aning kita di-tengah jalan, t-T^ ^\ 
J\o. AAJj «:^ ^Uu JJoJ^ ^ ^j^] There 

are people who are about to lie in ambush 

for us on the road. Peng-aning, A>^U> 

One who lays in wait for another, one 
who lies in ambush. 

Aning, ^1 Offspring of the seventh 

An I ng-&n I ng, r^l A small black bee, the 
honey of which is eaten by the Malays. 
Ayer madu aning-&ning, Y^ ^^^^ji\ The 
honey of the small black bee. Sarang 
ftning-aning, y^\ ^^L» The small black 
bees' hive. Note : This insect probably 
derives its name from Aning, AJl To 
waylay, etc. Note : The only other species 
of honey-making bees (both larger bees 
than the Ining-ftning, t*^l) are KelMut, 
&yy? a small yellow bee, and Lebah, dj 
a larger yellow bee. The Peny-engat 
dk^ or Peng-ingat ^^UU, though of the 
bee family, is not a honey-making insect. 

Anjak, ^^\ and Meng-ftnjak, ^Uu Move, 
remove,' take away, carry from one place 
to another. To retreat, to retire, to 
withdraw. Anjak benda itu ka-mari, 
^^;^-^ "W' -^ <5«Jl Move that thing 
here. Anjak ka-kanan, ^l5C? ^3^1 Move 
it to the right. Anjak deri-tempat itu, 
uwl a_A4J j^ ^\ Remove it from that 
place. Anjak deri situ, yf, ^ ...o^j ^^| 
Get out of that ! 

An jal, ^] and Meng-anjal, ^^ U- To bound 
back, to rebound, to spring back, as 
stretched elastic when released. Aiijal 
kembali, ^^U^ J^l To spring back again. 

Anjal, J«s)) Bright, shining ; refulgence, 
brightness ; to glitter. Per-bdat-an Jftua 
ber-anjal permata mfirah, I^Le. e3^Ui>-» 
fi^-^ ut>L.y J«Ji^ Of Javanese manu- 
facture, glittering with red jewels. 



Anjam, ^t 

Anjam, ^t To beat in, to force in. (See 
Hen jam, (^^^) 

Anjang, ^1 A common Malay proper 
name, to which a second name is usually 
added. It is given to the child which 
comes fourth in a family, and is a con- 
traction of Panjang, ^^ Long. (See 

Note under Alang, All Medium in length, 
etc.) Anjang Abdullah, dUlj-^o ^1 

Anjang-anjang, t*^l The name of a plant, 

/Anjar, ^1 To advance, to move forward, 
to move onward, to proceed, to shift, to 

move. Anjar-kan, ^j^^l To put before, 
to promote, to forward, to remove, to 
change the situation of. Anjar-kan 
tangan, ^b c/->^' ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ change 
the position of the hand. Meng-&njar, 

^llU To precede, to lead the way, to 
guide, to conduct. Ber-anjar-anjar-an 

per-lahan per-lahan, fcj^^j-^ O^'^ To 
move forward slowly. Peng-anjar, ^Ui 
A guide, a conductor. 

AnjSrah, Jav., &^I To spread, to be dis- 
seminated, spreading, extending. Note : 
This word is not in use among the 
Malays of the Peninsula. 

Ahjing, At^l A dog. Maka Petala Beram 
men-jadi-kan diri-nya s'ekor anjing ter- 
Ikhi bcsar dengan Mbat-nya maka anjing 
itu pun ber-jalan masok ka-dalam balai- 

rong itu, ^^J o^i^W^ f-^ J*-^ 

^ t^j^^ r"^ ^^ ^^^ O-^' Then 
Petala B^ram made himself into a dog 
exceedingly large and handsome, and 
this dog at once went and entered the 
hall. Maka s'lsi kapal itu pun habis-lah 
mati dnjing kAching pun tiada-lah ting- 
gal, ^U dL^lfc o-^' J*^ i ^" - ^ '- ^ ' -^ ^^"^ 
y:^ Jbgi ^y ^/ ^\ And all the 

people of that ship were slain and even 
the dogs and cats did not remain^ alive. 
Anjing jantan, jxxe^ ^^1 A dog. Anjing 

betina, ^^ ^^\ A bitch. Anak S-njing, 
^-ft^l J^l A puppy. Anjing srigala, 
JUst^^-M9 ^^1 A wolf, a jackal. Note: 

Malays divide dogs into different classes 
according to their colour, as follows : 
White all over, Sabun, ^^y^ Fawn 
coloured, Langsat, iJJ White and 
black, Araub3,tu,yij^lpl White and small 

Injong, ^^1 

yellow spots, Aran hAjan panas, ^^y^ ^[p^ 
^j^U Black, with white chest and tan 
spots round the eyes, Ladang, iaS Black 
with white chest, KAmbang, ^-^^ Black, 
yellow, and white mixed, Ntbong, p^ 

A dog with hairs which are white and 
black in sections of the same hair, 
Langkap, «^-a<JJ Striped black and 

yellow, K6ring, Mj^ Bright yellow with 

white above the eyes, Merabau, ^^j^ 
Yellow or brown all over, Tampul, Jy^ 
Yellow with black points or a black face, 
SAkum, A^y^ Clouded white or clouded 

yellow, Kabut, S^l^ Anjing pem-bAru, 
-y>5-^ Ats^l A hound, a sporting dog. 
Pran anjing, ^-c^\ ^)y A dog-keeper. 

Anjir, Per., ^^I A fig. Pohun anjir, 
^^1 ^y^ A fig tree. (See Ara, 1^1 A 


Anjong, 4^1 A verandah, an upper story, 

a private apartment, a chamber, a loft, 
a loggia, a small cabin. Mari-lah Mta 
masok ka-dalam bilek anjong b6ta, ^^^ 

«-d ^^' i^iki ^>o^ ^l^ "^ Come let 
us go into my private apartment. 

Stnyor ber-jalan atas 16rong, 
Mem-andang Siti di-atas finjong, 
Teling chapiau tAtop payong, 
Mem-andang Siti di-mata serong. 

^-^y u^' J^y- -;>?«*-^ 

^^1 ^-Ij 

J^l-i wAjy jJi^ ^^ I 

The Sefior was walking on the path 
when he espied Siti sitting on the veran- 
dah. He cocked his hat and shut his 
sunshade, and gazed at her out of the 
comers of his eyes (i.e., made sheep's 
eyes at her.) Lalu meng-adap TAan 
Petri di-dalam bilek anjong perak jemala 
genta, ,5^ ^ba ^^>ti ^1^ c^jU^^J 
\cijS JUck ^^ p^l Then he visited the 
Princess in her chamber, which was 
made of silver and crowned with bells. 
Maka ter-dengar-lah su&ra-nya ka-pada 
TAan Petri di-d^lam anjong as tana bAnyi 
bAdak men-S-ngis ter-lalu bias hati-nya 
tiMa ter-tahan lagi, ^^1;|>-* aS^J^J <-sA^^ 

^i ^\s jU ^ ^ y V u-^ His 

voice was heard by the Princess in her 


Aiijong, ^^1 

chamber in the palace, and her heart was 
moved with such pity that she could no 
longer bear it. 

Anjong, ^^) To visit. 

Anjong, p^l To lift up, to hoist, to exalt, 

also Meng-anjong ^^U-* and Meng- 
anjong-kan, ^^^jc^\k^ 
Anjong-^njong, f^^l Cabins on the 
bridge of a ship. (See Anjong, 4^1 A 
verandah, a chamber, etc.) 

Anjong-llnjong, V^j^^ The yard on a 
sailing boat, the piece of timber which 
supports the sail and which can be hoisted 
or lowered at will. {Cf. Andang-^ndang, 
r^l A yard.) 

Anjor, j^) To protrude, to be out of line. 

Ano, yl Such and such, so and so, by the 
way. What's its name ? What do you call 
it? (See Anu,yl Such and such, etc.) 

Anom, Jav., a^\ Young, youthful, juvenile. 

Anor, y I A kind of sledge used for carry- 
ing grain from the fields, and usually 
drawn by buffaloes. (See iLndor,^J3l A 
buffalo sledge.) 

Anta, Hind., u^JI A garment of great 
beauty; the name of a kind of gruel 
made with meal mixed with eggs and 
sugar. Ber-anta ^1^ (which is used in 
a few phrases met with only in writing.) 
Ber-anta indera,^Ji 1^1^ Having a divine 

nature. Ber-anta 16ka, -sjy 2^\ji Having 
an earthly nature. Ber-anta sri, 3\j^ 
i^j-^i Being uniform in appearance (as 
the moon or a flower.) I'ij. 

Anta, Hind., «tJl Brackish, somewhat 
salt, saline. (See Masin ^^j^^U which 
is the more common word for brackish, 

Anta, wfcJl End, the very end. Anta-ber- 
&nta, ufcJ'^ u:^' Quite, to the very end, 
to the bitter end. 

Antah, dsJl The sheath which encloses the 
rice grain. Bras ber-antah, d»Jl^ ^^ 
Rice which, having been imperfectly 
threshed, contains grain still enclosed in 
the sheath. 

Antah, daJl I know not; who knows? 
query, perhaps, peradventure, it may be ; 
an expression of doubt. (See j^ntah, 
dail I know not, etc.) 

Antah i, ^Ul and Antahi-al-kalam, ^l»Jl 
Jjdt End, finis, termination. 

Ant&ra, Hind., ^Ia3l 

Antak, ^1 To beat time with the heel 
without taking the toes off the ground, 
to beat the devil's tattoo. 

Antak, Ben., ^\ To smart, to feel a 
pricking pain. 

Antakasunfia, Hind., f^j^\sd] A garment of 
many colours. 

Antam, ^1 In numbers. Di-per-antam- 
kan orang, ^^^1 ^^^CjiJlyj Many people 
took part in it. 

Antanfi, ^1 To beat-, strike, drub. (See 
Hentam, ^♦xxjb To beat, etc.) 

Antan, ^1 A pestle, a pounding-stick. 
Antan dan lesong, i^J ^1 J ^1 A pestle 
and mortar. Antan patah lesong hilang, 
ALib ^^ dJli ^1 If the pestle be broken 
tlie mortar will be lost — Prov.j if the 
husband be impotent the wife will prove 
unfaithful. Note: The term Lesong 
^yJ is usually applied not to the mortar 
only but to the whole engine which is 
used for threshing rice. This consists 
of a long lever called a Gandar, ^JaS 
which is worked at one end by the foot ; 
the other end is attached to the Antan 
g:til or pounding-stick. The lever passes 

. through two pairs of posts ; the first and 
longer of these are called Pasong 4^U 

and the second and shorter are called 
Tiang ^ or posts. The rivet which 
joins each of these posts to its pair is 
called a Kanching A^c^ and the groove 
in which the lever comes is called a 
Tebok ^^ The mortar consists of a 
round wooden cup called a ChApak ^^y^ 
with a flat wooden edge called a Pen-dra 
l;Ui from Tara, \j^ Level. 

Antang, ^-ail A basket made of bark; to 

carry anything in a basket of this de- 
scription. Pij. 

Antap, 4-0x31 Closely compressed, com- 
pact, heavy for its size, heavy in com- 
parison to its usual weight; specific 

Antar, ^1 To send, to convey, to escort ; 
to give an opening to an adversary at 
any game of skill. (See Hantar, yuJ^ 
To send, to convey, etc.) 

Antar-antar, f^l A ramrod. Note: In 
some parts of the Peninsula the term Pe- 
lantak ^^suJJ is also used for a ramrod. 

AntSra, HiND.,^yi Between, among, until; 
interval, interim, meanwhile, during. 


Di-pandang ka-atas sampei tdjoh petala 
l&ngit m&ksi di-antfi-ra ftwan iang pAteh 
meng-andong m6ga iang biru ber-b4kat 
kftning angkasa di-langit sayup-sft-yup 

bMsa, a^» Jl::3 dc^y ^^u^ ^^\^ ^J 

^l^ t^^yU2LjS>ij ^15:61 ^/a^ij^ He 

gazed aloft even unto the seven regions 
of the heavens, between the white 
clouds which held blue rain-clouds in 
their wombs, he saw the yellow ether 
of heaven, but indistinctly. Maka di- 
pandang pMa ka-s'blah barat tepat antara 
dengan barat laut, dlj-^ Jy ^Ja3 j c&L^ 

h^ h^ c)^^ J^^ ^^ h^ ^^ looked 
in the direction between due west and 
north-west. Maka deri-p9,da waktu itu 
hfengga sek&rang ini ber-stru-lah antara 
g&gak dengan bArong hantu itu dda-nya, 

^1 j| ^]yuJb ^^jy^ ^ J ^If^Uil And from 

that time there was enmity between 
the crows and the owls. Maka sekarang 
sudah di-per-tema-kan Allah antara 
kita tiga ber-seh&bat, 6 a — o ^^K-^ <£X^ 
ajUno^ iJC^ uu^^UjI dUI ^>Jy^ God 
has caused a meeting between us three 
friends. Maka ada-lah dalam antara 
mejelis itu s'6rang brahmana bangkit 
serta ber-datang sembah ka-pada raja, 
^^^&— mo u:^) ^ — J^^^laJl ^Jla dJIi^l csA— * 

Now there was present among those who 
were assembled a Brahman who rose up 
and made representation to the monarch. 
Maka ada-lah s'^kor gagak diam di-situ 
fi,da-pun di-antS,ra unggas ia-lah iang 
ter-lebeh ber-aakal, ^?l? /^^ Jbl csX^ 
^_i aS^l ^;J^y ^UjU ^yl^l y^,:^^ ^^ 
Vfio^ d^jJ There was a crow who resided 
there, and among all the birds he was 
the one most gifted with wisdom. Maka 
sampei-lah ka-T6ban lalu naik ber-jalan 
ka-Manjapahit ber-apa antara-nya maka 
sampei-lah ka-Manjapahit, dLJ,». ^ tsAw. 

2^\^^ dLlu^ csA-^ On arriving at 
Toban they went ashore and started f o r 
Manjapahit, and after an interval of tim e 
they reached Manjapahit. Maka antar a 
ber-apa lama-nya itu maka hamil Tiian 
Petri itu pun sampei-lah tAjoh bMan, «^- 

s?-^ <^'y J*^ "^^ ^ ^^^ ^'-^ ^^' 

Anting, ^) 

^y dfi^y dL fli M.^ ^y^l After an interval 

of time, the queen's pregnancy reached 
its seventh month. Selang antara tAjoh 
hd^ri maka R&ja D6nan handak ber-asah 

J^ A-rfl^ ^yyj^ When an interval of 
seven days had elapsed R&ja D6nan 
desired to have his teeth filed. S'telah 
sudah ber-mandi-mandi itu antara ber- 
apa maka TAan Petri itu 
kras-lah sakit-nya handak ber-sfi-lin,^ 

^US i^\jJi j\s^) *^^\v^^y-^ji 

<3->^«^ ^^^ dL^I/ «^l ^jAi ^ly 

JL-^^ After a certain time had 
elapsed the Princess was seized with 
great pain and her coufinement became 
imminent. Antara ka-bawah kaus dengan 
sri padiika kakanda tiada-lah antara lagi» 
JaX^ ^jU <«>--o ^j o^^^ &^LS j\^\ 

Ji j\s^\ dJbL>5 Between Your Highness 

and Your Highness's royal brother 
there is no dividing space (i.e., there is 
no difference of opinion.) Antara jalan, 
^le. IpUil On the way. Antara-i, v^'^Ik3| 

To place between, to introduce between, 
to insinuate between. S'mant&ra, VjUju-^o 

A space of time, an interval. S'mantara 

belum (^^ ^j Ujl*-^ In the interval previous 

to. S'mantara belum datang bahia itu 

baik kita undor, uu^l L^ AJtJ f^^ I^Uju^ 

^jJI ufc--^ ^L^ Before the danger shall 

have arrived we had better retreat. 

Antara-nya, ^^b^' Meanwhile, mean- 
time, between. | 

Antara-i, ^^Ipl^Jt To place between, to 
interpose, to insinuate ; to be placed or 
situated between two things. (See 
Antfi,ra,^UJl Between.) 

AntHra-nya, ^^'>«i' Meanwhile, meantime, 
between. (See Antara,^UJl Between, etc.) 

Anteh, dxJl To spin. Note: The form 
Ganteh d-^xji5 is also met with. (See 
Tenun, ^^ To open, etc.) 

Antelas, ^j^^ Satin. Kain S^ntelas, ^l^ 
^jJc:Jl Satin stuff. Pakai-an-nya kain 
siitera dan kain antelas, \yi^ ^l^ ,^*^^ 
^jj^l ^jji^ ^^'^ His garments were of silk 
and satin. Note : The form^Atelas ,jJJ»1 
is more strictly correct, but Antelas ^jJc6) 
is the usual colloquial form. 

Anting, ^^^ A plummet ; any hanging or 
fringe. J6gan alfi-mat iang ber-anting. 


Anting-anting, t^A-i^Jl 

^-saJ'^ ^ i*A-o ^je^ Spears of state 

with pendent ornaments. Meng-anting, 
^ftsSUu To hang down, as a plummet. 

Anting-£lnting, V^ys^^ An ear-ring. ChA- 
kup dengan glang dan krosang ago' dan 
anting-anting-nya, ^l«^ A^S ^^j-^j «-i^>^ 
^t*^;a5!i' ^'^ p>?i ^^^ Complete with 
bracelets, brooches, necklaces and ear- 

Antfru, ^^^1 District, province, surround- 
ing country, adjoining territories, neigh- 
bourhood. Antiru Klang dan Selangor, 
jj^l — ^1j ^JS" ^j^\ The provinces of 

Klang and Selangor. 

Antok, ^3»Jl To collide, to strike or knock 
against anything accidentally, to trip or 
stumble against. Kepala aku ter-antok 
ka-dinding, ^jJj^ ^ly ^I Jlfl-^ I 

struck my head (accidentally) against 
the wall. Laksana ber-antok bAkit sama 
b(ddt, a-JT^ |»L-^ SufSyi <3^'^ c)*^ ^^^® 
unto hills dashing one against another. 

Pichah ch^rek chd,wan ber-dengong, 
Singgah ter-antok di-kedei kain, 
Di-dalam t61ek dengan tenong, 
TAan sudah men-chari lain. 

t^'^J^ O^^ o^>^ V 
^IS" ^gj^j <3^'j^ iiXLw^ 

l^ cr^^ ,^ ^'^^ 

Thelkettle is broken, and the cups clink, 
as I am stopped by the cloth shop, against 
which I have stumbled. By my second 
sight and magic arts, I find that you have 
been seeking another paramour. Prahu 
ter-antok ka-jambat-an, ^^W-^^5»J)j3fyt>)y 
The boat struck the jetty. 

Antok, ^3xJl Drowsy, sleepy, dozing, nod- 
ding, napping, almost asleep ; to doze, to 
nap, to nod. Note : The radical Antok 
^5a5l is rarely, if ever, used alone, the pre- 
fix Meng- ^ being almost invariably 
joined to it. Meng-antok mata, ^3x5bU 
v«*U To doze, to nap, to nod, to sleep. 
Meng-antok lelap, ^-ftJJ ^U^ To fall fast 

asleep. Karana mata hamba-pun sangat- 
lah meng-antok tiada-lah ter-tahan lagi, 
dJIjLJ ^^ dL^L-^ ^y <,^.ujb «jiaL. ^j\^ 

J?J ^by For the eyes of thy servant 
were exceedingly heavy with sleep, and 

Anyah, dji 

he could no longer support it. DAdok 
ter-antok lama ter-lalei, ^S ^]ji ^J^j 

^JSy Sat dozing, and at length fell fast 

asleep. Masa datang meng-antok, j-oU 
^bu ^|J When the desire to sleep 

falls heavily upon one. Seperti orang 
meng-antok di-sArong bantal, ij^\ SjL^^ 

J^ £A^^^ ^U-* Like one who, while 
dozing, has the pillow pushed under his 
head. — Prov.j to do a good turn to an- 

Antu, ^1 A ghost, a spirit, a spectre, 
a demon, an elf, a goblin. (See Hantu, 
yu^ A ghost, a spirit, etc.) 

AntuI, ^y^\ To rebound. Also Meng- 
antul, Ji^Ul. 

Antun, ^^^1 A coxcomb, a fop, a dandy, 

a fribble ; studied, careful of speech or 
conduct, easy, quiet, polite. (See figek, 
^yJj) B6gak, JsLa S^gak, ^^SL^ etc., a 
fop, a fribble, a dandy, etc.) 

Anu,yl Such and such, so and so; by 
the way! what's-its-name ? what-do-you 
call-it? Bahwa aku handak pergi ka- 
tempat anu tinggal-lah angkau baik-baik, 

I am going to such and such a place : you 
remain behind and take care of yourself. 
Bahwa aku handak pergi ka-kampong si- 
anu serta ia meng-ambil bekal-bekal akan 
per-jalan-an-nya itu, ^j^ O^^**^ ^' !>^ 

ca^l ^^\e^ji " I am going to so and so's 
village"; and he took provisions for his 
journey. Ada ka-pada hamba suatu 
priok tepong berteh bawa-lah tdan- 
hamba ka-negri anu itu, &\y^ ^.-u^ s\iS ^\ 

I have a cooking pot full of padi flour : 
take it, my master, and carry it to such 
and such a town, Si-anu, y L^ So and so. 

Note : In colloquial Malay the word Anu 
yl is interpolated whenever the speaker 
cannot think of the exact word he wishes 
to use, or when he cannot remember the 
name of a place or person of which he 
wishes to make use. 

Anyah, <sjl Get thee gone ! Get thee hence ! 
Get away ! Get out ! Be off ! Note : Nyah 
dj is the more common form of this 
word, both in the written and colloquial 
languages. Anyah-kan, ^j/i^\ To drive 


Any am, ^1 

away, to drive off. H6 pen-<inggu 
pintu baik-lah sekarang ini angkau 
anyah deri-situ dan bMeh-lah angkau 
pergi ka-mana-mana sAka-mu, ^^j^ ^^ 

f.\^^^ r^l^ ^y /£>] Ai}y door- 

keeper, it were better for thee now to 
get thee hence and go whithersoever 
thou wilt. (Also written Annyah, d^l) 

Anyam, ^1 To plait, plaited. Anyam 
Mloh mem-bftat sasak, S^y^-^^ *>Ah f^' 
^3^1*4 To plait bamboos (split) in order to 
make a fence. Binding anyam, ^1 ^*^^ 
Walls of plaited bamboos. Note: In 
colloquial Malay the term Anyam ^1 is 
often used by itself to express split 
bamboos plaited together, the term for 
bamboos being understood and not ex- 
pressed. The term Binding pelApoh 
&y^ M^^ is also used for walls made of 
plaited split bamboos. Anyam-kan buloh 
mem-bAat dinding pelApoh, &jl^y, cr^' 
&^ylj AiJ^a 5l^t>- Plait bamboos, in 

order to make plaited walls. Anyam 
gila, J-j? ^1 Plaiting which makes one 

mad, — a name given by Malays to a 
peculiarly difl&cult kind of plaiting. 

Anyang, Xjl A dish of hashed uncooked 
meat with spices, which is very commonly 
eaten by the Malays of Bdtu Bara in 

Anyang-llnyang, t»^l To chop up. 

Anyir,^) Evil-smelling, rank, fishy-smell- 
ing. (See Hanyir, ^^ Evil-smelling, 


Anyo' *^l To press down, hold down. 
Jangan kamu chakap banyak 4ku anyo'- 
nyo'-kan sekarang, ^b Jji^\^ y^ c5^W* 
^^K--o ^j^'^l ^1 Bon't talk too much, or I 
will hold you down. 

Anyor, j-jl or Bftah Anyor, ^1 &\y The 

balls like coconuts under the lower jaw 
of an elephant (also written Annyor, 

Anyut, Sj-jl To drift, to float with the 
stream, to get adrift, adrift, drifting. 
(See Hanyut, &y\^ To drift, to float with 
the stream, etc.) 

A pa, <-3l What, which, what is it? any- 
thing. Aiu-hai Rangka dan Jaksa apa 
khabar ayah-anda dan bonda, f^X£>\j ^y,\ 
jui.) ^1 J jjL^I j^ i^\ ^jJlu^ ^lj Rangka 
and Jaksa, what news of our parents ? 

Apa, c-^l 

Hai bMak kechil gila apa angkau sudah 
angkau bdnoh &bang aku maka angkau 
mari ka-pada aku minta segala barang 
makan-an, /J>\ i^\ X^ J^ jj^ ^ 

^U ^^ \i J^ ''\a^ ^\ O child, who art 

yet small, what is thy madness ? Having 
slain my brother, thou comest to me and 
ask for all kinds of food! Beri-mana 
datang-nya dan handak ka-manH pergi- 
nya dan be-berapa 6rang di-dalam-nya 
dan apa barang mAat-an-nya, ^'^ o^-^*^ 

^^^1 ^1^ ^IJ ^yj^ ^L^ JJ^ ^)j 

e^!r* ^^^ <-*' 4^'^ ^iir^'^^ Whence comes 
she and whither is she going, how many 
men has she in her, and what things 
form her cargo? Maka titah Baginda 
ka-pada Permeis<iri "ya adinda akan 
sekarang apa bechara kita akan anak- 
anda ini," Q ^yy^^^^jk jaS' jjJ!i da^J csX* 

Then said the monarch to his queen, 
" What shall now be our line of conduct 
with regard to our daughter?" Apa- 
lah, dbl What? Which? Note: The 
particle Lah aJ is added for the sake of 
euphony, and makes no difference in the 
sense. Ya Allah ya TAhan-ku barang 
sampei-kan apa-lah kira-nya kakap 
Biinga Rampai itu pada jambat-an aku 
ini, ^\j^ ^1 Jicsu^j\^. yGjy Li dUI U 

God my Lord ! whatever may 
happen, allow that barque ^the ^Bunga 
Rampai to be brought hither to my 
landing-stage. Note: The expression 

Apa-lah kira-nya ^^\j^ <iUI and Apa-lah 
jAa kira-nya ^^i^ |^ <J^' are idiomatic 
expressions conveying the meaning " In 
any case," "Whatever may happen," 
etc. Apa bMeh bAat, l\y aJ^ <-3l What 
can be done? Que voulez-vous? H6 
srigala apa-lah bAleh bAat nasib hamba 
iang damikian ini, aJ^ ^LjI JlSi^^— ^ ^ 

o — i' cJ^^ S '■'-^^ H-'fr^ 5'> wolf, 
what can I do, seeing that such is my 
fate ? Maka pikir sudagar itu apa-lah 
hal ku dAdok iang damikian, j^ tsA^ 

o«^^ ^ O^^^/v.^ ^^ «u^)/1j^ Then 
thought the merchant, " What is ^ the 
profit to me of living like this ? " Apa- 
lah ka-pfttus-an-nya, ^^^x^yi^ dUI What 
is the final decision in that matter? 
Apa sebab, ^-.-s.^^ c-3l Why ? Wherefore ? 


Ipa, (-il 

What for ? What is the reason thereof ? 
Apa pasal, J*<ai <-3) Why? Wherefore? 

On what account? H6 benatang iang 
kechil lagi hena apa sebab angkau meny- 
eru akii di-tengah jalan dengan ka-laku- 
an baadab itu ? ^?3I J^^ ^^ ^Uj ^Jb 
JL^ 6^^ ^\ ^j^ ^&'] c^, — p 4^1 L^ 

UL^\ t,->Jsju ^;)'^^ ^^^^ beast who art 
both small and vile, why do you hail 
me ifl the middle oi the way in so 
uncouth a manner? Apa benda, Ijuj c^I 
What is it ? What is tht^ matter ? What 
do you want? fLii., What thing?). Apa- 
kah, d<3l Which ? What ? Note : See Kah 
dS^ which is an inseparable interrogative 
particle. Arapun t6an-ku be-ribu-ribu 
ampun apa-kah titah patek depanggil 
ini, «^AjrU dxJf <s5C»l ^^1 Y^ji ^ly ^^y^^^ 
^1 JJ^*i Pardon, O king, thousands 
and thousands of pardons; to receive what 
order was it that I am called hither? 
Ipa-tah, dx5l What? Which? Note: 
The particle Tah dS gives an interrogative 
meaning similar to that given by the 
particle Kah d^ Apa- tah lagi ^S A»il 

What else ? What else do you expect ? 
Note :^ In colloquial Malay the expres- 
sion Apa- tah dail is often used alone to 
signify the above phrase. Maka sembah 
Laksamana d61at tftan-ku apa-tah ka- 
handak-nya lain deri-pada sului datang 
itu pe-kerja-an itu handak meny-ambut 
dMi iang-di- per-tAan, ^U-Ji) Aj-*-^ <-tU 

Then said the admiral, making repre- 
sentation to the monarch, ** What can 
be their desire other than to welcome 
Your Highness. Note : The word Apa 
<-*) is sometimes used in the sense 
of " anything.'* Maka di-dalam laut 
itu glap gelita tisLda apa tampak 
ulih karana asap Abat bedil itu, tsA^ 

«--i' Ja*>^ ^^' «-A^' ^^j^ dJ^I Now in that 
sea all was deep darkness, nor could 
anything be seen owing to the smoke of 
the gunpowder. Ap-apa,^ ft-il Any- 
thing, any, whatsoever. Aku ini Raja 
iang besar bMeh men-egah-kan ap-apa 
per-bftat-an 6rang di-atas diri angkau, 

j^' ^^^^ cT^'^ ^^^' I am a great king, 
and can prevent any evil being perpetra- 
ted in regard to you. Tiada-lah ap-apa 

Apa, (^1 

Iain-lain l^gi hanya-lah salam al-taathim 
kakanda ka-pada adinda, f ^S t»c3l a) I jL^ 
J3 jI jA^ Ja5C^ ^♦^kucjyiu) dl^lfc ^i T here 

is not anything more or anything else, 
except my (the elder brother's) polite 
salutations to you (the younger brother). 
Apasekelian, ,J^^ <-3l All, every, every- 
thing. Lalu di-krah«kan anak bdah-nya 
apa sekelian, <-3l ^ly ^il ^^^^^ JJS 
^jjJCu) Then he called together all his 
clansmen. Note : ' In some parts of the 
Peninsula the above expression is con- 
tracted into Apa <-3l in the phrases 
Kita apa, «-3l «t-.j^ All of us. Dia apa, 
<-3l <^ J All of them, etc., and thus is used 
as a plural sign. Apa-kala, J 1^1 When, 
whenever. Maka apa-kala datang orang 
itu Raja Bondahara tfta itn ber-sem-bAnyi 
mcng-intei deri-pada dalam bilek kArong- 
an, ly^libj^ gl^ «^il S^y ^b Jl5Cil csU 

And whenever that man came, the old 
Treasurer hid himself, and peeped at 
him from inside the private cabin. Tetglpi 
apa-kala sampei malam hari, JKil ^laJ 
<^^l8b ^L# ^e^-*-^ But when evening had 
come. Ber-apa, <-3l^ How ? how many ? 
how much? Many, much, very. Note: The 
form Be-ber-apa <-3l^ is also used to 
mean many, much, very. Ber-apa jauh, 
&^\c^ «-3l^ How far. Ber-apa pMoh, t-4l^ 
Jy How many tens. {Note: The term 
PMoh, d>y Ten, is used by Malays as we 
sometimes use the word "score." Ber- 
piMoh-pMoh, )t^^y. By the score.) Serta 
dengan ber-apa raayat bala-tentra-nya, 
^1^ %^ a^j *^]ji ^j ULA^ And with 
many subjects and fighting men. Maka 
be-ber-apa ka-besar-an Baginda itu, csJU 
ut^l J^ e)-^*— !^ <-^'^ And great was 
the state of that monarch. Meng-apa, 
<^UU Why? wherefore? Meng-apa pAla 
iang Tdan Petri damikian laku, cjUu 

behave so, Princess ? Tiada meng-apa, 
c^Ul. jUf and Ta' meng-apa, <^Uu 'iJ It 
does not matter; it does not signify; 
never mind. Maka seperti per-b5at-an 
itu tiada-lah jAga meng-apa, syL© cs^ 
c-iU^ i^y^ idlaUf i^ J^j^ T^ow with 
reference to that deed, it is of no conse- 
quence. Si-apa, <-3L^ Who? No^e : 
This word is formed by adding the word 
Si . t^ which is a term often prefixed to 


Ipa-blla, ^) 

proper namos, to the word Apa, t-il 
What? Si-apa iang brani me-lawan 
dengan aku, j^l ^J ^X. ^1^ ^ 4-iL^ 

Who dare oppose me ? Rdmah si-apa, 
<^ L*^ ^^JJ Whose house ? Ta' te-peng- 

apa, t-ilAAJ 'iJ Can't do it, can't be done. 

Si-apa-kah nama-nya, ^^Ui d<iLs-u> What 

is his name? Note: The above is the 
only expression in which Si-apa t-iL^ 
has the meaning of " What." Barang- 
si-apa, t-ilft^vi>;b Anyone, whosoever, 

whomsoever. Note: For further examples 
as to the use of the various derivatives 
of Apa <-3) see each derivative separately. 

Apa-btia, J-«-il When, whenever, at what 

time? at the time when, as soon as. 
Apa-bila ia telah masok ka-dalam taman 

itu, Si) ^\S ^lj^ ^L. dU v^l J^l When 
he had entered the garden. Apa-bila 
hari hampir &kan petang, ^j^ J^' 
A»i ^1 jJuss> When the day drew near 

to evening. Ada-pun aadat segala hftlu- 
balang Maiayu itu apa-bila nama tAan- 
nya di-bawa' pada s'bdah negri, ^^yt^t 

'b^^ ^'y r^ d^^ ^'y^ ^1^ y^ &^^ 

i^^ &)^^t^ wU It is the custom of all those 

Malay warriors whenever they are sus- 
taining their master's reputation in a 
foreign country * * * * Maka apa-bila 
tiba ka-Manjapahit, <--^ J-^' <-sA—* 
3^ Uju^ Now as soon as they arrived at 
Manjapahit. Apa-bila patek ada me- 
lihat 8£ltu aiijaib bharu-lah patek datang 
meng-&dap, y L-mo ^L^.-Ju« jI ^^^^ J-<w-*' 
• c-ijUu ^b c^U d3^j^ S-4U1O When- 
ever I have beheld a marvel, I come to 
see Your Majesty (and apprise you of 
it.) Note: This term is formed by 
joining the word Apa t-il What, etc., 
and Bila J-^ When, etc. together. 

Apai, ^1 A kind of curry; forcemeat. 
(See GMei, ^y A curry.) Pij.. 

Apak, ^1 Evil-smelling, rank in smell. 
Bau apak, ^iylj A rank smell. (See 
Hapak, ^Ijb) 

Apa-kala, Jl^t When, whenever, as soon 
as, at what time? Tetapi apa kMa 
sampei malam hari, ^eft-*-^ J^' <^^ 
^fii^lfli JU But when the night had come. 

Maka apa-kala datang orang itu Rfija 
Bendahara TAa itu ber-sembAnyi meng- 

Apa-lah, dUI 

intei deri dalam bilek kdrong-an, 

uuol 1^ j\j^jJ, gl; «^l ^j^] ^|J Jl5C^I 

And whenever that man came, the old 
Treasurer hid himself, and peeped at 
him from inside the private cabin. Note : 
This term is formed by joining the words 
Apa, <-3l What, etc., and Kala, J IS" 
Time, etc. 

A pa- 1 ah, ijiil What. H6 srigala apa-lah 
bMeh bftat nasib hamba iang damikian 
ini, H-viJ^ <T-fr ^ ^ &|^ ^y <^' J^>^ i^ 
vji' ^^5-X»^ M wolf, what can be done, 
seeing that my fate is such as it is? 
Apa-lah sebab sudah dua hari T6an-ku 
tiada ber-angkat santap ayer itu, dLil 

uj^l ^I i^ i xj^ What is the reason that 

for two days Your Majesty has not gone 
forth to drink of the waters ? Mftka pikir 
sodagar itu apa-lah hal ku dMok iang 
damikian ini, dUI te^l ^|jy^ ^^ lsX^ 

^\ ^^jX-j ^ J J^ J / Je. Then thought 

the merchant, " What is the profit to me 
of living like this ? " " Wa-hai anak-ku 
apa-lah upaya kita dfta ber-anak handak 
me-lawan stru iang datang itu bagitu 
ban3^ak, 1^*^ «^ ^^j\ ^^\ «^fi3l ^j^ 

yLfXi u^\ ^b ^ ^^x^ ^)^ ^J^ ^^\j} 

^b " my son, by what means can we 
two, father and son, resist the enemy 
which comes hither in such numbers?" 
Apa-lah kira-nya, ^^'^ ^1 g.nd Apa-lah 
jda kira-nya ^1^ 1^ dliil, What is it? 

wherefore ? Ya Allah ya TAhan-ku 
barang sampei-kan apa-lah kira-nva 
kakap Bdnga Rampai itu pada jambat- 
an aku ini, dliil ^^jO-^-^^b ^jJ^^ b dUI b 
^l/l ^L^ ^ ^» ^j ^y. ^^^ "O 
God my Lord! whatever may happen, 
allow that barque the Bunga Rampai to 
be brought hither to my landing-stage." 
Aalamat sArat ini barang di-sampei-kan 
tfthan sru sckelian aalam apa-lah j<ia 
kira-nya dtUang ka-hadap-an mejelis pa- 
duka ayahanda Muhammad JAnus di- 
Pdlau Sfimat, ^j5CJU^j^^lj ^1 &jj^ 3^Xs> 

yyj ^y^ ^X^**^ J^Hi' -^^*^ u'-ft^^ c^'^ 
^u-^ The address of this letter is that 
it may be sent by the Lord of all the 
L^niverse into the presence of my father, 
Muhammad Jftnus of PAlau S^mat. 


Apam, ^1 

Apam, Tam., ^I A loaf, a cake, a lump 

of dough. Lalu di-bAat dfta bftah apam 
ber-gambar s'orang laki-laki s'6rang per- 

ampA-an, ^jy^ j^ji ^' ^'^ ^^ SlyJ^S 
^lyUji ^jy^ ^^^ Then he made two 
cakes, one resembling the form of a man 
and one that of a woman. 

Apar-apar, ty' The octopus. 

Apas, ^jg^) Perfect, without flaw or blem- 
ish. Apas rApa paras-nya, ^^^j u'^^ 
^--opU The appearance of her features 
was faultless. Pij. (See Hapas ,j^l^) 

Apa-tah, 6ssS] What? Apa-tah gdna-nya 
patek hidop men-anggong malu, ^li^ d»il 
y U ^jlf^^if^ t^J^ <^V*^ What is the good 
of my living, if I am to endure shame ? 
Apa-tah t^was patek akan Sang Meniaka 
itu pada barang main-nya s'kali-pun, 
^j\i JJ 4ll -sJLh^ ^ ^1 csA^U ^1^ Axil 
^yLi<Lu> ^U What is the matter in 

which I fail when contending in what- 
ever game of skill with Sang Meniaka. 
Apa-tah Idgi, ^^ dail What else? what 
else do you expect ? Note : In colloquial 
Malay the expression Apa-tah 6sJ) is 
often used alone to signify the above 
phrase. Maka sembah Laksamana dolat 
tAan-ku apa-tah ka-handak-nya lain deri- 
pada solor datang itu pe-kerja-an-nya 
handak meny-ambut dMi iang-di-per- 

^ly^jJki^^^j ^>8-*ny- c5'^'^ ^^^ Laksa- 
mana said," Sire, the desire of those first- 
comers is none other than to welcome 
Your Highness." (Solor, j^j^ means 
one sent on in advance.) 

ApStI, ^1 Tribute. Maka banyak-lah 
negri iang meng-hantar apeti ka-pada- 

nya, ^^^^ ^\ yn^ ^ ^^ ^^ *^^ 

And many were the countries which 
sent tribute to him. Apeti biinga amas 
itu, «w) ,j-^l \^y ^^\ The tribute of 

the Golden Flower. Note: The Bflnga 
amas ^j^ ^y or Golden Flower is the 

tribute sent by certain Malay States to 
the King of Siam once in three years. 
It consists of gold and silver worked in 
the shapes of flowers, and is valued at 
between one and two thousand Mexican 
dollars. The State of Kedah on the 
West, and several of the States on the 

East Coast of the Malay Peninsula, 
send this tribute triennially. Note: 
The Arabic form Afti ^\ is the more 
common and correct. 

Api, ^1 Fire; alight. Jangan-kan kem- 
bali ka-Indera-an jikalau ka-laut api 
s' kali- pun pdtek ikut j6ga, ^^^W^ ^Jii^\c^ 

c-f^ S^l Not only will thy slave 
return to the heavens, but even unto 
the lake of fire will she willingly follow 
thee! Ayer dideh-nya sudah men-jadi 
suatu anak sdngei dan asap api-nya 
sudah men-jadi awan, aj^-^ ^^*^ yiS 

fi^^ ^' *-^' ^^ i^y^ c5^' ^Ir* v^^^^»-^ 
^ly ^^aUa^u* The refuse water [poured 
away from the boiled rice] became a 
river, and the smoke of the fire became 
a cloud. Mata-nya merah seperti api 
ber-nyala-nyala dan dada-nya merah 
seperti bdnga raya kembang pagi, ^^La* 

^U ^-H-^ v^l; ^y &ji^^ His eyes were 

red as flaming fire, and his breast was 
scarlet as the rdya flower when it opens 
in the morning. Segra-lah ia meng- 
ambil api lain datang ka-pada istri-nya. 

Quickly he seized a light, and went to 
his wife. Maka apa-bila di-rasa-i raja 
ka-sakit-an itu maka raja pui;i ber-triak- 
lah minta api, gl^ <^*Uopj J«-!^' <-5A— « 

^1 'l»^ My^ ^y sb *^^ «w' cT^^ 
Now when the Prince felt the pain 
thereof, he called out and asked for a 
light. Padam api, ^1 |»jLi To ex- 
tinguish fire, to put out a light. Lekat- 
kan api, ^1 ^jj^^^:^^ To set fire; also PA sang 
api ^e>l A-*l^ and Kena-kan api, ^1 ^\jS 
Kena api, ^1 U^ To catch fire. Makan 
di-api ^^^ ^j^U and Ter-bakar di-api 
^1 J ^^,y Burned by fire. Piintong api, 
t5*' Py^y ^ half -burned log of wood 
which is still alight. BAnga api, lfi>^ 
^1 Fireworks. Kayu api, ^\ y\^ 
Firewood. Dedalu api, ^1 yiJJ A 
parasitic creeper with a red flower. 
Bara api, ^^^1 \jU Embers, glowing 
cinders. Abu api, ^V'^' Ashes. Me- 
nyala bagei ^pi, ^1 ^Ij Jl^-^ To flare 

up like fire. Ada-pun &pi itu tctekala 
kechil men-jadi kawan apa-bila . besar 


Ipi, ^» 

men-jadi lawan, J^ JK»J ^il ^1 ^yb) 

^^i ^^^W*- .^— ? Jw-*' c)-?^ sg'^W' Fire 
when small is a friend, when it grows 
large it becomes an enemy. — Proo. 

Ber-apa tinggi pflchok pisang 

Tinggi lagi asap api 

Ber-apa tinggi gClnong me-lentang 

Tinggi lAgi harap hati. 

t-^ S^^ ^J^ ^^J^ 

^^ ^/ ^JlAJf 4^1^ 

However high the shoot of the banana 
tree, higher yet is the smoke of fire; 
however high the slanting mountain, 
higher still are my hopes in thee ! Ber- 
api, ^v'^ Having a light. Having fire. 

Api, ^qil The name given by Malays to 
the quarter of the table or mat nearest 
to the lamp, and to the left of the banker, 
in the Chinese gambling game called Po 
y or Te po ^iJf which has been intro- 
duced by the Chinese, but which is a 
species of gambling to which Malays are 
much addicted. Note: The other quarters 
of the table are as follows: — Near the 
bank, Bakul, J^lj i.e., the basket; Op- 
posite the bank. Chut, &y^ To the right 
of the bank, KMi ^^ because that is 
the place where the cooly who acts as 
croupier takes his seat. For particulars 
as to the game and the manner of 
staking, etc. see Note und^r Po, y 

Api -api, Y^^\ The name of a species of 
mangrove, lihizophora. 

Apl-api,r^^l The firefly. (See Klip-klip, 
Y^^Jl^ and Kdnang-kAnang, Y^^ both 
of which are more common words for a 
firefly.) Note: It is said by the Malays 
of many parts of the Peninsula that 
fireflies are the fingers and toe-nails of 
men who have died violent deaths. 

A pi at, Ab., M^ Health, convalescence, 
recovery. (See Aafiat, ^uSs> Health, etc.) 

Aplk, ^3-^1 Neat, smart, spruce, delicate, 

fastidious. Meng-apik-kan, ^^^JCiLiUu To 

give tone to anything. To interest oneself 
in anything. Pij. 

Api I, Jfr-*l A bulwark, a fortified balus- 
trade on board a ship, boat or raft. 
Note : The compound form Apil-an, ^^^\ 
A bulwark, etc., is the one most com- 

Ipit, V» 

monly met with. Prahu iang ber-jan- 
jong apil-an dengan siap aalat ka-leng- 
kap-an di-dalam-nya, £^^ac^^ ^ >^'>-^ 

boat bearing a fortified bulwark, and 
fully furnished with all kinds of war- 
like stores and furniture. S'bftah IsApal 
ter-lalu besar-nya serta dengan prahu 
peng-iring-nya kArang satu s'ratus bftah 
sekelian-nya sudah sinp meng-janjong 
apil-an samua-nya, ^^ j^^ji Ji^ &\yi^^ 
^l^yL^ ^^/ ^^- ybly J>^ ^^^ 

^\y^ J^\ ^^^s.***- fi^v^ .^^'^ fi'^ An 
exceedingly large ship, with a following 
of one hundred boats save one, all of 
them fully equiped and bearing fortified 
bulwarks. Maka ia meny-ftroh tegang 
bandut meriam dan* meng-Akoh-kan 
segala apil-an dan mem-bangun-kan 
segala chagak 161a dan meng-isor segala 
pedati meriam dan me-lekat segala tftnam, 

JSL^ a<L. ^Ij ^^ ^)J^ JC^ y..^ ^1^ 

^y Then he ordered them to tighten all 

the gun stays, and strengthen all the 
fortified bulwarks, and erect all the 
swivel-gun supports, and train all the 
gun-carriages, and light all the port 

Apil-an, Jl-jI a bulwark. (See Apil, J,^! 
A bulwark, etc.) 

Apit, ^Lil To press, to squeeze, to crush 
between two things ; close to, in contact 
with, pressed together, near, in close 
proximity to. Apit-an, ^j»-ji) A press. 
Apit-an chap, ^^J^ ^r^' A printing- 
press. Peng-apit, ^Ui That which 
squeezes or crushes. Peng-apit bAah 
kras, yj^^y^ fi'>-3 ^L*i The instrument 
used for crushing the hard nuts on the 
relative hardness of which bets are made 
(See Note under Bftah, ^ly A fruit). 

Peng-apit-an ^jx-ji Ui is a form also occa- 
sionally met with. Ber-apit, ^'^ Close 
together, in close proximity. Ber-apit is 
also the name of a game played on a 
chess-board with 16 pieces a side. A piece 
caught between two of the adversary's 
pieces is lost. B6kit ber-apit, ^1^ ^^ 

A pass in the mountains — i.e., two hills 
which are placed close together, and 
thus form a pass. Ter-&pit, ^1^ Pressed, 


Apit-an, ^^\ 

squeezed, crushed between two things. 
Kaki-nya ter-glpit, a^ly ^l^ His foot 

was pressed, crushed, squeezed^ or 
pinched between two other objects* Apit- 
kan, ^jj^seil To press, to squeeze, etc. 
Note: This word contains a root which 
almost invariably conveys the idea of 
squeezing, pinching, etc. See Hiuipit, 
LJusb To press against, to be in close 

proxi|pity to anything, etc. Kapit, 3^ \^ 

A press ; to press, etc. Kepit, dJi^ To 

carry under the arm — i.e., pressed 
between the arm and the body, and 
Sepit, 4Siffi^ To pinch, etc. Sempit, &Ju^ 

Narrow. Dempit,^^'^ Pressed together, 
etc. (JhAbit, ^y^ To pinch, etc. 

Apit-an, ^jja-^t A press, a mill for pressing 
or squeezing. (See Apit, ^1 To press, 

Apit-apit-an, ^t'M' A chess or draught- 
board. (See Pfl-pan, ^jjiU A board, etc.) 
Apiun, Afi., ^^^' Opium, raw opium. 

Apong, ijil Drift-wood ; a floating or 
drifting object. Maka handak di-kata- 
kan pAlau bAkan-nya p61au dan handak 
di-kata-kan apong b6kan-nya ^pong, 

jjj^ ^^'^yy ^^ yy J^^ c5^J^ ^^^ 

^yl ^j^ ^yh\ ^jjS^la^*^ He could not say 

it was an island, for it "v^as no island, and 
he could not call it drift-wood for it was 
not drift-wood, or anything drifting. 
Ber-apong-&pong, f^y'^ To drift, to 
floaty alio Ter-apong-apong, t'^^lj-J 
M&ka ia pun segra-lah jatoh-kan sauh 
lain dftdok ber-laboh di-situ ber-apong- 
apong dengan ber-apa lama-nya, v^l ^sJl. 

^U) f^]ji ^^ I'^y'^ y^f*^"^ He quickly 
cast anchor, and remained there floating 
about for a long time. Maka Raja 
D6nan itu-pun ISlu jatoh di-tengah laut 
iang lepas harong-an iang dalam ter- 
apong-apong hanyut di-laut itu pengsan 
dengan tiada sedar akan diri-nya, <^A^-« 
^ ^ S^i aAJJ dJU yS ^^1 ^j^ el; 

^>4*i ^^ j*^^-^ *iW o-^*i v j ^' A ' r* Raja 
Ddnan straightway fell into the middle 
of the boundless sea, and remained 
there, drifting and floating about in- 
sensible and with no recollection of his 
own identity. Oi-pandang ka-bawah ftda- 

Ara-&ra, t*|;l 

lah tampak s&yup-s4yup bh&sa s'bftah 
prahu ter-apong-apong di-tengah laut itu, 
^L^ t'*-*^^ <3i^ <5J'*i' &y^ fiJo^o 


«^l Sj^ dAlJ t'^y'y >^'^ She looked 
down, and beheld indistinctly a boat 
drifting about in the ocean. 

Apuah, fiyi A clan; a family; a flock. 
(See Pftab, &y which is the more com- 
mon form.) 

Apu8, ^yl To overflow, to flood. 

Ara, )j) The generic name of the fig tree. 
B6ah ara, \j\ &\y, A fig. Pohun ara, ^y 
\j) A fig tree. Merbok ber-biinyi di- 
kayu ara, V)! yl^J ^j^ji y^ The small 
doves are cooing in the fig tree. Note : 
The following names are given by 

Malays to the different species of fig 
tree. Ara senyet, ^i,«y-» 1^1 and Ara nasi, 
^lil j\ Two varieties, both of which bear 
a white fruit. Ara kelebok, JJ^J^ '^1 A 
variety which bears a large red fruit. 
Ara pdnai, ^y l^l and Ara beringin, 
^^yfikji b' Two varieties which bear red 
fruits smaller than that of the Ara kele- 
bok. Of these two varieties the Ara 
pdnai, ^y \j) bears the larger fruit. Ara 
jangkit, ^L^Jk©. \j\ A parasitical fig, the 

fruit of which is white. Ara j&wi-jawi, 
^^cijLxsK \j\ Another parasitical variety, 

which bears a red fruit. Ara amas, \j\ 
^j-^l and Ara p^rak, JJ^ !;• Two kinds 
of parasitical plants. Ara kelompang 
AiU^ 1^1 A kind of fig tree which bears 
no fruit. The fruits of none of these 
trees are edible for human beings, but 
the fruit of the Ara tedong, ^^JJ \j\ a 

variety the leaves of which are very 
pointed, is sometimes eaten as an acid 
vegetable by Malays. Almost all these 
trees are resinous. Me-nanti &ra ta' ber- 
getah, ^csSji *lJ ]j\ ^ A>j,>* To wait for a fig 

tree which has no resin in it — Prov,, 
which signifies to wait in vain expec- 

Ara, \j) The name of a fresh- water fish. 

Ara-ara, Jav., fb' ^ plain, a meadow, an 
open field. (See P&dang, 4^1* MMan, 
.j.-w# etc., which are the terms in use in 
this connection in the Malay Peninsula. 
Dr. Pijnappel derives this word from 
the Arabic, 1^) 



Arab, All., t^y^ Arab, Arabian. (See 
Aarab, u^^ Arab, etc.) 

Arabi, Ae., -s^^ Arabia. (See Aarabi, 
^y^ Arabia). 

Aradat, Ae., &S\j\ Desire, inclination, will. 
(See Iradat, SJl^l Desire, inclination, 

Arah, &j\ Direction, towards. Pandang 

ka-timor ber-arah selatan, es^)^ jj^^ ©Jol^ 

^Xji Look to the east and towards the 

south — i.e., to the south-east. Maka ka- 
takut-an-lah ia serta meny-embah arah 
ka-langit, &j\ ^^.^^ ui^^ ^^1 dLJ^U^ ciX^ 

2L^1^ Then he was seized with fear, 
and made obeisance towards the heavens. 
Tiada ka-tahu-i tempat dan arah, J^f 
&j\ ^1 J Biui ^y^ He did not know his 
situation or whereabouts. Tiada-lah 
arah handak ber-chakap, ^^^o^ ^^i dJbLj 
4-A^li&.^ I cannot attempt to speak (i.e., 
I cannot say.) Habis arah, 5^1 ^U^ I 
have exhausted all my ingenuity. 

Arak, jj^l Arrack, a distilled spirit made 
from the juices of the sugar-cane and 
the coconut tree with fermented rice. 
Pajak filrak, ^^1 ^U The Spirit Farm. 

Arak dan tftak, ^1/ ^^ ^^1 Arrack 

and toddy. T^ote: The term Arak, ^^1 

is often applied by Malays to all kinds 
of intoxicating liquars. Haram-lah me- 
minum arak dan s' barang iang me-mabok 

kan, J^yi\^ ^ ^^L-* c)'^c3-;' r^-^^ ^^^^ 
It is sinful to drink spirits and all other 
intoxicants. Arak api, ^\ jj^l Double 

distilled spirits. Ada-pun arak itu bins 
maka kata Merka Paksi S,rak ini kalau- 
kalau angkau bAboh rachun minum-lah 
angkau dahMu ku-lihat, ut^l jj^I ^^yl^l 

W/ Jybj /3I dU.;^ ^^1^ 6\^ The 
spirits were very intoxicating. Then 
said Merka Paksi, " Perhaps you have 
poisoned these spirits : drink you first, 
in order that I may see.' ' Maka pergi-lah 
d6a 6rang men-chAri arak di-dalam negri 

s'tempayan, i^)y^^ ^y^\ I^^ ^y-^ <^^— 
^lA^juo v^^ f^\^ Jj^l Then two men 

went into the town to steal a butt of 

Araki ^^1 A procession, a triumph, to go 
in triumph, to go in a procession, to 
carry in triumph or in procession ; trium- 

Arang, £^l 

phal. Maka Raja Donan pun ber-S.rak 
tArun be-rendam ka-sAngei, ^y^ gl^ <.£A^ 

^y^ p^^ OA^ Cp}^ oy ^^J^ Donan 
went down to the river in procession, in 
order that he might sit in the water [as 
is customary before circumcision, in order 
to contract the parts.] Maka bingkis 
itu pun di-naik-kan 6rang-lah ka-atas 
gajah lalu ber-arak-arak dengan seg^la 

bAnyi-bAnyi-an, J^^^ ^^\ ^ j ^<^ <^U 

v:yf^4^ The presents were placed on 
the backs of elephants by the attendants, 
and were then carried in triumphal pro- 
cession to the sound of music. S'tfilah 
sudah ber-hias-i maka Sang Seperba 
pun di-arak orang-lah ber-keliling negri 
dengan bClnyi-bdnyi-an, ^^Lfi^^ esJ^ dLuo 

oi^v^^ s^"^ <^J^ When he had been 
adorned. Sang Seperba was borne in 
triumphal procession round the town to 
the sound of music. 

Aral, J^l An obstacle, a misfortune, a 
calamity, a contretemps. That which 
prevents one from doing anything. (See 
Aarath, (j=>y^ which is the more correct 
Arabic form.) 

Aram-aram, y^j\ The frame-work of a 

roof ; a plank swung by a cord, used by 
painters; a rope-ladder. The form Peng- 
aram, (•^Ui is also met with. 

Aran, ^1 A night-line used for catching 

fish, yiote: This line is uBuallv fixed 
in mid-stream, but is attached to the 
bank by another line called Tajor, ^b 

Arang, ^;) Charcoal. Arangbatu, yl^ £^1 

Coal. Arang para, \y\i ^j\ Soot (iif., 

the charcoal which adheres to the shelf 
which in Malay houses is suspended from 
the ceiling immediately over the fire- 
place, and on which all things which it 
is specially necessary to keep dry are 
placed.) Kayu arang, ^^1 ylS' Ebony. 

Kerja arang, ^^1 g^ To bum charcoal. 
Orangiangbe-kerja arang, ^^Ig^ bt>^^ 
A charcoal-burner. Di-bftboh Alih Si- 
Jebat arang pada mAka kita me-lain-kan 
mamak Bendahara-lah mem-b4soh dia, 

^^ 6^Lf-4^ dSljlibj^ ^\^ Charcoal has 
been put on our face by Si- Jebat ; you, O 
Father Bendahara, must wash it away. 


Arang-arang, Y^j\ 

Makatitah raja "Aiu-hai mamak Benda- 
hara apus apa-lah arang di-mAka kita/' 

«^ *J^J ^^1 Then quoth the king, 

" Wipe out, Father Bendahara, the char- 
coal stains which are upon my face." 
Hote : The expression " to have charcoal 
upot the face" is used by Malays to 
signify that one has been subjected to 
shameful treatment or insult. Bintang 
di-langit dapat di-bilang, • tidak sedar 
mftka-nya arang, ^J^^ ^1^ 2^i^ ^aju^ 

^j\ ^^^j^ ^Jv— ^ O*^^ They can count 
the stars in the heavens, but are not 
aware that their faces are smeared with 
charcoal. Note: The form Harang, ^j^ 

is also in use, more especially in writing. 

Arang-arang, Y^j\ The stays on board 

certain native sailing boats which join 
the mainmast to the foremast. 

Aras, ^^1 Up to ; as far as. Ayer aras 
pinggang, ^iCM j^^' j-i' Water up to 
the waist. Meng-antar aku aras sim- 
pang, M » jp A ^j-y I ^1 jsjA^ Gro with me 

as far as the cross-road. 

Arash, Ar., juj^ The throne of God; 
the empyrean of the heavens. (See 
Aarash, j^p The throne of God, etc.) 

Arath, Ar., ij=>j^ Hazard, a fortuitous 
event, chance, calamity ; that which by 
chance prevents one from doing any- 
thing. (See Aarath, ij^jS> Hazard, 

chaijpe, ^c, and Aral, J^l) 

Arau, ^jl Spotted. Aran batu,ylj ;»;) White 
and black spots. Arau hiijan panas, 
o^^ ^^^^l Yellow spots on a white 
ground. Note : These terms are used 
more especially in speaking of the 
colouring of a dog's skin. 

Archa, Hind., g^l An idol ; an image. 
(See Berhala, Jl^^ An idol, etc.) 

Arga, Hind., «— ?;I Price, value. (See 
Herga, c-fyt) Price, etc.) 

Arham, Ar., ^^1 Merciful. 

Arl, ^j\ The name of a venomous sea- 
snake. RAmput Alar ari, ^^J\ Jj\ SJi^^j 
or Tampon g ari, ^g^l iyluS The name 
of a medicinal plant. 

Arl, f^j\ A day; twenty-four hours. (See 
Hari, ^j\sb A day, etc.) 

Arip, Ar., o>^Ip 

Ari-ari, y^j^ The pit of the stomach just 

above the pubes. T^empat iang di-tikam- 
nya itu ter-naik ka-ari-ari-ku, A^ ^LiJ 

^^^y^ iSi^y ^' s^r^"^ ^^^ place where 
he had pierced me [the scrotum] was 
now gathered up to my lower bowels. 
Harus men-chAkor bMu ari-ari pada laki- 
liiki dan estein^wa pAla pada per-ampA- 
an mem-bantun dia, V^^j^ ^^ ^y^^ \)^^^ 

^^j ^ y ta^k^ A man should shave the 

hairs which cover his pubes, and more 
especially should a woman pluck them 
out of her body. 

Arif, <-J)lc> Wiscj sagacious, intelligent. 

(See Aarif, ^^lc> Wise, etc.) 
Arik, Ar., ^^I Waking, sleepless. 

Aring, ^o' Th® small detached piece of 
ornamental worked steel at the base of 
a kris-blade. (This separate piece of 
steel when welded on to the rest of the 
blade, is called Ganja, ^) Mllka ada 

parang sari s'bilah tAjoh-blas lok ber- 
tatah sampei ka-djong-nya di-tatah-nya 
sampei ka-aring-nya kris itu ber-kenan 
sedikit ka-pada hftti-nya, £^U j) cs 

«^) ^j^^ jkiy^ kJ"^-^ ^^^ ^y^ 

^\se> jji^ d-5<ij^-rf ^ji There was one 

knife which had seventeen waves in the 
blade, and which was inlaid from its 
point to its base, and this dagger he 
took a fancy to. (See Nota under Kris, 
^^ A dagger, for different parts of 

the weapon, etc.) 

Aring, ^^1 A net for catching or stopping 
deer or other game. 

Aring, Ai^l Evil-smelling, stinking, foetid. 
Meng-aring-kan, ^^^j\k^ To give a 

piquant smell to anything by putting in 
Bel&chan, ^h (Malay caviare) or any 
other highly seasoned condiment. . 
Aring-aring, y^j\ The name of an edible 
plant also called tTrang-^ring, ^j\ ^jj^ 
by the Malays. 

Aringsun, Jav., ^^y^j\ Little sister. A 
term of endearment. Note : This word 
only occurs in romances of Javanese 

Arip, Ar., t^j\s> Wise, sagacious, intelli* 
gent, (See Aarif, *^j\s> Wise, etc.) 


Arip, «-fli^l 

Arip, «-ii;l To scream, to cry shrilly. 
Maka Tftan Petri itu lalu arip dan men- 

jerit, ^jif^ ^'^ ^j^ y 31 *' i^j^ o'y ^-^ 
The Princess cried out shrilly and 

Arip, u-fti;l To doze, to feel oppressed 
with sleep, sleepy, drowsy. Sangat-lah 
&rip mata Shah Aalam, h4ri pun sudah 
jauh malam, dia pun Isllu ber-angkat ka- 
dalam, rebah ber-adu di-fi.tas tilam, dU^Lo 

Her royal eyes were oppressed with 
sleep, and the night was far advanced, 
therefore she went into her private 
apartment, and threw herself down to 
sleep upon her mattress. Pem-arip, 
<-j^Ui A slave woman whose duty it 
is to nurse a child to sleep. 

Aris, ^j\ A husbandman. Pij, 

Arit, Sij) Easily bent. 

Arit, 3ij) A fish-spear. (See JAlir, ^^ 
Serampang, ^j^^ TempMing, ^^ 
for different kinds of fish-spears used in 
the Malay Peninsula.) 

Arka, Ab., ^^I Weak. 

Arkian, ^^j] Moreover, further, further- 
more. Arkian maka Hang Jebat senan- 
tiasa dddok di-dalam astana raja ter- 
masa dengan segala isi astana dan 
giindek-gftndek raja, 5^x^ ^ <.^U ^jf^Sj) 

^a ^*^y eb o^' ^'*^^ c3*^->*^ ^i».v-u,., o 

eb f<3i^/ o'^ c)^' s?^' y^ Moreover, 
Hang Jebat continued to live in the 
lung's palace, amusing himself with all 
its inhabitants and with all the king's 
concubines. Arkian maka ter-sebut-lah 
per-kata-an istri itu, <-sA^ ^^j\ 

«wl ^^^y. ^y^-^^ c)*^.)^ <^)J^.^*^y More- 
over, it is related with reference to the 

Brahman's wife. Arkian maka ka-p£tda 
suatu hari tArun-lah hftjan dan ribut 
serta dengan kilat-nya s&bong meny- 
abong, dlJ^y ^a>l^ ^b-^ JJL? ctL^ ^j] 

4y l^ Moreover, upon a certain day rain 
and storm came down, and the lightning 
flashed to and fro. 

Armida, Port., jU^I A fleet, flotilla. 

ArAan, ^jyl 

Armini, ^^j^ Armenian. Orang ArmSni, 
cs^>>' Aa>' ^ Armenian. Negri Armani, 
^qjt^^l ^^J^ Armenia. 

Arok, ^^j\ To perform a sword-dance; 

to rush about violently with a drawn 
weapon ; to push one's way through a 
crowd. Note: The compound form ^eng- 
arok, ^^x>^ is most often met with. 
Notp : State processions are usually pre- 
ceded by a crowd of men and yoifths with 
drawn kris performing a wild war-dance. 
This is termed Arok, ^jyl or Meng-arok. 
c3-y^^ (See Arak, jj^l A procession, 
etc., and Note under Kerja, g^ To 
work, etc.) 

Arok, ^j) To worry, bother, molest, 
harry. Gajah kita lari di-Arok gSjah 

liar, ^ ^l? c3jt>'^ ^^^ ««^ ^^ ^^^ 
elephant has run away, because it was 
bothered by a wild elephant. Ayer ini 
kroh di-arok kerbau, ^jij^^ &^j^ ^' j-i' 
j^^ This water is muddy because it has 
been disturbed by a buffalo. 

Arong, ^^j) To wade. (See Harong, ^jij^ 
To wade, etc.) 

Arta, ula;I Property, possessions. (See 
Herta, UL^yE) Property.) 

Artiwan, ^^^2f;l Wealthy, rich, possessed 
of property. (See Hertawan, ^j)^^^ 
Wealthy, etc.) 

Arti, ^j) To understand, to comprehend. 

(See Herti, ^Vy^ To underhand, etc.) 
Arti-nya, ,^j^ Meaning, signiftoation. 

(See Herti, ^yt) To understand, etc.) 
Aru, jyl To stir up, to agitate, to trouble, 

to disturb, to perplex. (See Karu, jj\S 

Kachau, y^^ etc.) 
Aru ah, Ab., ^j) Prayers for the dead; 

prayers recited in time of trouble. Maka 
Baginda pun meny-Aroh aruah mem- 
bacha dod tolak bala, &j^t^ ^y JjJ^i csA^ 
Jlj ^y Loo gL*^ cA^t Then the mon^ 
arch ordered prayers for the dead, and 
supplications that calamity might be 
averted, to be read. Note: This word 
is really the Arabic plural of the word 
Ruh, ^x> The soul. 

Aruan, ^jj;! The name of a fresh-water 

fish which is found in stagnant swamps. 
Note: The form RAan, ^Ijj; is more 


Iru-biru, jj^^j] 

Aru-btru, ^^ ^j\ Tumult, hurly-burly, 

turmoil, uproar, disturbance. (See H8,ru- 
biru, ^^ jj^lfe Tumult, hurly-burly, etc.) 

kruh, ^j\ The soul, the spirit, the spark 
of life, consciousness. Note : This word 
is usually pronounced Euh, ^j and is 
also more often written in that way. 

Arun, ^}^) To rub pulut rice into coco- 
nut mslk until the oil of the latter comes 
out and is mixed with the rice. Maka 
p<ilut itu di-arun-kan-nya-lah, &yy <^\-^ 
A^j^j/j)^ uu*jl He rubbed the pidut 
rice into the coconut milk. Hati di- 
dalam b&gai di-arun, ^U ^bJ ^^ 
^jj^l J My heart within me is moved {lit, 

is as though it had been mixed up like 
jyuliit rice and coconut milk.) iVo/e ; 
The term Arun, ^^^1 is only to be 
used of rubbing in the pulut rice, and 
must not be applied to mixing dough or 
any similar substance. It is occasion- 
ally used figuratively, as in the above 

Arus, ^jy' ^^^ current, stream, tide. 
Arus iang kinchang, ^^ ^ ^^j\ A 
violent current, a strong tide. Jangan 
di-bri pr&hu me-lentang arus, v^^*i jt>\^ 
^}j\ AftJu» ^ly Do not allow the boat 
to get broadside on with the tide. 
Anynt meng-^pong-slpong meng-ikut 

arus, ^^^) &/^ r^y^ *>e' To drift; 
floating rtther and thither borne by the 

Arus, Ab., j-yl Lawful, fit, proper, ex- 
pedient ; necessary, needful ; likely, pro- 
bable. (See H&rus, ^j^ Fit, proper, 
likely, etc.) 

Aruth, Ab., (J^Jj^ Metre, measure, rhythm. 
(See Aaruth, (j^j^ Metre, etc.) 

As, Ar., ^\ Myrtle. 

Asa, Hind., ^I Hope, trust. Sepaya 
jangan pAtus fi-sa dan h&rap anak-anda, 
jujal «-3^b> ^lo ^1 ^y jt>\e^ ^^^ Ii^ 
order that your son's hopes and expec- 
tations may not be disappointed. 

Asa, ^\ One, single, unique, only, alone. 
Note : This form, which is only occasion- 
ally met with in writing, is a contraction 
of S&tu, y Lo One, etc., and in colloquial 

Asah, d^l 

Malay is again contracted into 'Sa, L^ 

KAmbu di-dalam jala, handak men- 
angkap ikan sembilang, sudah ber-temu 
pada Holanda, ka-asa dapat ka-diia 
hilang, * J L<kf^ J-^^^ • J^ ^'^^ >«^>^ 
^•l^ .JuJ^ ^^^ ySji 6J— ^ .^W*-* v:^' 
. Alift^ l^js:^ &i\^ A kumbu fish in a casting- 
net, when we desired to catch a s^Mlang 
fish. When they encountered the Dutch, 
one was gained and two were lost. BAnga 
asadan bAnga ber-sAsun, \^y, ^lJ ^1 1^^ 
^^^^ A single flower and a sheaf of 
blossoms. Kdrang asa s'rfttus banyak- 

^7^9 i^^ u-^'^ ^' ^J^ Their number 
was one hundred less oue. Note : This 
word in its contracted colloquial form of 
Sa, Lo is very commonly used among the 
Malays of the East Coast of the Peninsula. 

Asa, Lol A practical joke. Peng-asa, LoUi 

A practical joker. Asa-kan, ^^Lol To 

take a person in, to deceive or lead him 
to believe that you will do something for 
him or give him something and then 
fail to do it. To hold something out to 
a child and, when he tries to take it, 
pull it back. 

Asa', *L^1 To remove, to take away ; to 
put together, to place close together- 
Asa'-kan barang-mu, ^^ ^^Lj ^*L-^I 

Remove your goods. Asa'-lah kamu, 
^\^ d3*L*l Go away ! Withdraw ! Move 

from hence ! Take yourself off ! 

Asad, Ar., Jw-^1 To cause a disturbance, 
to create trouble. 

Aslida, jL))Ar., Alion. Note: This word 
is only met with in writing, and is not 
commonly imderstood by Malays. The 
word Singa U-^ is the usual term for a 

Asah, iJL^l To sharpen, to whet, to rub 
or grind upon a stone, to triturate ; also 
Asah-kan, ^^5^^' Meng-asah, a^Uu and 
Meng-8,sah-kan ^^jC^Uu Asah-kan pe- 
dang, plj^ v:5^<-^' To sharpen a sword. 
Blakang parang s'kali-pun jika di-asah 
neschaya tajam jAga, ^yLjSlCo ^^U ^h 
i^y^ f^\S ^\^ d-^b cMj^ Even the 

back of a knife, if ground upon a stone, 
becomes sharp — Prov. Asah gigi, <su^l 
^JiS To file the teeth; to grind down 
the teeth by rubbing them with stones 


Asah, !^^\ 

of different degrees of smoothness after 
the operation of Dabong 5^1^ or rough 

filing has been completed. It is after 
this that the teeth are blackened. (See 
Baja, gli) Selang antS.ra tAjoh hari maka 

Raja D6nan handak ber-asah gigi maka 
ia-pun ber-Asah, <.5A^ ij?j^ ^^ ^^' A'^ 

oy ^.' "^^ fj^ ^-^y c3^^^*^ s;^^"^ Sb 
6^\ji After an interval of seven days 

Rflja Donan wished to have his teeth filed, 

and he filed them. Note: In ordinary 

colloquial Malay it is usual to employ 

the term Ber-&sah d-ol^ to mean To file 

the teeth, without expressing the word 
Gigi, ^JLS Teeth. Peng-asah A^Ui A 

sharpener, a grinder ; that which whets, 
grinds or sharpens. Batu peng-asah, 
d-^Ui^lj A whetstone, a grindstone. 

Peng-ftsah pisau, ^-^^ A^ULi A knife 

Asah, j-ol Veritable, true, certain, legi- 
timate, proper, right, legal, verily, truly. 
(See Sah, *-© Veritable, true, etc.) 

Nofe : This form only occurs in writing 
and the initial A 1 is never pronoimced. 

Asah -an, ^L*) A kind of cambric of 
native manufacture which is less fine 
than the fabric termed Ohipok, ^5^*^ by 
the Malays. 

Asahan, ^Lol Asahan, a State in Sumatra. 

Asai, ^e-^l A kind of weevil which bores 

into soft wood; worm-eaten, moulding 

Asak, ^1 and Meng-elsak, ^Uu To press 

down, as when a vessel is full and you 
wish to put in a little more ; to ram in, 
to beat in, to jam in, to cram in, to fill to 
the brim, to stuff full, to force aside, to 
push away, to pile stamped rice in heaps. 

Anak-anak asak, ^1 t*^! A stuffed 
doll. Ber-asak, ^3^1^ To push one an- 
other about. Ter-asak, ^3-»ly Jammed 
fast between two things. Meng-asak- 
kan kris ka-hadap-an-nya, ^^ ^^^JL^^A^ 
^^|J^ To thrust his kris forward in 
front of him. Of. Gasak, ^\S To 
beat, etc.' 

Asal, Ar., J-oI Root, origin, source, race, 
lineage, descent, family; in the begin- 
ning, originally. Maka asal-nya per- 
kata-an sembahiang itu deri-pSda sembah 
dan iang-iang, ^^f--*^ o"K>* ^^ 

Asam, ^\ 

YM ^^1*^ Ah--* ^j^ uw' The root of the 
word Sembahiang (to pray) is from the 
words Sembah (to do reverence) and iang^ 
iang (to make supplication.) Maka drang 
ber-tipa itu pun minta-lah do'a lalu d,nak 
per-amp<i-an itu pun kembali-lah ka- 
pada asal-nya, id^bul* ^^j^^' <-3lJ^ $>^l csA^ 

,^^1 The hermit said a prayer, and the 

girl was restored to her original form. 
Di-cherita-kan-nya-lah segala hal ahwal 
merika-itu deri-pada asal ka-hilang-an 
tongkat itu s'hfingga ka-sudah-an-nya, 

^Jw^ ^k,r^ k\ a<V J^ J;^^ He 
related all the matter from the beginning, 
when the walking-stick was lost even 
unto the end of the business. Maka 
ada-pun hikayat ini fi,sal-nya deri-pMa 
bhasa Hindu, ^1 ^\ *Kfe. o^'^' "^^ 
^juLfc ^l^ jj;a This history is origin- 
ally written in the language of the 
Hindus. Ber-asal, J-©l^ Of good family ; 

having ancestors of long descent, flntah- 
kan pen-jelma-an deri-pada d^wa dewata 
atau pun petra rft]a-rfi.ja iang ber-asal, 

'>^ O^ y %^ '>^ ^^^ o'^^^ o^' 
J-©)^ ^ feb I know not whether he is 

an incarnation of the gods, or a prince 
descended from kings of high descent. 
Sekarang raja iang ber-asal itu ada-lah 
ia dMok dengan ka-sakit-an ka-dda laki 
istri mem-bdat ladang, J-olj-J^ gVj ^^IC^ 

6i3i S\ysJ^ ^y^ Now the tingiwho is 
of high descent is living with his wife 
in great misery, and is engaged in 
the planting of hill-rice. Hilang asal 
ka-rfi,ja-an, ^^'k^'/ J-=>' ^^ The royal 
succession was lost. Tiada jftga di-ka- 
tahu-i mana iang £lsal s'kali, c^^ ^l-<^ 
^l5Lo J^l ^ ^U i^^^^ It is unknown 
which is the original. Kcmbali pada 
asal Asul, J-=>jl Jol JJ ^U^ To be 

resolved into its original elements. 

Asal, J-ol If; that; so as; so that; pro- 
vided that. Asal di-benar-kan Mih raja, 
sb 4>' cZ-H"^ J^' If the king allows it. 

Asam, f^\ Sour, acid; a sour fruit or 
vegetable used for culinary purposes, 
Ayer asam, ^1 jil The juice of the lime 
or of any other acid fruit. Limau asam, 
^1^^ Limes, lemons. Asam limau 


Isam, ^t 

y^ f^\ Lime juice. Asam lada, a J ^t 
or Asam garam, ^^ IS" ^^1 Chillies and salt 
mixed with the juice of some acid fruit, 
and eaten as a condiment. Asam blanda, 
juJi f^\ HibisrMs sabdariffa. Asam blemb- 
ing, A«-^ ^-»' Averrhoa. Asam besembi, 
^■i.»^^.) i*— ^1 A kind of rubiacia. Asam 
remnia, L^^-*; ^%--ol A common fruit tree. 
Asam Jawa, l^la. ^1 A tamarind. Asam 
glftgor, ^y? ^^—^1 A kind of black 
tamarind. Asam klftbi, ^^ f^^\ and 
Asam paya, <^U ^1 The name of a 
plant which grows in marshy land, and 
which produces an acid fruit. ^ The 
leaves are used for thatching. Asam- 
asani-an, ^^V*^' Sour fruits, such as 
the above, or as the pine-apple, etc. 
Peng-asam, ^Ui Acids used for rub- 
bing on the body, to cleanse it. Peng- 
^am kris, ^^ ^^ Acid for taking 
the rust ofE and cleaning the steel of a 
Jcris. Note : The expression Peng-asam 
kris ,j^^ ^l^ is used by Malays much 
as the English expression "Food for 
powder " is among ourselves. Pek-asam, 
^l5Ci A preserve of fish made with 

rice and acid fruits placed in layers 
in a jar. Note : This substantive is 
formed in an irregular manner. (See 
also Masam, ^U Sour of the looks, etc.) 

Asam, Ak., ^1 Deaf. (See Pekak, ^^ 
aiid TAli, ^y Deaf.) 

Asap, *-iJ Smoke. S'kali letup tiga 
deguln-nya asap ber-payong ka-udara, 
^jiU^ u-i-^1 ^/^ i^Lf^ <^^ s?*^^^^"^ 
)j\^y\i To one explosion there were 

three reports, and the smoke arose to 
the heavens like an umbrella. Di- 
dalam laut itu glap gultta tiada apa 
tampak (Qih karana asap {ibat bedil, ^1 J%i 
^\^ dJy ^^ t-il aLJ \slJS UiSS uHll &ji 
Jij^ dj^l uJ-^l In those seas all was 

pitch darkness, owing to the smoke of 
the gunpowder. 

Ber-apa tinggi pAchok pisang 
Tinggi lagi asap api 
Ber-apa tinggi gdnong me-lentang 
Tinggi lagi harap hati. 

t^ S^^ i/^ "^'^ 

t^ i^^ J^ ^'^ 

Ashki, ^Jl&x> 

However high the shoot of the banana 
tree, higher yet is the smoke of fire; 
however high the slanting mountain, 
higher still are my hopes in thee ! Ayer 
dideh-nya sudah men-jadi suS,tu anak 
sAngei dan asap api-nya sudah men-jadi 
awan, ^1 Sl^-** ^^Jlq^ju* fij^.^ ^^^ ^' 

The rice strainings became a tributary 
stream, and the smoke of the fires 
became a cloud. Asap r6ko', *^^jj; «— 4*^1 
Tobacco smoke. Asap per-baran, s^JujA 
O^^-y The smoke which issues from a 
censer; incense. Asap-kan, ^j<iLo) To 
incense; to apply smoke to anything. 
Maka di-bakar pAntong chendana gharu 
dan kemennyan barus itu maka di-asap- 
kan pMa dbat dan pelAru dan stinggar 
itu, ^^ycr^ ^b ^^ ^Ijj^ ^^y /Ij j cM^ 

J!A^ o'^ ^->' "^ e)^'^ "^^ «^' U^A>^ 
u:-*il J^Ms^ ^lj He burned pieces of 

sandal and agila wood, gum benzoin, 
and camphor, and incensed the gun- 
powder, bullets, and matchlock. iJote : 
To smoke tobacco should be rendered 
by the word Hisap, *^i^i^ and To 

smoke over the fire, like fish, etc., should 
be expressed by the word Salai, ^^Lo. 

Asar, Ae., yc»s> The afternoon ; the hour 
of afternoon prayer. (See Aasar, y<=i^ 
The afternoon, etc.) 

Asas, Ab., ^L»J Foundation, base. 

Asek, Ar., ^3^lo Love, passion; to love. 
(See Aasek, ^lc> To love, etc) 

Asek, Ar., ^5-s-^l Intent. (See Hasek, 
^5-s-^ljb Intent, etc.) 

Asfal, Ar., JiLol Low, mean, common. 

Ashab, Hind., c,-^! Master. 

Ashek, ^5^10 Love, passion, to love. (See 
Aashek, ^lc> Love, etc.) 

Ashia, Ar., "Ij^sol Things. (See Shai, ^ 
A thing, of which this is a plural form.) 

Ashkar, An.^ ^^jo^^ An army; a soldier. 
Note : The form Ashkar, j^] also occurs. 
(See Aashkar, /Ua^ An army, etc.) 

Ashki, Ar., ^q^^-^^^ Enamoured, inspired 

with love. (See Aashek, ^lc> Love, 

etc., and Aashki, ^g^^i^ Enamoured, 




Ist&ka, ^Ix^l 

Asl, ^\ Affirmative, right, yes. Asi-kah, 
<9^<tH>l Is it so ? Will you do it ? Is it 
agreed ? 

Asl, Ab., ^e-olff> Rebellious, disobedient, 

obstinate, stubborn, refractory. (See 
Aasi, ^e-olp Rebellious, etc.) 

Asia, Ab., L—oI Age, lifetime. Tlga pAloh 
flnta betina tiga tahun asia-nya tiga-pMoh 
tlnta ampat tahun asia-nya ampat pMoh 
flnta iang bdnting, ^^j-^ «iJjl dJy ^~J^ 
^\s diUl ^^) d3y ^J:^ ^1^1 ^b c^-J 
^^ ^—l u^j] A)y aJU) ^1,^1 Thirty 

female camels aged three years each, an d 
thirty camels aged four years, and forty 
female camels great with young. Note : 
The word tJmor, j^^ is far more common, 

the term Asia, L-ol being chiefly met 

with in books of law. The form TJsia, 
l^j^l also occurs. 

Asil, Ab., Jft-<=>' Revenue, income, rent. 
(See Hasil, J-oU^ Revenue, etc.) 

Asll, Ab., Ja-o) Rooted. 

Asin, ^jj-^l Salt, salted, brackish, briny 

in flavour; pickled in salt. Asin-an, 
^jjuwu>l Fruit pickled in brine or salt. 

(Jerok, JJ^^) Asin-asin, Y^:y»^^ The 
name of a tree the leaves of which are 
used for polishing wood. (See Masin, 
^jj-i^U of which this word is merely a 

corruption. The leaves of the Memplas, 
^jJJu^ are more commonly used for this 


Asing, ^^) Other than; other; another; 

separate ; apart ; asunder ; distinct ; 
foreign. Chari asing, ^^1 i^j^ To 

search for another. Asing deri-pftda, 

jjj^ ^^1 Other than. Orang asing, 

A-5^1 &jj] Another person, a foreigner, 

a stranger ; one unconnected by ties 
of blood with the speaker. Meng-asing- 
kan, ^j5<A-w^Uu To set apart, to make a 

difference between any things. Meng- 
asing-kan diri-nya, ^^a ^J^Ju^\iL^ To 
keep oneself apart. 

Askar, Ab., ^^Cc> An army; a soldier. 
(See Aaskar, ^^C-^ An army, etc.) 

Asll,, Ab., ^J^\ Noble, well-born. 

Asma, Ab., 'U^-el Names. Note : This 
word is the plural of Isim, i%— ^1 A 
name. (See Isma, *U**) Name.) 

Asmara, Sans., ^U^I The God of Love; 
love ; beloved object ; favourite. 

Asoh, iJL^I To nurse, to tend, to nourish^ 
to cherish, to rear ; also Asoh-kan, ^^j^^^' 

Peng-S,soh, <uoUi A nurse, an attendant. 
Maka Sang Seperba pun mem-ileh 
dftyang-dayang ampat-pMoh inang penff- 
asoh perw^ra ampat-pAloh orang, ^ <^X* 
d^Ui kxi) ^y ^UL*I VM}*^ ^^if*^ ^>^ s^yLo 
A^->' <dy ^La.^1 ^jl^^ Sang Sepfirba se- 
lected forty damsels, and forty male and 
female nurses and attendants. la-itu 
kanak-kanak ter-lalu kechil sedang patut 

di-layan Alih segala inangpeng-asoh-nya, 

dJjl ^Sj 2J[i^ J«^ W ^d^^ ^^^ 
^^j^^Ui Axi) JxL© A very small child, who 

ought to be being cared for by his male 
and female nurses. Maka di-lihat ada 
s'6rang Petri di-adap Alih segala dayang- 
d&yang dan inang peng-fl,soh-nya dan 
biti perwSra sekelian dMok meng-adap 

ia, JSl-o <Jjl t-4 Jla i^y^ AaH^ "^^ ^W*^ *-^ 

^gl t-ijUu jj«Jj^^ He beheld a princess 

sitting in front of all her maidens, nur- 
ses, attendants, people and guardians, 
who sat facing her. Peng-asoh b^ah 
kring, M^ <s^^ fi^Ui A wet and dry 
nurse ; a nurse who performs all the 
necessary duties for the child under her 
charge. Awang peng-ftsoh, A^Ui ^1^1 

Awang the nurse : the name given to the 

comedian in the Malay Ma'|iong, ^>i*U 

who acts the part of male attenilant to 
the hero or Pa' iong. Note : The term 

Peng-asoh A^Ui is sometimes, but seldom,. 

applied to a male nurse, in contradis- 
tinction to Inang, ^1 A female nurse. 

Asoh-isoh, Y^j-^^ The name of an edible 

sea- fish. 

Asrar, An,jj)j^\ Secret. 

Asta, \a^\ a cubit, the length from the 
elbow to the end of the fingers. (See 
Hasta \a^^ which is the more correct 
form in writing, although the initial H ^ 
is always dropped in colloquial Malay. 
The word Sok -sJ^ is also used to express 
this measurement.) 

Astika, Sans., jsJU-^I A temporary throne 
used for coronations and on festal occa* 
sions. M&ka vkjs, pun ber-arak ka-ast&ka 


Astakdna^ ^^^^^^^ 

serta ia pun naik ber-semayam di-atas- 
nya, ^\ o^j-^ ^U^*l^ j;!^ ^y gb ctU 
^^lj ^Uw-e^ tsiilJ ^y The king was 

carried in procession to the throne, and 
he ascended and seated himself thereon. 

Aatakdna, Hind., ^^^^:^1 An octagon, a 
polygon ; a building built in the shape of 
a cross ; the cross of an Order, a sort of 
diadem ; a kind of box used to hold 
perfufhes. Rftmah ber-astakona, &^x> 
^^A^\ji A house with four wings 
which run out at right angles from the 
centre of each of the main walls. Nfi,si 

ber-astak6na, ^^^^s^^ji ^^^ Hice piled 
lip in eight tiers, used on festal occasions. 

Astllna, Pees., ^buol A palace, a royal 

dwelling. Maka Sang Seperba pun segra 
ka-lvkar deri astana-nya meng-alu-ahi- 
kan ayahd^nda bonda baginda, A^ isX,^ 

juJo Ju^ Ju4il Sang Seperba came forth 

speedily from his palace, and welcomed 
his father and mother. Ada-pun pada 
peng-lihat-an hamba dftli iang-di-per- 
tftan jarang-lah pergi ka-astslna TAan 

Petri, ^^lyyjJki ^^ J H--^ Jf W^ ^ ^y '^' 
^-^ oV o^*^ cs^y al^^lcs So far as 
I can see, Your Highness but rarely goes 
to the palace of the Princess. Maka 
Laksamana pun masok ka-dalam ast&na 
itu lalu ka-per-adu-an, ^y ^^^U.-^ l^X^^ 
^)^)jiS p «^l ^Is-^l ^|j^ ^§^1. The 

LaksamaAa went into the palace, and 
penetrated even to the bed-chamber. 
ChAkup lengkap dengan k6ta parit b&lai 

astana, ^l^ Ikj^ u^/ ^^ ^J<^ ^iSy^ 

^U^l Fully furnished with forts and 

moats, halls and palaces. M&ka letak- 
kan di-tengah astana TAan-ku ini, c5i--« 
^l yoly ^U^l ^J ^J^ Place it in the 

centre of Your Majesty's palace. Maka 
ter-dengar-lah suara-nya ka-pada TAan 
Petri Ganda firan di-dalam anjong ast&na 
bftnyi biidak men-ftngis ter-lalu bias 
hati-nya ti&da ter-t8,han lagi, J^ jy csA^ 

^1 ^^y The noise of the child weeping 

was hesotl by the Princess Grand a firan 
m her apartment in the palace, and she 
was moved with such pity that she was 
nnable to bear it any longer, tsi astana, 

Asut, &^^\ 

^U-ol ^^^1 The inhabitants of a palace ; 
the royal household; the women of a 
harem. M&ka Hang Jebat pun senanti&sa 
dMok di-d^am ast&na rtlja ter-mUsa 
dengan segftla isi astana dan giindek- 
gflndek raja, ^Lsjuua ^^ ^L^ ^ csJU-^ 

eb fv5i^/ e)'^ c)^' s?^' Hang Jebat 
continued to live in the king's palace, 
amusing himself with all the inhabitants 
of the palace and the king's concubines. 
Ber-astana, ^^t^ Having a palace, 
possessing a palace. Bendahara Tiia ii)u 
dMok diam ber-astana di-kuala sftngei 

«t-ql ^^^ The old Bendahara lived in a 
palace which he possessed at the mouth 
of the river. Sri astana, ^U-^l ^^j-^ 
That which is most prized in the palace. 
The ornament of the palace. The centre 
of a rajahs palace which is formed by 
the four octagonal pillars (Tiang sri, 
^j^ ^) situated between the raised 
sleeping platform (Pentas, ^j-a«j) and 
the women's raised platform opposite. 
(Pe-baiai, ^Lj) 

AstSmewa, I^-^^juoI Especially, principally, 
chiefly, more especially, particularly. 
(See [fists m^wa, \ytJ^AJ\ Especially, etc.) 

Asttmal, J^^ftXu)) Respect for another's 
claims. (See Istimal, J^^ex^l) 

Asttnja, Aja., »■ »:  *— o ) The ablutions per- 
formed by Muhammadans after voiding. 
M&ka Laksamd^na pun sudah astinja-nya 
lalu ber-diri, ^j^^^wt-ol fij^ ^y ^^U^ «j&L» 
^^y^^^ ^i The Laksamftna, having 
completed his ablutions after voiding, 
stood lip. 

Asu, ^1 The canine or eye teeth. Grigi 

asu,^l s?^ ^^^ canine tooth. 
Asu ad, Ab., j^.^1 Black. 

Asut, Syj>) To incite, to stir up, to cause 
a rebellion; also Asut-kan ^^I and 
Meng-asut-kan, ^^\L^ Pada pikir-an 
bfita dia-lah iang meng-asut-kan, Jc^ 
^^{L» ^ d^j UL^ e)-^^ ^^ ^7 opinion, 
it was he who incited them (to rebellion.) 
Asut-an ^^j-^l Incitement, incitation; 
that which incites or stirs up to strife 
or rebellion. Maka &sut-an ka-ampat 
merika-itu ka-pMa rd.ja itu m&ka sebab 
itu-lah men-jfidi prang ini, ^J^^^ 




^ ^ly ^g^^l^A-^ It was on account of 

the incitement of the raja by those four 
individuals that this war came about. 
Asut-an dia jAga garaak-nya, ^^o c/>"**' 
^^IS" i^y^ That also, 1 fancy, is due 
to his incitement. 

Atabat, Ar., lf:ss> A township, a small 
town, a village. (See Aatabat, ^Lao A 
township, etc.) 

Atakad, Ar., jJLjIo Faith, confidence, 
trust, belief; a resolution, determination. 
(See Aatakad, JJBlo Faith, etc.) 

Atal, JJl The name of a jungle tree which 

yields a medicinal resin. Gf. Hartal, 
Jj^^ A cosmetic. 

Atap, i-ft5l The roof of a house ; thatch ; 

roofing. Dinding-nya kacha atap-nya 
perak, ^y^ J^\ ^ ^Jia The walls 

were of glass, the roof of silver. Maka 
mahligai amas itu-pun rdboh-lah atap-nya 

s'blah, ^1 ^)^ ^^ ^j^\ ^^^ ^^^ 
<xL--o The roof of the golden pavilion 

thereupon collapsed on one side. Kena- 
kan atap, i-ft5l ^^U^ To roof a house, 
to thatch a building. Chflchor atap, 
i«i5l y^y^ or Ch dehor- an atap, ^^J^Jf^ 
*-aJ) The channels in the thatch down 

which the rain runs. Ayer di-tAlang 
bAmbong-an ka-mana tArun-nya kalau 

titlda chAchor-an §.tap, ^^j^ji ^y^ j~i^ 

^^' i^j^y^ ^^-^ y^ Jj/ O*-^ How 

should the water on the ridge of the roof 
descend, if not by the channels in the 
thatch. — rrav.y The young will follow 
the example set to them by their elders. 
Atap ayan, ^lil «-a5l Corrugated iron 
roofing. Atap genting, A^xa? ^^-aJl o?* 
Atap bS^tu sisek tenggiling, ^l^ «-aJl 
^L-^l^ ^ ^ tr^>^.lf^ A tiled roof. Beng- 
kawan atap, «-i5) ^jKJ^ The lath on 
which the lengths of thatch are fastened. 
Note: Bengkawan, ^^^^^ is used as the 
numeral co-efficient of pieces of thatch. 
Atap dAa bengk&wan, ^^^^^^ 'j^ «-i5l 
Two pieces of thatch. Kasau atap,^l^ 
*-aJl The rafters on which the thatch 
of a house is laid. Kasau d,tap jantan, 
^^jXfcfiK «-a5l ^l? The large rafters. Kasau 

atap betina, ^^^^^ «-i5l y^\^ The small 
rafters. S'bAah pondok ber-dinding 

Atas, j^l 

&tap, cJUl ^J3^^ c3"^y ^'>«^ -^ ^^^ 
with walls made of thatching. Note: 
The thatch used by Malays is made 
generally from one or other of the 
following palms : Bertam, ^^ ChAchoh, 

&^y^ Ijuk, ^j^\ Nipah, di^ Palas, 
J^U Saiak, ^L* KlAbi, ^>^ Ser- 
dang, ^^>-» and Nipah, diJ are the best. 
Atar, jJ\ The name of a perfume. Ayer 
atar, y I ^1 or Minyak fttar, ^1 ^5^ Attar 
{AngJice, Otto) of roses. 

Atas, ^1 On, upon, up to, on the sum- 
mit, on to the summit, on high, above, 
over ; towards ; in regard to ; moreover. 

Ka-atas, ^*l^ On to, up to, above. 

Di-atas, ^^^ On, upon, on the top or 

summit. Di-atas angin, ^^-^1 ^\^ Above 

the wind, westerly, to the west. (See 

Angin, ^jj-s^l Air, etc.) Maka di-bli-nya 

be-ber-apa mata benda lalu di-m<iat-nya 
ka-atas pedati, y Jl Jo^ SU t-il^ ,^^ ^-^X* 

^|j^ ^*^ ^'>-^^ He bought great 
numbers of precious treasures and placed 
them all upon the waggon. Maka ia-pun 
mem-andang ka-kiri dan ka-kanan dan 
ka-atas dan ka-b§,wah, ^Ja-*^ ^y <^l tsA-* 

^jW^ c)'^ ^"'^ c)'^ J^ o'^ s?^ He 
looked to the left and to the right, above 

and below. Naik ka-atas, ^'l^ ^l3 To 

ascend, to go up, to climb up. Maka 
di-sftroh Bendahara TAa itu naik ka-atas 
tanjar-an karang kakap itu, sjy^a^ csA^ 

^-^^ tj^ o^ u^"^ "^^ ^' ^Aj^^ 

«:^l He told the old Bendahara to climb 
up to the look-out of the vessel. Ada- 
pun kita hidop di-atas dunia ini deri- 
kechil di-kandong ibu sudah besar di- 
kandong aadat jikalau mati kandong- 

an tanah, L^J ^^^ ciJ^ ut^^ o^'*^' 

diU ^^J^ ^"U ^ SjL^ Our life on 

earth is first in the wombs of our mothers, 
when we are grown up, in the womb of 
conventionality, and when we are dead, 
in the womb of the earth. Ber-semayam 
di-atas tahta senggahsana ka-r&ja-an den- 
gan ka-senang-an-nya, 5«J ^1«^ #%iU-i*^ 
^^\j^ ^^ o'^'->^ ^L-^Xi-^ Seated 
upon the throne of the kingdom in all 
prosperity. Maka tampil-lah ka-d<ia-nya 
mem-adan ayam ada-pun ayam Raja 
Pikas itu bAlang atas, ^^'>>^ dUy JU 


Atas, ^1 

^j-Jl Now when they compared their 

fighting cocks, Raja Pikas' bird had its 
artificial spurs fastened above. Di-krat 
di-atas di-sdsub-kan dan di-parang rend- 
ah di-16mpat-kan, ^^^C^^-^j ^j^J«^ '&y^^ 
^^^Cs&^^j ^^JJ^ A^^*^ o'*^ When he made 
a high cut, his adversary ducked, and 
when he cut low, avoided it by jump- 
ing. «Maka sudah angkau kerja-kan 
angkau ka-tAjoh ber-sudara ini aku j&di- 
kan pegawei di-atas segala pegawei iang 

banyak ini, /^\ ^W^ /^^ &^^^ <^^— 
^b v^^lO ^^\^ f\ ^I^IJj^^ 6c^y6 
4«^1 ^3jlj Al ^^^ ^ — » And when you 
have accomplished the work, I will make 
all seven brothers of you officers over 
my ordinary officials. Jika dMi iang- 
di-per-tftan bftat aniaya atas kanak-kanak 
itu bfi,rang-kali hampir-hampir kita kena 

ka-ben&sa-an, alj-i o'yy^ s?'-^'^ <-^^-^ 
'^ t>i^ ^gJ^l? «^' ^^5^^ u-^' s^W 
^•UL-^ U^ If Your Majesty should act 
oppressively in regard to that child, we 
shall very likely go near to being des- 
troyed. Me-lain-kan ibarat dan kias- 
nya itu atas mandsia jAga, 6pLc> ^^jC^Ju 

c-f^ s?-^^ u^' **^' ^^ o'^ ^or the 
metaphors and hints thereof have regard 
to human beings also. Bharu ber-temu 
s'orang kanak-kanak itu-pun dapat mem- 
bri ka-malu-an atas hamba, yj^^ ^^^ 
^1 ^^\jS ^y^ a>b ^ybjil r^i^ ^^ys^ 

s--«^ W||ien you have only encountered 
a child, you allow him to put a shame 
upon me. Maka ^pa-bila t{lan-ku datang 
ka-kolam itu neschaya di-bAnoh-lah Alih 
segala singa itu maka dosa-nya itu atas 
hamba, 4*^1 f^/^ ^la yOly J<^) csA^^ 

s-^< J> ^ — J' **^' When Your Majesty 
comes to the pond, you will certainly be 
slain by the lions, and the sin thereof 
will be upon me- Di-^tas Ifi-gi pfttek 
sembab-kan, ^^^.^ ^-^^V^ ^^ O'— ^'"^ 
Already thy slave has made known. 
Ber-perman-lah ia atas lidah IJmar, 
j4X> &j^ ^\ ^\ dL-«jij-j He spoke by 

the tongue of IJmar {viz.^ God spoke.) 
Ber-&tas-atas-an, Y^^ji Each side striv- 
ing for the same thing; to dispute. 
Meng-atas, ^^ To aspire, to go beyond, 
excel, to exalt oneself above others. 

Itelas, ^» 

Atas meng-atas, ^U-» ^1 Heaped up 
one on the top of the other. 

Atau, y) Or, either, else. Dan seperti na- 

kh6da-nya firtau jAru-batu-nya dan jAru- 
miidi-nya ^tau tiikang pStak malim 
&ngin-nya fttau ftnak dayong-nya me* 
lain-kan hamba s*6rang diri me-layar- 
kan prahu ini, jy^ ^\ ^'^jaJ &Ju^ ^Io 

^1 yS^^ \^jl^ s?>*^ And as for the 
master of the vessel, or the pilot, and 
the steersman, or the supercargo, tiie 
navigator or the oarsmen, I by myself 
sail this ship. Serta di-minta lihat-kan 
petra-nya iang di-d&lam kandong-an 
Istri-nya itu laki-laki-kah fttau per- 
amp6-an dan ber-tAah-kah atau pun 
chelaka, ^laa ^ ^1^ o^^^^W 'Uju#j «^^ 

-^^ oy y' ^ ^Vj:^ ^"^ ^^ desired 
them to enquire whether his child, 
which was in his wife's womb, was 
male or female, and whether he was 

fortunate or accursed. Atau dengan 
akral tAan-nya jikalau barang suatu 
ahwal-nya pun biar-lah, ^ly Jy I ^ J yl 

master so agrees, whatever evil may 
befall him, no compensation shall be 
cl aimed » Atau ya atau tidak, y I U ^1 
jjxJ Is it so or not ? Yes or no ? Note : 
In colloquial Malay the word Atau,yl 
is sometimes used by itself to express 
"Well then?" "What then?" "What 
else ?" " What alternative course do you 
propose?" Note: The forms Atawa, IjlJl 

and Atui, ^^y) are also met with, but are 
less common than Atau, yl though both 
are frequently to be heard in colloquial 
Malay. The form Atui, v^yl is especi- 
ally common in Kedah. 

Atliwa, Ijbl Or, else, either, or else. (See 
Atau, yl Or, else, etc.) 

Atdlas, Ar., ,jJJs>I Satin. Kain S-telas ber- 
telepok amas, ^j^ oV^^ ,j-^' o^^ A 
piece of satin stamped with gold. Kain 
sutera kain atelas dan kain benang, ^l^ 

A*^ cji^ c)'^ u^' cji^ ^y^ Pieces of silk, 
satin, and cotton. Mem-ftkai selAar 
fttelas tenun-an anak raja Jawa, ^q^^-^ 

bW^ cb c5^' v:yy^ v.r^' ^^^ -^^ P^** ^^ 


Atham, fio^ 

satin trousers which had been woven by 
a princess of Java. (In PSrak, Antelas, 
,jJ^) is always used.) 

Atham, Ab., ^Jaf> Bone, bones. (See 
Aatham, ^Jaf> Bone, etc.) 

Athamat, aLJis> Imposing, solemn, awful, 
appalling, august, impressive, inspiring 
ideas of awe, fear, state, or grandeur; 
pomp, magnificence, state, display. (See 
Aathamat, aLJis> Imposing, pomp, etc.) 

Athim, Ae., ^♦-jlao Grand, sublime, solemn, 
awful. (See Aathim, (^^os> Grand, etc.) 

Ati, ^Jl The heart; the organ of sensi- 
bility or intelligence; the liver (anatomi- 
cally.) See Hati, ^\^ The heart, which 

is the only form to be used in writing, 
Ati being a purely colloquial expression, 
which, however, is very generally em- 

Atma, Hind., LjI Breath. Note : This 
word only occurs in Malay in Jfiwatma, 
Ull^ftCK The breath of life. (See J6wa, 

\ygx>. Life, etc.) 

Atong, ^y) To pay out enough cable to 
allow the anchor to drag, so as to ensure 

' a boat drifting gently; also Meng-atong, 
^yUu which is the form usually met 

with. Note: This, which in nautical 
language is termed "trippingthe anchor,*' 
is always done by the Malay fishermen 
of the East Coast of the Peninsula when 
engaged in fishing for Ikan kerisi, ^^1 

^^^^ Smelt. 

Ator, yl Order, form, array, rank, ar- 
rangement ; to arrange, to set in order, 
to set out in order, to array. Ber-ator, 
yl^ Having arrangement; disciplined; 

in rank, in order, in array; arranged, 
ordered. Segala hidang-an sedia her- 
itor, ylj^ v^J^--* ^^y^ JS^-o All the 
stands containing food were ready ar- 
ranged. Meng-ator, ^ Uu and Meng-ator- 
kan, ^j/y^ To arrange, to set out in 
order, to set in order. M&ka Laksamana 
pun ber-lengkap di-atas rhali-nya 

meng-ator bedil dan meriam, ^U*JlJ tsA^ 

^^ o'^ Jj^ c59^ ^ u-^'^ ^^^ oy 

The LaksamS^na made all ready on board 
his galley, and set out the firearms and 
cannon in order. Ter-ator, y ly In rank, 
in order, arranged in order, drawn up 

Aum, j»jl 

in line. Ator-kan, ^j^\ To array, to 

arrange, to set out in order, to set in 
order ; to explain. Mana-mana hukum 
iang pl6k patok minta ator-kan, ^%^ i^^^U 
^yl 'U^ c^U ^ ^ Thy slave 
begs that any difl&cult orders may be 
explained to him. Ator-kan negri, ^jf\ 
v^yO To arrange the affairs of the 
country. Ator-an, ^ly) Order, form, 

formalities, array, rank, arrangement, 
system, method, order of things, official 

formalities. Ator-an negri, i^J^ o'-^^' 
The system by which the country is 
governed. Ator-an lama, |»3 ^1^1 The 

old methods ; the systems in use in 
former times. S'kettka sudah-lah ter- 
siap chAkup lengkap s'bagai-mana ator- 
an perkakas drang iang handak ber-tSlek, 
cJ<iJ c^4c^ i.Ju^%J AiNV o i.iK.jg^.^^ 

Presently all was ready in accordance 
with the arrangement of articles neces- 
sary to men who are about to read a 
horoscope. LAar ator-an, ^^1 j\^ Con- 
trary to the order of things, out of order, 
without the prescribed formalities, con- 
trary to custom. MS.ka Raja D6nan pun 
mem-<dang-kan pe-rentah negri itu ka- 
pada segaia 6rang besar-besar deri-p^da 
hdkum aadat lembaga resam ator-an 
negri ini dan raayat baJa sekelian-nya, 

t^LjJ Sjlo ^^^c^ JJ;J )fy^ 6^y JJCu) jJS^ 

,W^ J^ ^J c)'^ cT-i' v^->* o'i' r-^-P 

Raja D6nan handed over the govOTDment 
of the country, and all the laws of custom 
and of state, and the system by which 
the country was ruled, and all the people 
and subjects of the country, to the chiefs. 
Serta ia ber-tanya segala hal fthwal 
pe-rentah ator-an negri itu, ^^^2f^ v^g' ulaj--* 
uu^l v^^ ^^lyl d»3y Jl^l Jcx J51o And 

he also enquired into all matters touch- 
ing the government and formalities of 
that country. Per-ator-an,^lyly Method, 


AtuI, ^^yl Or, either, else, (See Atau,yl 

Or, else, eto.) Note : This form is much 
used by the Malays of Kedah. 

Aula, Ar., ^J>I Better, more suitable. 

Aum, (»>l A roar, a vibrating or resound- 
ing noise ; to roar, to roar like a tiger. 


Note : This word is almost always used 
in its compound form Meng-aum, (^^^ 
Rimau meng-aum di-tengah padang, ^^ 
^jU dAia |»^U^ The tiger roared in the 

middle oi the plain. Harimau meng- 
aum tidak men-angkap kalau tiada 
meng-&um rajin men-angkap, (^^^ ^j^ 

•-^^^^^ v^b r-^^ ^^^^ uJXa^ j^ 
A tiger if it roars does not make a kill, 
if it (Jpes not roar it often kills. — Prov.f 
The loudest boaster is not always the 
best performer, and vice versa. Dan 
langau pun meng-aum meng-Arong-nya, 
^jjpyu f.)\SL. y>3 ^|j And the flies 

roared like tigers as they settled all 
over him. Nyamok meng-aum, (•^l^ ^Ij 

The mosquitoes roared like tigers. 

Aur, jj) A species of bamboo, the generic 
name of the edible bamboo. The follow- 
ing are the different species of bamboo 
which are distinguished by the Malays 

by this term : Aur China, ^^^ j^\ The 
common edible bamboo. ^ Aur betong, 
iy^ JL>' -^ large species. Aur gading, JJ^ 
ial? A yellow species. Aur minyak, 
^3^-s-« ji^l A fine dark species. Aur dAri, 
sSA?*^ ^^' A thorny species. Note : The 
term BAloh &^ji is applied to all species 
of Aur. 

Au8, ^y\ Thirst ; blight in a crop ; worn 

down or wasted by sickness ; worn by 
rubbing or by rust. Ka-aus-an, ^y^ 

To suffep thirst, athirst. Meng-aus, 

^y^ To refine metals. (See Haus, 

^j^ Thirst, etc.) 

Ausat, Ab., )eua^\ The middle. 

Awa, 1^1 Animal heat, the heat of the body, 
vapour given off from a living body; lust, 
desire, carnal appetite. (See Hawa, l^lfc 
Animal heat, lust, desire, etc.) 

Awah, &^\ Clear, unobstructed (of the 

Awak, ^\ Thou, you, thee, ye. The 

second person singular or plural. Note : 
This word, which is a familiar and 
friendly vocative, is used by a superior 
speaking kindly to his inferior, or by 
equals talking together familiarly. It 
should, strictly speaking, be used in con- 
junction with the word Kawan, ^^^l^ A 
friend, I, me, my. Hak dwak hak kawan 

Awal, J^l. 

hak kawan hak kawan jAga, ^ Jj^l ^3©% 

*-^-^ ^^^ S^ e>->^ <5«^ c>-?^ What is 
j^ours is mine, what is mine is my own. 
Awak pun awak ftwak pim tflhu awak 
sudah besar, ^\S ^y ^\ j^l ^y j^l 
j^ 5J^ ^1 You are yourself, and you 
understand, for you are full-grown. (A 
saying among Pahang Malays which 
bears an evil signification.) (See Ang- 
kau, j^\ Thou, you, etc.) 

Awak, ^1 A body, a person. Awak 
bangkut, 6^<Ai ^^1 A hunchback ; a de- 
formed person. Awak malas, ^L# ^^1 
A lazy fellow, a lazybones. Awak pan- 
jang, ^^ ^^\ Tall. Awak-ku, cali^l 
My body ; I, me. Awak-mu, ^^1 Your 
body ; you. Awak prahu, ^ly ^1 The 
hull of a boat. Penoh &wak, ^^1 &yJ 
Full-grown. Ber-awak, ^'^ Manned, 
as a ship. Note: Badan, ^Jlj and not 
Awak is used in this sense by the 
Malays of the Peninsula. 

Awak, ^^1 Father; uncle. Note : This 

term, which is rarely used save in col- 
loquial Malay, is usually contracted into 
Wa' »\^ ; Awak hamba, u,-uJb jj^l My 

Awal, Ab., J^I Commencement, begin- 
ning, first, foremost. Ada-pun deri- 
pada aakal kita dan ka-pandei-an kita 
itu s' tifi.da bAleh me-lftwan 
sdrat-an pada awal-nya, Jto> jjpj o^*'"^' 

^1^1 J3 ^j\jyA o-^^^ By means of our 
intelligence and skill, we cannot in any 
way resist that which has been decreed 
from the beginning. Maka di-per-sem- 
bah-kan deri-pada awal sampei ka-akhir- 

He related all [to the king] from the 
commencement even unto the end there- 
of. Awal mdsim, ^^^-^^ J^' The com- 
mencement of the season. Hari awal 
perba kftla, Jlf c^^ J^l i^j^ In the 
beginning of days; in the beginning of 
the olden times. Awal-nya Adam akir- 
nya Muhammad, Jo*^ ^>^' f*^' ^b^ 
The first [of. the prophets] was Adam, 
and the last was Muhanmaad. Rabi-al- 

awal, J^^'^^ The third month of the 
Muhammadan year — (i.e., the first of 


Awan, ^^^1 

the two months called Rabi ^j The 

second month of that name is called 

Rabi-al-akhir, ^^ Jl^^). Jemad-al-ftwal, 

J^JJbU^ The fifth month^of the Mu- 

hammadan year. Note : Awal, J^l is 

sometimes used to mean early, prema- 
ture. Meng-apa angkau datang awal 

s^ngkat, a^U J^l ^lj /£>\ ^\k^ Why 

have you come so early ? 

Awan, ^}\ A cloud, clouds ; tracery, leaf- 
age, scroll-work ; the patterns in which 
flowers are arranged in a bouquet; the 
ornamental cutting-out of a garment; 

scrolls and lettering. Asap api-nya 
sudah men-jadi S,wan, 5Jv-^ ^1 4-fl-*«l 

^^1 <^jI»a-* The smoke of their fires 

became a cloud. Serta di-lambong- 
lambong-kan tiga kali sampei ka-awan 

biru, ^Ju^ J\^ uX^ s/t'^j^j^^ ^^ 
iy^ %S>y^ Then he hurled it into the air 
thrice, even unto the blue clouds. Di- 
pandang ka-atas sampei tAjoh petala 
Ungit m&ka di-antara awan iang pAteh 
meng-andong m6ga iang biru ber-bakat 
kAning angkasa di-langit sayup-sayup 
bh^sa, a^S JU5 6t^^ ^Ju^ JjflS' £jaJj 

,^l^t>^^Loa^3J^K^l^/a^li^ He 

gazed aloft even unto the seven regions 
of the heavens, between the white clouds 
which held blue rain-clouds in their 
wombs, he saw the yellow ether of 
heaven, but indistinctly. MS^ka ia-pun 
terbang me-lambong tinggi ter-sendam 

ka-&wan biru, ^>«-^ ^jJ ^^y s?' <.^L^ 
iyi^ O-?''^ ^A^^y .^^^ It flew away, 
soaring high and burying its head in the 
blue clouds. Mfika jawab-nya bdkan- 
nya aku iang ber-ku&sa &wan itu-lah 
men-Atop aku maka ia-lah ber-ku£lsa deri- 
pSda &ku maka di-panggil &wan serta 
ber-kata ber-k&hwin-lah angkau dengan 
&nak-ku maka jawab fi,wan aku tiada ber- 
kuasa me-lain-kan angin itu-lah ber- 

kuasa-nya deri-pada aku, ^^, s^^i^ ^-^ 
diil csU/l .^y^ MS ^y\ ^1/^ ^/' 

/' o-^' ^!^ "^ ^^^' cx^^ y^' ^y^^ 

^\ But it replied, " I am not powerful : 

the clouds which hem me in are more 
powerful than I." So he called the 

Iwang, ^i\ 

cloud and said " Marry my daughter/*" 
and the cloud replied, " I am not power- 
ful : the wind is more powerful than I 
am.** Awan ber-stlap, ^-al^j-^o^ ^^^ 
Scroll-work in which the branches^ 
appear to be interlaced. Awan ber- 
fi.rak, ^3^'^ ^^^' and Awan me-l&rat, ^^1 
6;X. Different kinds of scroll-work. 
BAyon^ ber-awan, ^^\yA ^yi^ A jar 
ornamented with tracery. T^fe : In 
Pahang, Terenang ber-peridak, i^yS 

^^y^ is the expression used. Awan 
bdnga chengkeh, d^X^ 13^ ^^1. Awan 
bdnga kAndor, j^^ *-^>^ ^^^'. Awau 
pfichok re bong, ^j^^ i5^>^ o->'- ^^^^ 
selimpat, S JuA^^ ^y\. Awan lengkong- 
an, s^^^ ^^^' and Awan t&li ayer, ^^1 
^1 ^LJ Different patterns used in pot- 
tery, embroidery, silver and other work. 
Awan kem-awan, ^^L-4^ ^^1 Cloudy, 

clouds, the milky way. Maka di-tftrun- 
kan Allah Taala raja itu s'belum tftrun 
ka-dunia lagi awan kem-awan, csA— * 

^^ o>>y r>^ "^' Sb v^LaJ dUI ^^^yj 
^j^^L^ ^jl ^^?S God Most High sent 

that king down to the earth before the 
clouds had descended upon it. D6wa- 
d6wa awan, ^^1 fl>-i^ The spirits of the 
air, the spirits of the clouds. 

Awang, 41^1 Friend, companion; a com- 

mon male proper name. Note: When 
addressing a Malay whose name is un- 
known to the speaker, it is usual to call 

him Awang £l^l or Che' Awang §\y\ *^^ 

except in Perak, where the expression 
KMop <-ft3^ is used. Similarly, a woman 
whose name is unknown is usually ad- 
dressed as Iang ^1 (contracted from 
Alang, ^1) or Me* *^ on the East Coast 
of the Peninsula, and Inche ^^1 or Long 
6^ in the Western States. In the States 
of Pahang, Trengganu, Kelantan and, Awang $1^1 is a particularly com- 
mon proper name, a second Muhamma- 
dan name being usually added : Awang 

Jdlnus, ^^ ^l^i Awang Hitam, ^%xjjb ^1^1 

etc. Awang Peng-asoh, A^^Ui ^1^1 i.e., 

" Awang the nurse " is the title borne by 
the low comedian who acts the part of 
the male attendant of the Pa* iong or 
prince who is the hero of a Malay 
Ma*iong, ^y'*-. 


Awap, «->l^l Heat, animal heat, bodily 

heat, vapour; heat or vapour given off 
from anything. (See Wap, «-j)^ Heat, 

Awar, j\)\ A plague, a pestilence, an 
epidemic disease. (See Hawar,^^l* A 
plague, etc.) 

Awas, ^\jf\ Sharp-sighted, keen sighted, 
attentive, cautious. Meng-awas, ^^^A-^ 
To gaze fixedly and listen attentively 
the while. 

Awat, &\)\ Why? Wherefore? Awat hang 
me-iaku bagitu, y^S^ /X. ^ l\^\ Why 

do you behave so? Note: This word, 
which is chiefly used by the Malays of 
Kedah, is probably a contraction of the 
two words Apa, 4-3 1 What? Why? etc., 

and Biiat, Sl^ To do, to act, to perform, 

Awat, Sl^l The ridge between the furrows 

in a ploughed field. Di-dalam s'igu 
tanah tenggala kiirang kdrang-nya tiga 

awat, s^s:^ ^r^jj/ jisiaj dju /:,^ ^ijj 

&\)\ In the space of land which one yoke 
of buffaloes can plough in a season, there 
are at least three ridges. Note : The 

term Awat S\^\ is usually applied to the 

small spaces of imploughed land left 
between two ploughed fields to enable 
people to walk through the standing rice 
without injury to the crop. (See Teng- 
gala, Jl^ A plough, etc.) 

Awau,^t^l 'a species of ape of a black or 

yellow colour and a white face; it has 
no tail. The gibbon. (See tTngka, \<£>^) 
Wa'-wa*, r*b o^ M^wa, I^U) 

Awit, ^^1 Capable of being kept a long 

time without going bad, as compared 
with something else ; durable ; as — e.g.^ 
Minyak kachang, ^\^ ^5^^^ Bean oil, 

as compared with Minyak nyior, (5^t^ 
j^ Coconut oil. Pij. 

Ayah, Sans., <yl Father; uncle. Ayah 
bonda. Jug All Parents {Lit, father and 

mother). Note : This word is more polite 
and ceremonious than B&pa, *-jli Wa' 
•1^ Aki, ^l or the expression Orang tda 
sahya, 1^^ ^^ ^j^\ It is often used as 
a polite and respectful vocative by a 
young man addressing an elder, especi- 
ally among rajas and chiefs of equal 

Ayah^nda, Jo^l 

rank, or when tne speaker is of superior 
rank to the old man whom he is ad- 
dressing. Nyata-lah gerangan orang tAa 
itu ayah-ku, <^\ u:-^' 'y ^^^ ^\^ ^H 
Of a certainty that old man must be my 
father! Maka ia-pun segra b3,ugun-kan 

ayah-nya, ^^1 ,^5<j^I? I^ ^y ^1 <^^ 

Then he speedily awoke his father. 
Maka Sang Seperba pun sftjud pada kaki 
ayah bonda-nya, ^y s-^y^ ^-^ ciL.^ 
^Ijjj di\ ^l^ J3 ^^^ Sang Seperba 

prostrated himself at the feet of his 

Ayahllnda, Jsa^I Father; uncle. Note: 

The h in this word is silent, it being in- 
variably pronoimced AyS.nda. It is de- 
rived from the word Ayah, dil A father, by 
the addition of the letters Anda J3l simi- 
larly to the manner in which Anak-anda, 
JjJiJi Adinda, JJ^I etc., are formed. It is 
only used in writing or in speaking to a 
raja of his relations. In both uses it 
does not necessarily imply any relation- 
ship, as it is applied to the elder of two 
correspondents, or to an old raja who 
may or may not be connected with the 
royal personage addressed. In writing, 
the term Anak-Suda, JoJ53l A son, a 

daughter, is used reciprocally with 
Ayahanda, Jul^I It is rendered more 
polite both in speaking and writing by 
prefixing the words Paduka, -sJjU or Sri 

paduka, -sJjU ^^j^ but some purists hold 

that the former of these words should 
only be applied when the person ad- 
dressed or spoken of is a titled raja (Raja 
iang ber-gelar, ^^ ^ gl;), and the latter 
only when he is a ruling raja (Raja iang 
mem-erentah, 6s^j4^ M gb). The above 
is not, however, strictly adhered to. 
Maka dengan rApa-nya anak r&ja itu di- 
nama-i Alih ayahanda baginda TAan Petri 
Gemala Rakna, uu^l gl; ^\ ^Ujj; ^ j «^U 

^J J^ v^-^ c)'>-^ ^^ ^Wi' ^y S?'l^^ 

In accordance with her beauty, the royal 
child was named by her father Princess 

Gemala Rakna. Aiu-hai Rangka dan 
Jaksaapa khabar ayahanda dan bonda, 

Rangka and Jaksa, what is the news of 
my parents? flntah-kan anak-ku mati 
dan entah-kan ayahanda mati jaugan 

men-aroh bebal, ^\^ ^L^ ^^\fi3) ^^^^1 


lyak, ^\ 

d^ ^^J^ ^^ ^^ '^ oM' I know 
not whether you (my son) will die, or 
whether I (thy father) will die, but let 
us not act with folly. Negri ber-pMoh 
bAah sudah iang pfi,tek tawan-kan per- 
sembah-kan ka-bawah duli ayahanda 
baginda dahAlu, ^ ad-^ al^ dJy^ ^^^3 
j^ joL^I ^^a &^\^ ./■H-^y J^^^ ^^^ 
Jybj Scores {literally, tens) of countries 
have we reduced to dependencies and 
presented to Your Majesty's father, who 
formerly ruled. Titah sri paduka ayah- 
anda sdroh meng-ambil, -sJjU v^^ d»-J 
J-j^Uu &j^ Ju4il Your father's orders 

instructed us to take it. Ahwal maka 
ada-lah ayahanda me-nyata-kan ka-pada 
anak^nda, JiS ^U^ Jo^l Jbl csU Jl^l 
JsjJal The matter is that I, thy father, 
inform you, my son. 

Ayak, ^1 A sieve ; a screen ; a riddle. To 
sift, to screen. Ayak pMi, ^^^^ ^' A 
sieve for grain. Peng-ayak tepong iang 
halus, ^lib ^ ^y^ ^Ui A sieve for 
fine flour. Maka di-kipas dan di-S,yak 
dahMu bharu di-daching, ^1 J ,j-J^^ <-2A-^ 
A-^|jjjj^L^ J^J ^b They winnowed 
and sifted it and then weighed it. Note : 
Correctly speaking, Ayak, ^1 and Ayak- 
kan, ^j5<fii) are only used of sifting by 
shaking a sieve from side to side. Tinting, 
A^YjgfT When the sieve is shaken down- 
wards only, Intau, x*il When the sieve is 
shaken round and round, ^nd Tampi, 
^JUJ when sifting is effected by tossing. 

Indang, $Ji) is to give a sideways motion 

that sends small grains to the edge of 
the sieve and draws large grains towards 
the person using it. The term Nyiru, 
jjttl is also used to mean a sieve. It is 

in the shape of a triangle ^vith long sides 
and a base that is formed by the segment 
of a circle. Round woven or wooden 
sieves are called Badang, 6jIj or Gadang, 

Ayam, ^1 A fowl, a domestic fowl. 
Anak 8,yam, ^' <3^l A chicken. Ayam 
jantan, ^^i^x^ ^1 A cock. Bapa S,yam, 
Aii *-J li A cock, a big cock. Ayam betina, 
^^ ^1 A hen. Ibu &yam, |*-Jil>^' A 
laying hen. Ayam mandul, JJ^^^ ^' 
A hen which does not lay. Ayam denak, 

Ayam, ^1 

^ J ^1 A decoy-fowl. Ayam hAtan, ^V 
Jji> and Ayam b6rga, or Ayam berdga, 

*--0^ ^' -^ j^i^gl® fowl. Ayam &nak 
kampong, ^JU? ^1 ^1 A fowl which is 
a cross between a domestic and a jimgle 
fowl. Ayam ber-telor, jj^j^ ^1 A fowl 
lays eggs. Ayam meng-eram, f^j^ ^' 
(W- Ayam men-Anggu telor,^^^^x^^^ ^1 
A f owi sits on its eggs. Ayam men-etas 
telor, j^ ,j-iw-* ^' A fowl hatches its 
eggs. Ayam me-lAruh, &j^ ^1 and 
Ayam me-ranggas, ^^^j^ ^' A moult- 
ing fowl. Ayam tdgil, J-jSy ^1 or Ayam 
d6gil, J-sSj*^ ^' A tailless fowl. Ayam 
ber-k6ko', •^X^^ ^' A cock which crows. 
Kdko' ayam, ^1 »^^ (.-ock-crow, dawn. 
Meng-antok ayam, ^1 ^U^ When tte 
fowls grow sleepy, about 6 p.m. Reban 
ayam, ^' ^j?^ w Sangkar a,yam, ^\ /^^ 
A hen-coop. Sankak ayam, ^1 ^5<£>L» 
A fowl's nest. Ayam bandong, £>>aj ^l 
Two chickens from one egg. Ayam 
sabong, c^U ^1 A game-cock. Meny- 
&bong ayam, ^1 ^y^^ To fight cocks. 
SAsoh ayam, ^1 5^^ The natural spurs 
of a cock. Balong tlyam, ^1 ^^\\ The 
comb of a cock. Pial ayam, ^1 ^ The 
gills of a cock. BMu ftyam, ^1 ^^ The 
feathers of a fowl. Sisek sly am, ^1 ^5*-m-5-^ 
The scales on the legs of a fowl. Tem- 
b61ok ayam, ^1 ^y^ The crop of a fowl. 
Kepak ayam, ^1 ^^ or S^yap ayam, 
^1 <-fliU The wings of a fowl. ^ Aging 
ayam, ^1 ^1 J The flesh of a fowl. Paroh 
ayam, ^-i' ^)j^ The beak of a fowl. 
Lfi,wi ayam, ^1 ^)^ The two long tail 
feathers of a cock. Jangkir ayam, jt^^ 
d^\ The hind claw of a fowl. Buli-buli 
minyak, j^>*^ )t^Jj^ The small ball of 
fat near the Pope's nose. PenchAnut 
S,yam, ^1 &j^y^ The Pope's nose. Tftji 
ayam, ^-ii ^^ The artificial spurs used 
in cock-fighting. Meny-8,bong pApoh, 
Ayy ^^V* To fight cocks armed only 

with their natural spurs. Meny-&bong 
taji, ^iJ ^^^ To fight cocks armed 
with artificial spurs. BMang ayam, ^y 

^\ To fasten on the artificial spurs to 
a cock. B^ga &yam, ^1 *-^ To hold a 
cock while the spurs are being fastened. 
Glanggang &yam, ^1 ^S^ A cook-pit. 


lyam, ^I 

Mdka ayam itu terbang ka-atas pd.gar 
ber-k6ko' me-rantas tanjong bAnyi-nya, 

^^ ^>^ 1^^® cock flew on to the fence, 
and crowed so that the noise was audible 
round the next bend of the river. Mari- 
lah Mta rentang ay am, ^1 A»X^ «^ ^kj L* 
Come, let us set our cocks fighting (i.e., 
by pushing them backwards and for- 
wards opposite to one another* then let- 
ting them go.) M&ka di-pandang ayam- 
nya ber-tabor-an pMi deri-pada temb6- 
lok-nya di-glanggang itu, ^1 ^JsjJ^ csA^ 

UM^I ^C4l?J J^^ ^j^ v^^U ^^IJ^ He 
saw his fowl, with the grain falling out 
of its crop in the cock-pit. Maka ia- 
pun meng-ajak 6]a ayam, ^y ^^1 «.M— ^ 

(^' CL?' <3^^ He invited him to set their 
fowls at each other. M&ka Raja Pikas itu- 
pun pada tiap-tiap hari tArun ber-main 
meny-abong ayam dengan segala anak 
raja-rfi.ja dan drang besar-besar, gl^ csU 

vj^ tj^l o'^ t'eb i5^' J^ o^^ r^' t^^ 

Raja Pikas went daily to fight cocks 
with all the princes and chiefs. Maka 
ia-pun ber-jdlan balek mSsok ka-negri 
meng-epit s'6kor ayam d6gil, v^l i^XL^ 

JtsO^ f^' He returned to town carrying 
a tailless fowl under his arm. Maka 
Raja Pikas pun meng-&jak mem-bMang 
ayam maka Raja Pikas tampil meng- 
ikat ayajn dan bddak bdrok itu-pun 
datafig-lah mem-b^ga ayam Raja D6nan 
serta bddak bArok itu mem-egang ayam, 

jj^ ^Ij ^1 2SLL. J,^ ^j^X^ gl^ csU 

^^ ^j^ eb f^' •-^^t«^ ^'^ O-^-' o>>-^ 

I*— i^ ^Xj^ u.^1 ^jj^ ^j^ Raja Pikas 

asked him to fix the spurs on his 
fowl, and proceeded to fasten them on 
to his own bird, and the ugly boy 
came and held the bird of Raja Donan 
while the spurs were fastened on to it. 
Maka di-pandang-nya anak rS^ja itu 
tengah dMok mem-£ldan ayam handak 
meny-&bong, M uu-^l gl) ^1 ^JuJ j c^ 

prince sitting matching cocks for a cock- 
fight. Meng-g6rah 8,yam, ^1 ^}^^ To 
clean out a cock's throat with a feather, 
as is done during the intervals between 
the rounds in a cock-fight. Pergi men- 

Ayam, ^1 

angkap ayam meng-an-dong telor di- 
halfilman bftlai, ^^ £^JaJU ^1 t^fcCAj;,^ Jy 

^l^ ^^^^ Go and catch the hen which 
has eggs in its womb, and which is on 
the lawn before the hall of state. Apa- 
lah gAna TAan Petri meny-^bong ayah- 
anda dan bonda itu jik&lau meny-fi.bong 
fiyam ada-lah untong tAah-nya, ^j? dL-iJ 

^ly ^^1 d)bl ^1 ^^l^ What profit is 
there, O Princess, in fighting with your 
parents ? If you fight cocks, you may at 
least have a chance of success. Jikalau 
hamba ter-masok di-d&lam kawan gajah 
men-dering dan m&sok kawan kerbau 
meng-Aak dan masok kawan kambing 
ber-debe' dan masok kawan ayam ber- 
koko', ^^e^lS' ^^)^ ^l^J ^5-*^^ u,-uJb^^K-^ 

If I enter a herd of elephants I trumpet, 
and if I enter a herd of buffaloes I cry 
like a buffalo, if I join a flock of goats 
I bleat like a goat, and if I am among 

fowls I crow like a cock. Ayam ber- 
tAah ta' sambar di-lang, y^A^ *lJ ^sly^ ^[1 
A)^ A lucky fowl is not seized by a kite 
— Frov. Seperti ayam ta' ber-tbu, sy-^ 
yA^ *lJ ^1 Like a motherless chicken — 
Prov, Dengan s'bllah pedang dan s'biji 
telor ayam, ^.ififrft-o ^lj ^Ijj ^iL«-^ ^J 

^1 y^ With a sword and a hen's e^g^. 

Karftna 6rang Laksamana iang ampat- 
pMoh itu 6rang iang pileh-an tifi.da 
tftmang men-ftmang lagi seperti telor 
«lyam s'sarang pichah s'biji pichah ka- 
samAa-nya, u:-^! dJy UuMi U-JlJ £^^1 ^^l^ 

^1^-*.^ ^ .^^t:^ V ^^^-^ (^y For the 
Admiral's forty men are chosen men who 
will by no means forsake him ; they 
are like fowls' eggs in one nest : if one 
is broken all are broken. Juara ayam, 
A-4I \)\y^ A cock fighter ; one who 
attends to a fowl while it is fighting. 
Ayam k&tik, ^^ ^1 A diminutive 
species of fowl, a kind of bantam. Ayam 
mutiara,^l<>::-* Ail A guinea-fowl. Ayam 
blanda, ^ ^1 A turkey. Ayam itek, 
^^^ ^1 Poultry (Lif ., Fowls and ducks.) 
Seperti ayam itek kerbau kambing 
samAa-nya sudah habis di-makan Mih 

n&ga itu, ^y^ ^^ y./ ^5»ai' ^1 «^ 


Ayam-ayam, V(^\ 

. ut-^l 4^1) d3^l ^Uj ^lib 5Jc^ As for the 

poultry and the flocks and the herds, 
they had all been devoured by the 

dragons. Ayam panggang prenggi, ^1 
J^j^ ^^^ ^^^ Ayam peranggang, 
^X^y ^1 A young fowl of the right 
age for eating. Ayam panggang, ^1 
AS^ a spatch-cock roasted on a split 

stick. Note: The following are the 
principal classes into which Malays 
divide fowls according to their colour. 
Ayam bangkas, ,j-^ ^' White with 
a few black feathers ; yqllow beak and 
legs and black feathers. Ayam bMu ara, 
b'y> f^' -^^^ and black feathers. Ayam 
biring, ^jfA ^' Another kind of red 
and black, of which there are two kinds, 
Biring kilning, ^/ ^^ A light 

coloured kind, and Biring tftah, ly ^^ A 
darker coloured kind. Ayam hijau, ^1 
j^tfji Black legs and beak. Ayamtedong, 
^^jJ ^1 Black. Ayam rinting batu, 
y^ ^J ^' Speckled white and red. 
Ayam rinting chempaka, -sJli^ ^j ^1 

A fowl with black flesh. Ayam hitam 
selaseh, d-j-^A^ ^^x-jb ^1 Black even to the 

flesh. Ayam bMu balek, ^^^ ^^ (^^\ 
A fowl the feathers of which grow in a 
peculiar manner and have the appearance 

of being turned the wrong way. Ayam 
b6rik, dijji ^1 A yellow-coloured fowl. 

Ayam jalak, ^U. ^1 A black fowl. 
Ayam jalak bdah kras, ^^ fil^ <5lW* ^1 
A black fowl with white spots. Ayam 
jalak mata pAteh, ^^ c-^U ^^£^ ^) A 

black fowl with white eyes and yellow 
legs. Ayam bel6rong, ^^^ ^\ White 
legs and mixed coloured feathers. Ayam 
kenantan, ^J|^ ^' Quite white. 

Ayam-ayam, Y(^^ A land-rail. 

Ayan, Eng., ^^I Corrugated iron. Atap ayan 
^\l\ i^JJ] Corrugated iron roofing. Din- 
ding ayan, ^^\i\ ^Ji^ Walls of corru- 
gated iron. Note : This word, which is 
used and understood throughout the 
Malay Peninsula, is a corruption of the 
English word " iron.'* 

Ay^nda, j^I Father ; uncle. (See Ayah- 
^nda, Jj^l Father, etc.) 

Ayang-^yang, f^l The name of a vege- 
table medicine. 

Ayat, iil 

Ayap, c_fti1 To eat, to guzzle. Note : This 
word is always used by an inferior to 
a raja in speaking of the eating, etc., 
of himself or any other person who is 
inferior to the person to whom he is 
speaking and who is not of royal blood, 
Santap, <^ftx;^^ is used in speaking of 
rajas, and Makan, ^j^U in all other cases 
than the above. Patek mohun pMang 
ka-terafak handak d^yap nasi, ^y «^^U 
^^^b ^\ ^jjLi» ^\jsi^ ^y Thy slave 

begs permission to return to his house 
(hovel) in order to eat (guzzle) his rice, 
Ayap-an, ^1 Victuals, eatables, food. 
Maka Bangka dan Jaksa pun di-angraha 
per-salin-an dan di-bri glyap-an makan 
dan minum, ^y LJk^ ^|j \^j csA— * 
^b ^U ^1 v^^J ^lj ^Uy li>/ilj 
^-t^ She bestowed raiment on Rangka 

and Jaksa, and gave them also victuals 
and drink. Ada-pun kita ini hanya-lah 
me-nanti liyap-an pada raja kita, ^^y'^^J 

"^^ eb ^ c5^' sT"*^ ^^ ^jjii ^ As for 
us, we depend for our food upon our king. 
Maka tAan-ku pun lelah biar-lah patek 
sekelian hantar-kan santap-an tAan-ku 
pada s'hari s'fikor benatang, ^^y y^'y <^^ 

y3ly ^Ujl-^ c/^'^^ c5«*^^ *^^^ ^jtA ^ 
^Ui j^^A^ ^g;l^ ai Your Highness 

also suffers from fatigue, therefore per- 
mit us, your slaves, to send you provisions 
of one beast daily. Maka jawab p^tek 
aku handak pergi men-d8,pat raja singa 
karana S,ku ini fl,yap-an-nya, |-r^|^ cS-Cl^ 

liT^' o^' -^' ^^y slave replied, " I am 
going to see the^ king of the lions, as I 
am his food." Ada-kah 6rang iang di- 
bawah per-entah-ku dan iang me-makan 
ayap-an-ku dda-kah brani ia meng-lAar- 
kan per-k^ta-an iang damikian, a^ljl 

Would any one who lived beneath my 
sway and ate of my food dare to make 
use of such words ? 

Ayat, ii' A phrase, a sentence, a text, an 
idiom. Lain di-bAka kitab-nya serta di- 
bacha ayat iang meng-harus-kan-nya, 
^^^j\^ ^ ail gljj «^^ ^la^ *JjiJ ^s 

Then he opened his Scriptures and read 
out the text which ordered it. Baju 
ayat, ^il ^ l^ A tight jacket with shprt 


sleeves, such as the Malays use in time of 
war, and which usually has texts from 
the Kuran written all over it. 

Ayat, 4il Life, living. (See Hfl^yat, SLe. 
Life, etc.) 

Ayer, ^\ Water, liquid, fluid, juice, sap; a 
stream. Ayer alas, ^1 ^1 Fresh water in 
the sea at the mouth of a river. Ayer 
ftnggor, y^l ji\ Wine ; the juiee of the 
grape. Ayer bah, dj ^1 A flood. Ayer 
batu, y^ >l' and Ayer beku, ^j ^I Ice. 
Biiah ayer beku, y^ ji\ &\y, A hailstone. 
Ayer betul, J^ ^1 Pure water. Ayer 
dadeh, di^l^ ji\ Whey. Ayer dfi,lam, 
^b ^1 Deep water. Ayer tohor, yty ^1 
Ayer changkat, 2^At>. ji\ and Ayer kring, 
^^ jl^ Shallow water. Ayer hiijan, 
o^>^ jil Eain water. Ayer hidong, ^1 
£^j^ Moisture exuded from the nose. 
Ayer gdla, Jj? ^1 Eau sucre, syrup. 
Ayer kanji, ^^^ ji\ Rice water gruel. 
Ayer kahwa, \y^3 ^1 Coffee. Ayer k&por, 
yl^j-il Whitewash. Ayer ka-sakti-an, 
^j.ff,g.,.<^) and Ayer tepong tawar, ^y^^' 
^l^lJ Holy water; water which is sup- 

]X)sed to have certain magic properties. 
Ayer kinching, ^^^ j-i' cmd' Ayer seni, 

^e*-^ jl\ Urine. Ayer k6tor, yy ^1 Dirty 
water. Ayer kelapa, t.jAJ'^l or Ayer 
nyior, j>^ j^\ Coconut water. Ayer 
kroh, fi^y^-i' Muddy, turbid water. 
Ayer laut|&j3 ji\ Sea water. Ayer lior, 
jj^ ^1 Saliva. Ayer IMah, 6jy j-i\ 
Spittle. Ayer maani, ^^^^ ^\ and Ayer 
semlit, a->U^ ^1 Semen. Ayer lebah, ^1 
d-J or Ayer madu, ^jU^I Honey. Ayer 
masin, ,^(r^\^ ji\ Salt water, brine. Ayer 
mata, uoU ^1 Tears. Ayer minum, yi\ 
f^i.»^ Drinking water. Ayer mAka, j^\ 
-sJj^ The complexion. Ayer lAka, -sjy ^1 
Moisture issuing from a wound ; blood. 
Ayer 161ok, ^^^ ^1 and Ajer mati, j-i\ 
^U A backwater. Ayer simbar, ^^.^4^ ^1 

Surf; breakers. Ayer pasang, ^U ^1 
A rising tide. Ayer pasang penoh, ^1 
6y^ ^U High water. Ayer sftrut, j~i\ 
Sj^ A falling tide. Ayer timpas, ^1 
,j-jUJ Low water. Ayer peluh, &^ ^1 
Sweat, perspiration ; distilled water, va- 
pour condensed. Ayer pfirak, ^^ j-il 

Ayer, j^l 

Quicksilver. (See Mksa, ^j Quick- 
silver.) Ayer amas, ,j.^l j^l Gilding. 
Ayer perkat,^y j-i) Gum, glue. Ayer 
perigi, ^.y ^1 Ayer telaga, ^kJ ^\ 
Well-water. Ayer pMas-an, ^^y j-il 
A whirlpool. Ayer sejok, ^3^^^ jil Cold 
water. Ayer hangat, a£>U^ ^1 Hot 
water. Ayer stanggi, ^J^i^sL^ j-il and 
Ayer bau-bau-an, ^^Yy\^ ji\ Scent. Ayer 
strftp, i^^ys^ ji\ Syrup. Ayer sAngei, 
^^ ^1 River water. Ayer tawar, 
Jj^jl^ Fresh water. Ayer tebu, ^ ji\ 
The juice of the sugar-cane. Ayer teh, 
dJf j^l or Ayer cha, L^^ ^1 Tea. Ayer 
tenang, ^ ^1 Stagnant water. Ayer 
terjun, ^^y^J^ ji^ A waterfall. Ayer me- 
161eh, dLU ji\ Flowing water. Asal ayer, 
j~l\ J-ol The source of a stream. Ayer 
sembah-iang, ^^ . f ■:■»■■■> >l' The water used 
for ablutions before prayer. Ayer tftpis- 
an, ^j-MM^b jil Filtered water. Tapis-an 
ayer, ^1 ^^y.^\S A filter. Tali ayer, 
j^\ ^\S A water-race. Salor-an ayer, 
ji) ^^j^^ A pipe or closed conduit for 
carrying water. Panchor-an ^yer, j-^l 
OA^^ An open conduit for carrying 
water, a drain. TAmpah ayer, ji) di^y 
To spill water. TAang fi.yer, ^1 4ly To pour 
out water. ChMok ayer, ji\ ^^^es. To 
pour water over anything. Minum ayer, 
^1 ^♦A-w. To drink water. Prah ayer, 
jj} aly To wring water out of anything. 
Anak ayer, >il ^1 A tributary stream, 
a rivulet. Batang ayer, ^1 A5l| A river. 
Gigi ayer, j^\ ^JiS The edge of any 
piece of water, which laps against the 
bank. {Lit^ the teeth of the water.) 
Mata ayer, j^l uoU A spring, a fountain. 
Kayu ayer, j^l ^If Aralia Chinensis. 
MAka ayer, ^1 ^^ The surface of 
water. Itek fi,yer, ji) ^^fsxl] A goose-teal. 
TAkang ayer, ji\ ^y A water carrier. 
BAang ayer, ^1 £l^ To void. (See 
BAang, ^\y. To throw away, etc.) Ka- 
ftyer, ji*l^ To void. Note : The origin of 
this expression is that Malays always use 
the rivers as their latrines. Ka-ayer- 
an, ^^JC^ To take in water, as a ship ; 
burnt down ; to be wounded in battle. 
S'telah mandi ayer limau dan ber-sapu 


Ayer, ^1 

bedak maka ia pun ttlrim ka-laut mandi 
di-ayer laut, y Lo^ ^U y^ ^1 ^g^J^J^ ^JA^^^ 

When he had bathed in lemon juice, and 
anointed himself w^ith cosmetics, he went 
into the sea and bathed in the sea-water. 
Ber-&ngkat-lah raja itu serta dengan 
segala raayat-nya handak minum fi^yer, 

^-^-^ ,^f^j y^ ^^ ^j^ ^' eb ^sAs;^'^ 
^1 ^v»-t^ The king set forth, with all his 
people, in order to drink of the waters. 
Jikalau di-situ aku ber-telor neschglya di- 
tarek ALh ayer laut, j^ji ^' y^tr^^ ^^ 
&)l ji\ dJ^l ^^IJJ ^yj If I lay my eggs 

here, they will certainly be sucked in by 
the sea. S'bAah danau ter-l&lu endah lagi 
dengan dalam-nya serta jerneh ayer-nya, 

^y^ ^b ^j ^l 6jJl py yb &\y^ 

^jl\ <lJ^ a lake of great beaaty and 

depth, with limpid water in it. Apa-lah 
sebab sAdah dAa hari tdan-ku tiada ber- 
dngkat santap ayer itu, 6J^— ^ <-r.,;^^o dLiI 
uu^l ^1 i-&a^-u> S^\y jLj yily v^^lib l^j 

What is the reason that for two days 
Your Majesty has not gone forth to 
partake of the waters ? Maka di-siram 

pMa dengan dyer mawar, Jy f^jtr^^ ^-sA^ 
^I^U ^1 ^j He also bathed in rose- 
water. Serta ia tflrun men-epok ayer 
di-laut itu tiga k&li, ^y^ ^^y v^g' ula^ 
^l^ <.Sfj ut-il S^Jj ^1 Then she went 

down and slapped the water of the sea 
three times. Makin sangat ber-tambah- 
tambah merka-nya di-sAroh minum seg- 
ala dyer pfisak selAar-nya, ^Lu> ^^(^1^ 

^^ty^ Then all the more was he moved 

to anger, and he ordered them to drink 
all the water which was squeezed from 
the inserted pieces of his trousers. (A 
figurative insult.) Maka di-gertak-kan 
tArun ayer deri-pMa mMut-nya tiga 
titek, ^y^ JJ^ J ^1 ^y ^/J vM_^ 
^5«:^j *— C^ He shook it, and three drops 

of liquid came from the muzzle. Maka 
TAan Petri itu-pim ber-16nang-16nang 

ayer mata-nya, ^^\ ^y^ ^\yl c^L.- 
^^ jl\ Y^f^y The Princess thereupon 
shed tears. Minta-lah adek ayer bdrang 
s'tegok dan sirih barang s'kapor, J^Uj;^ 
yl^L- ^j\i &ji^ ^b ^5C:t-u> ^j\4 y} ^Jl 

Your brother asks for a draught {lAL, 
one gulp) of water and a quid of 

betel-nut. Aku ini datang deri-p&da 
bendang iang tiada ber-batas deri-p&da 
ayer iang tiada ber-ikan, JJ»p J ^la ^1 yi 
^1^ jLa^ ^I JJ;J ^jJi\iy jUf ^ ^ I 

come from places where there are rice- 
swamps without dams and water which 
contains no fish. Ayer dideh-nya sudah 
mea-jadi satu anak stlngei, &J^ ^^^ y} 
^^ ^3JlyLj v^Jl^fcJL^ The water strained 
from ttie rice became a tributary stream. 
Maka TAan Petri pun men-angis ber- 
chAchor-an &yer m^ta-nya bSgai mdnik 
pAtus karang, ^j^-^Lu. ^y ^jsJ ^ly i^X^ 

t>^ ^y ^u ^k ^l«^^' ^j^y^y^ The 

Princess wept, her tears falling in drops 
like unto beads when their setting is 
broken. Maka di-ambil Mih raja ayer 
mawar tftjoh bdyong, gl^ dJ^I J^^b c&U 

^yy dc^y j^)^ y^ The king took seven 

jars of rose-water. 

Ayer-ayer, t>i' The name of a sea-fish. 

Ayoh, &y^\ Oh I alas ! alack I Ayoh &llah 
apa-kah jadi, v^Jlc^ i^\ dUI &y\ O God I 
what will result ? 

Ayok, ^^1 To copulate. (See also Amput, 
5yL*l and Anchok, ^3^') 

Ayu, ^1 Oh ! (See Aiu^l Oh, etc.) 

Ayu, Jav. ^1 Excellent, superfine, exqui- 
site. Senjata ayu ^1 ul^I^a.^ Excellent 

Ayum, (•yl aiid Meng-ayum, f^y^ To lend 

money at interest for gairfbling or for 
any other bad object ; to keep Dad com- 
pany. Ayum-an, ^^^1 Money lent or 
given for some evil purpose. 

Ayun, ^yi\ To swing, to swing back- 
wards and forwards, to rock, to sway. 
Tirei ter-ayim-ayun di miika pintu, 
yjj l<r^j I'O-^'y ^jt? The curtain 
swung backwards and forwards in the 
doorway. T61ak tangga ber-ayim kglki, 

ss^^ 0-^'->^ *-^ <3'y ^^ P^®'^ away the 
steps and leave one's legs swinging in 
the air. — Prcyo.^ said of anyone who gets 
himself into difficulties by any foolish 

act of his own. Ayun-kan, ^^y^ and 
Meng-^yun-kan ^y^ To rock any- 
thing, to cause to swing or sway. Ayun- 
kan Mai-an ^^ y^y^ To rock a cradle. 
Meng-ayun-kan bddak jJy ^y^ To 


Ayut, 5^1 

rock an infant. Meng-ayun, ^^ji^ To 
swing, etc. Mata-hS,ri sudah meng-^yan, 
^jl \k^ fi j^ i^j l^x^ The sun is swinging or 
has swung — viz., has begun to descend ; 
used to indicate that the hour of 4 p.m. 
has arrived. Ada s'tengah mabok dan 
4yun, ^^ji) ^^lj ^3jU dAx^ jl Half of them 
were intoxicated and reeled from side 
to side. Ayun pe-16tor b^tu^/^ ^^1 
y I; An engine for throwing stones ; a 
catapult used in war. 

Ayut, &^\ or Ayut-&yut-an, Y^J^^ A concu- 
bine; a female slave. Jika ^da, 6rang 
men-ebus S-yut-ayut-an, &j^\ J I <^W 

V^^Ji^ a^-^f"^ ^^ ^^y ^^® redeems a female 
slave by paying for her. (See GAndek 
^jjj? Chandek, ^JuL^ Jamah-jamah-an 
^t*A^li&. etc., all of which are in use in 

the Malay Peninsula, while this word is 

Azlak, ^il 

Az, Ar, jS> Excellent, eminent. (See 
Aaz jS> Excellent, etc.) 

Azad, Pers., jI^I Free from blemish. 

Azal, Ab., J^I Eternity which is also with- 
out beginning. 

Azali, Ab., ^^I Eternal. 

Azan, Ab., ^lil To announce the hour 
of prayer. (See Muezzin, ^^^yu• Bang, Aj 
The call to prayers.) 

Azil, Ab., J^ Dismissal, discharge. (See 
Aazil J^ Dismissal.) 

Azim, Ar., (•^ A project, a plan, a 

scheme, an enterprise, an undertaking. 
(See Aazim (•^ A plan, a project.) 

Azimat, Ab., ^^ A charm, a talisman, 

an amulet, a spell, a written charm. 
(See Aazimat ^^ A charm, etc.) 

Aziak, Ab., ^il Acute, eloquent^ : 

' 5-^ 



Aaraf, Ar., tJl^l The purgatory of the 

Muhammadans. A place intermediate 

between heaven and hell. Ada suatu 
tempat pada antara shurga aaraf nama- 
nya maka deri-pada ka-sAka-an shurga 
pun ada di-s&na dan deri-pada ka-ddka- 
an naraka pun Ma di-sana, <iluS &\^^ Jt 



L43 ^^1^1 


^L-^j ^1 ^y «J^li ^^*10-^ There is a 
place between heaven and hell, in which 
are found both the joys of heaven and 
the pains of hell. 

Abah^^l and> Abah-abah-an, ^^v^,\ To be 
stiU visible though distant ; as far as 
the 'eye can see. Note: This word is of 
rare occurrence, the terms Ujana, ^W^^ 
S'ujS-na, ^^W^yLj or S'ujana mata mem- 
andang, 4jul*^ tjt>U ^Wk^L* being those 
most frequently employed in the above 

Abawi, Ar., ^^^1 Paternal. 

Abilah, Pers., dljl Pox; small-pox. (See 
KAchi, ^^^^ Pox, and Ohachar, ^ U or 
Ka-tAmboh, d^ys^ Small-pox.) 

Abras, Ar., j^^I A leper. 

Abrek, Ar., ^^I Mica; Muscovy glass. 

Abwan, Aii., ^^1^1 Parents, relations, 

Achap, «-A^' Often, frequently, constantly, 
many times. Achap sangat ia ber-dlang 
ka-rAmah 6rang tda itu, f^\ 2£>L» 4-i&.l 

«^.' 'y h^^ ^^/ ^i^j^ H® constantly 
visited the old woman's house. (See 
Achak, ^\) This form, however, is 
used in Pahang and elsewhere, the form 
Achak, ^1 not being employed except 
in Petani, Kelantan, and Trenganu. 

Achap, cJife.! Covered with water; sub- 
merged ; under water ; to be in or under 
water. • 

Adang, fiji A sieve. Meng-adang-&dang, 

t'^jU.^ To toss rice on a sieve in order 

to separate the coarse and fine grains. 

To sift grain. Note : The forms Gadang, 

^Jl? Meng-gadang, 4jIJX» and Meng- 

gadang-kan, ^^i>S\!^ are more correct. 

(See Badang, ^Jl? and Gadang, ^Jl^ A 
sieve, etc.) 

Aga, ^1 To boast, to brag, to vaunt, to 
swagger ; boasting ; a boast ; self-glorifi- 
cation. Bdat-lah menarah akan men-jlldi 
ka-megah-an dan per-aga-an kita, 4sJ3l^ 

Make a tower which may be a monument 

and a boast in our honour. Mem-per-, ^^\^u^ To boast, to brag, to 

glorify oneself. Di-per-aga-kan-nya ka- 
sana ka-mari, ^^^-^ o^^ i^^^y^^^ He 
boasts wherever he goes. 

Ag&hang, ^1 Medium, average, moderate. 
(See Agahari, v^^lfS^' Medium, etc.) 

Agar-agar, t>?' The name of a very small 
shrimp used for making the Malay 
caviare called Belachan, ^^ Note: 
This word is chiefly used by the natives 
of Malacca. 

Agus, ^\ Good, beautiful. Note : This 
word, which is probably a corruption of 
Bagus, ^k^ is used as a title in some 
parts of the Archipelago. 

Aj^han, ^^\^\ The name of a fish which 
attains to a considerable size. (See 
Jahan, ^W)- 

Abbreviation : " Pu." = Dr. Pijnappel. 




Plalag— (IfttgUgfr. 





<<n 99 





The Malay - English portion of this Dictionary will be published in Fifteen 
Parts, as follows : — 






1 and J. 



• • 








• • 










D, E and F. 








N and 0. 



The letters from Oh. to are now ready for the press and will be published 
as quickly as- possible. The Authors, however, are of opinion that anything 
approaching undue haste in the correction of the proof-sheets can only be pre- 
judicial to the value of the work. 

H. C. 

F. A. S. 
Ist September^ 1895. 


Ba, c^ 

Ba, s-> The second letter of the Malay 
and Arabic alphabets, corresponding in 
the transliterated Malay to the English 
consonant B. Note : The following are 
the various forms of the letter Ba, s-> 
Initial : i as in BAang, fil^ (To throw 

away, etc.) ; Medial : ^ as in Kebal, J^ 
(Invulnerable, etc.) ; Final : s- as in 
Sebab, vr-s^ (A reason, etc.) ; and Iso- 
lated : s-> as in Kit8,b, s->l»^ (A book, 

etc.) Note : Words which begin with an 
initial B s-> form the compound nouns 
and verbs in one of the following 
manners. Gompound nouns : (i.) By 
means of the inseparable prefix Ka- S 

in conjunction with the inseparable 
suffix -am, ^ Example : Ka-besar-an, 

^y^ Rank, etc. (from Besar, ^ 

Great, etc.) (ii.) By means of the inse- 
parable prefix l^Sm- ^ with or without 

the assistance of the inseparable suffix 
'an ^ Examples : Pem-bohong, ^ji^f^ 

A liar (from Bohong, ^^ To lie, etc.) 
Pem-bri-an, ^^s^ A gift (from Bri, 
i^ji To give.) (iii.) By means of the 
inseparable prefix Per- y in conjunc- 
tion with the inseparable suffix -an ^^ 
Examples : Per-bAat-an, ^^'>y A deed, 
etc. (from Bflat, &\ji To do, etc.) Per- 
bAnoh-an, ,^^^ Murder (from BAnoh, 
4iJ^ To kill, etc.) (iv.) By means of the 

inseparable suffix -^an ^ unassisted by 
any prefix. Example : BAat-an, ^1^ 

Make, manufacture (from Biiat, Sly To 

make, to do, etc.) Compound verbs : (i.) 
By means of the inseparable verbal 
prefix Mem- a^ with or without the 

assistance of the inseparable verbal 
suffix -kan ^ Examples : Mem-bri, 

\^yf*^ To give (from Bri, ^^^ To give.) 

Mem-besar-kan, ^^.^^j^ To make great 

(from Besar, ^ Great.) (ii.) By means 

of the inseparable verbal prefix MSm- 


Ba, c^ 

4^ in conjunction with the inseparable 
verbal suffix -i ^ Example : Mem-baik-i, 
^^Ij^ To mend (from Baik, ^\^ 

Good, etc.) This manner of forming the 
verb is of rare occurrence, being confined 
to the above and one or two other in- 
stances, (iii.) By means of the inse- 
parable verbal suffix -kan ^ unassisted 
by any prefix. Examples : Benar-kan, 
^^y4 To approve (from Benar, ^ True, 
etc.) (iv.) By means of the inseparable 
verbal prefix Ber- jA Examples : Ber- 
bakti, ^c»5i^ To perform good offices 
(from Bakti, ^^^ Pious, etc.) Ber-bala, 
Jl?^ At strife (from Bdla, Jlj Calamity.) 

Note : No rule can be definitely laid 
down as to the manner in which the 
compounds should be formed from any 
particular word beginning with an ini- 
tial B s->, but it will be noticed that the 
use of the inseparable prefix P^- y is 

less common than the use of P^w- ^ 
and that the former, when used, usually 
denotes the deed performed, while the 
latter usually indicates the agent who 
performs it. Thus different prefixes 
and suffixes may be employed in form- 
ing compound noims from the same 
root. In forming compound verbs, too, 
it must not be imagined that the com- 
pounds can be formed from each root 
in one and only one of the above 
manners, since many words form com- 
pounds in several ways: — thus, Mem- 
bdang, ^|>-^^ Mem-bAang-kan, ^^^^y^s'*^ 
and Bdang-kan, ^^^^^ can all be cor- 
rectly formed from Bdang, £|y The 

presence of the inseparable verbal suffix 
"Jean ^, however, -invariably indicates 

that the compound verb is transitive. 
Note : When words beginning with an 
initial B s-> are reduplicated, the first 
word of the reduplication is generally 
contracted into Be- a in the colloquial 


Ba', -b 

language. Examples : Bagai-bagai, Y^^ 
pronounced Be-bagai, c^^, Balang- 
balang, Y^^. pronounced Be-balang, ^Uj 

Ba', *l^ Like. (See Bagai, ^l^ , of which 
this is a contracted form.) 

Baada, Ar., Ijoj The Muhammadan hours 
of prayer. Baada salah, Ju=) Ijaj The 

hour of Friday congregational prayer. 
Note : Malays sometimes put Lepas, ^j^ 

before Baada, lj^ as Lepas baada salah, 
Jud Ijou ^jJJ After prayers, etc. It is 

sometimes abbreviated to Lepas baada, 
)j^ ,j-JJ and signifies a certain time — 
about 1.30 p.m. 

Baadab, Ab., s-^J^jg Unmannerly, rude, 
arrogant, overbearing. Kar&na baadab 
laku-nya di-d&lam negri 6rang itu, ^j\^ 

«-i' t^^^ ^J^ /^'^^ ^/^ ^^-^^^ For 
that his conduct in that foreign country 
had been arrogant. H^ ben^tang iang 
kechil iagi h^na ftpa sebab angkau meny- 
eru &ku di-tengah j&lan dengan ka-laku- 
an baadab itu, U^ ^^ Jts^ ^ ^U^ ^ 

uHil s->^ ^-l beast, who art both 
small and of low degree, wherefore do 
you hail me on my way in so unmannerly 
a fashion P 

Baadah, Ab., &*y^ or Wa-baadah, &Jjg^ 
Moreover, further, after that. Wa- 
baadah deri-pada itu ahwal maka ada-lah 
adinda maalum-kan ka-pada kakanda, 
^^y*.^ jj jl d3l Jl <^X^ Jl^l '^ ^j*^ ^^^ 
joX^ jsi^ After that the matters are that 
thy younger brother makes known to 
his elder brother. 

Baaid, Ab., j.^*! Far, distant, remote, 
absent, not present. 

I, Ab., ^j^ Certain. 

Ab., iA^^ and Mem-baath-kan, 
To send. Note: This word, 
which is not of frequent occurrence, is 
usually met with in its compound form. 

B&b, Ab., i^k Chapter, article, section, 
division of a book. Bab iang per-tama, 
(•UyUi c^l^ Chapter the first. B&b iang- 

ka-tAjoh akan me-nyata-kan hukum 
segala 6rang ber-hAtang ber-gadei, s->lj 

v^jl? The seventh chapter, which makes 
known the law relating to all persons 

Babar, ^ \i 

raising money by mortgage. Lalu di- 
bacha s'bab ka-dfta, I^J<^ c^L— m© gl^j ^J 

He then read one or two chapters. BS,b 
iang ka-dfta-pftloh-lima pri hukum meng- 
embali-kan benda iang di-bli sebab aaib, 

c,---sC> c,-.--^ s^^ Chapter the twenty- 
fifth, relating to the law with reference 
to returning goods [which have been 
purchased] through reason of some 
defect. Bab s'bagai Iagi, ^Jl ^L^ c^Ij 

One chapter more. Note : A chapter 
of the Kuran is termed Juz, ^y>. not 
Bab, c^li 

Baba, c^l; The name used to designate the 
male children of European, Eurasian, or 
Chinese parents born in the Straits of 
Malacca, but more especially applied by 
Malays to Straits-born Chinese. It is 
the same word as the Hind. Babu, ^l^ 

a title equivalent to ' Mr.' Note : In most 
parts of the Malay Archipelago, as 
opposed to the Peninsula, this term is 
only applied to the children of Chinese 
parents. In Batavia it is only applied 
to the son of a distinguished man. Bdba 
MaMtka, .sJX. <^l^ The son of European, 
Eurasian, or Chinese parentage born in 
Mal&ka. Note: The form Babah, ^li is 
also occasionally met with among the 
Malays of the Archipelago. 

B&bak, ^ li To stanch (as blood) ; to pre- 
vent the free flow of any liquid. Maka 
ia pun babak darah itu s'ketika Iagi 
darah pun ber-henti, ^U ^^y v^l csX-L. 

s?*^->^ c>y ^'>^'^ f^^ ^A>i«^ ^' ^^'^ He 
stanched his blood, and presently it 
ceased to flow. 

B&bak, ^Ij and S'b&bak, ^L;^ A division, 
a part, a section^ a piece ; business, 
trade ; a piece of music. 

Bllbang, ^Ij Wide,, as of a rent or open- 
ing which has increased in size ; gaping, 
as a wound. 

Babar, ^U Flat, not in a heap. To 
fasten, to tie, to fix ; to spread a sail, 
to hoist a sail. Maka di-b&bar-kan 
segala tali l&yar Alih ftnak k&pal itu, 
u^l Jil^ ^1 d3y ^Jl ^U yL. Jj^\i^ .aU 

The crew of the ship fastened all the 
ropes of the sails. Baik-lah babar-kan 
layar sekelian, ^^jJCo ^3 ^^l^ di<ilj We 

had better spread all the sails. Pij. 


Babas, ^\i 

B&bas, ^\i Driven about by a storm of 
wind, tempest-driven; harassed (as an 
army) ; fluttering or torn by the wind 
(of a sail). Pij. 

Bibas, ^^ or Hftjan bd^bas, ^b ^^ 
Fitful rain ; rain which passes near with- 
out actually reaching the point where 
the speaker stands. Note: The term 
Bias, ^W 07- Hftjan bias, ^Ia ^j^ 
bearing the same meaning, is also met 
with in colloquial Malay. 

Babat, 4 If Resembling one another in 
anything; to be able to pass for one 
another ; to coirple, to fasten in pairs ; a 
pair, a conple. Note : This word is only 
used in the Peninsula in the sense of 
Like : B4bat dia, <^ J 4 k Like him. 

Babat, Jav., 3^1^ To clear land for the pur- 
poses of cultivation. Note: This word 
is rarely used by Malays, and is never 
met wilii in the colloquial dialect of the 

Babi, ^l? A pig, a hog, a sow; pork. 
B&bi jantan, ^^fj>^ s^^ ^ ^^Sy «• ^^^r, 
Bftbi betina, ^^ ^^U A sow. Anak 

bibi, ^^*i <5J' A sucking-pig. B&bi jinak, 
^3j4rf> ^If The domestic pig. Bd,bi 
hAtan, Jfyb ^l| The wild pig. Daging 
b&bi, ^If A^^ Pork. Note: In some 
parts of the Peninsula, and notably in 
P6rak, the expression *D8.ging babi,* 
^U Ad?'^ * Pork ! ' is used as an emphatic 
oath of negation. Thus a Malay on 
being asked for anything which he does 
not possess will often answer, * Haram ! ' 
f^^ i.e., * Sin ! ' — meaning, * May I sin if 
I have it ! * On being further pressed he 
will exclaim, * Me-rllchun ! ' ^^>^'j^ i-e., 
* May I be poisoned if I possess it ! ' And 
if still doubted, he will exclaim, * Ta ' 
mandang,' ^Sx^ *^J i.e., ' There is no sign 
of it here.' If these oaths fail to con- 
vince, he will add, * Daging babi,* ^J]^ 
^li *Pork!' signifying, * May I eat pork 

if I have it ! ' — ^which, if his interlocutors 
are Muhammadans, is usually taken to 
be finiO. KWit babi, ^Ij a«J/ Pigskin. 
Btdu b&bi, ^^.^M P^K bristles. Siong 
WW, ^^ t>t:^ ^'^ Taring b4bi, ^\i ^j\S 
The tusks of a boar. BUbi rAsa, ^ji^ ^ Ij 

Babi, ^Ij 

The hog-deer (better the deer-hog, for 
the animal is a hog and not a deer); 
Babirusa alfv/rus. Note: Wallace de- 
scribes this animal in the following 
words : — " This extraordinary creature 
resembles a pig in general appearance, 
but it does not dig with its snout, 
as it feeds on fallen fruit. The. tusks 
of the lower jaw are very long and 
sharp, but the upper ones, instead of 
growing downwards in the usual way, 
are completely reversed, growing up- 
wards out of bony sockets through the 
skin on either side of the snout, curving 
backwards to near the eyes, and in old 
animals often reaching eight or ten inches 
in length." — Malay Archipelago, ^^91^^27 6. 
Note : This animal is only found in the 
Celebes Group, in the SMu Islands and 
in BAru. B^bi tanah, diU ^Ij The 
name of a species of wild pig, Sris 
vittatus. Babi nangul, Jy^ ^l; A small 
species of wild pig, which is of a gre- 
garious habit. MClntah b&bi nangul dx5^ 
Jyi ^ Ij The name of a kind- of very large 
earth-worm occasionally found in large 
numbers in the jungle. B&hi tftnggal, 
^y^Ji ^^ ^ solitary boar. BAah b&bi, 
-qf ^ fi'^ The name of a fruit, Gryptomeria 
panicvlata. Babi kftrus, ij^j^ ^^ (lit, 
the thin pig) The name of a tree the 
wood of which is remarkably hard. 
A very steep roof is called B&bi kArus. 
Maka ber-temu-lah ia dengan s'fikor b4bi 
hAtan maka kljang itu di-letak-kan lain 
di-kejar-nya ftkan b&bi hAtan itu lalu di- 

pftnah-nya, jj^^^tS^^ ^^^ ^gl diySj^ cfti.^ 
^j^^ yi ^^J u^l ^ caU jryb ^l^ 
^Ujyj ^il Jy^^^^ ^j^l He encountered 
a wild hog, and, laying down the deer, 
he ran after it and shot at it with his 

Ini-lah per-b{lat-an R&ja Haji, 
Seperti &njing dengan b&bi. 

^U ^^ 5^» &ji^ 

Such were the deeds of Raja Haji, like 

unto those of dogs and pigs ! An jing 

gfidak babi brftni, ^1^ ^l^ ^\S ^1 The 

dogs are ferocious, and the pigs are 
daring — Prov., which is used to signify 
that both sides are ** spoiling for a fight.* 


Babii, jjij 

Selaseh d(ilang biilih di-rClmput, 
Pandak rtlas kaki babi, 
Ka-kasih 6rang bMih ku-rebut, 
Bharu-lah puas di-hati kami. 

^^ ^^ O^hj O^ 

The ociwAina basilirum can be weeded; 
the joints of a pig's legs are short; I 
can carry off the beloved of another, and 
then only will my heart know content- 
ment. Grila babi, ^\i J©? and S&wan 
babi, ^qjlj ^^^*^-^ Epilepsy. Bdbi bftta, 
^^ eg? ^ ^^^ Mem-babi bftta, ul>^ ^ b [.^^ 
To behave hke a blind pig; to grope 
about aimlessly; to play blind-man's 
buff. Rftmput tahi babi, ^l^ ^U SJl.^j 

A small flowering shrub the leaves of 
which are pounded and placed on the 
forehead to relieve headache. R6tan 
bftlu babi, ^ l^ ^^ Jjj A species of small 
rattan. Berangan babi, ^ ^ ^5^'^ A fruit- 
tree. Siput babi, ^ l^ S^W^ A species of 

BUbil, Jil^ Disobedient, wilful, obstinate, 

indifferent ; deaf to orders or pleadings. 
B&bil sangat bftdak ini larang-an oranff 
tidak di-pakai, ^^31 ^1 ^^^ a£>L^ Jj^ 
^Uj ^j^ S^^I This youth is very dis- 
obedient, and does what he is forbidden 
to do. Maka sampei ber-dpa kali itu pun 
damikian jftga di-g6choh Mih kra itu ber- 
bagai-bagai kra itu ber-babil dengan 
segfila d&yang-dayang iang meng-ambil 
ayer itu, ^^j-jCj ^^jia^l ^\^ c^l^ ^^^ t^ 

Many times did the little ape slap 
them in a similar manner, and in all 
sorts of ways did he persist in disobey- 
ing the maidens who were carrying the 
water. (See also Bideh, 6J^ Disobedient, 
etc., and Degil, J-s?^ and Kehor, ^ 
Obstinate, etc.) 

Babit, i^\i and Mem-babit, &tA^ To 
wrap up in anything ; to pull by catch- 
ing hold of anything. Pij. 

Babit, ^Ij To show anger to an innocent 
person through being vexed with some- 
one else. J&ngan-lah tdan bS.bit-kan 
hamba ulih kar&na ka-salah-an anakanda 

Bacha, glj 

itu, ^^l^ dJ^I H--*^ J^U ^^'y dL£>L^ 
wu^l JoJUl ^^X^ Show not anger unto 
me, master, because thou art wrath- 
ful with thy son ! 

Babit, ^ I) Named, mentioned. Mem-babit, 
ajU*^ To name, to mention. Iang ter- 
bS,bit itu, w^l (L^^ysH That which was 
mentioned. (See Sebut, S^--u> Ter-sebut, 
By.:^^ etc.) Note : This word is rarely, 
if ever, used in the Malay Peninsula. 

Babo', •jilj 07- Babok, ^\^ Childish, foolish; 
foolish from exceeding old age. Belum 
tfta sudah babo', p^lj 6Jw«> ly ^^ Child- 
ish before one is old — Prov. Note : This 
word is chiefly used by the Malays of 
Sarawak. In the Peninsula the word 
Nyanyok, ^jlk is generally used in this 

Babor, ^j^lj Without order or arrange- 
ment; not properly tied. Kris bfi^bor, 
Jji ^ cri^ -^ ^^^ where the damascening 
extends from the centre of the blade on 
to the edges. Tanjak babor, jj^ Ij ^y^ 
A head-kerchief folded loosely. 

Babu, jAV.,jilj A nurse; a maid-servant. 

Babu sftsu, ^^ ^ Ij A wet-nurse. (See 

Inang, ^1 K6pek, ^^^ Peng-asoh, 

fi^Ui Dayang-dayang t'^lj etc.) Note : 

This word is not generally understood 
by Malays dwelling outside the island 
of Java and the Cocos Islands. 

Babun, ^j^lj A bundle of loose things. 

Bacha, glj To read, to recite. Bacha sftrat, 
h^ S^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ letter. Bacha kftat, 
B\^ g^ To read aloud, to read in a loud 
voice. Bacha perlahan-perlahan, gl; 
t'^iy To read slowly, or in a soft voice. 
Ta' ter-bS,cha, gl^y *b Not possible to be 
read; illegible. Bacha d6&, Ipj glj To 
recite prayers. Bdcha kitab, cj^US" glj 

To read the Scriptures ; to read a book. 
Bacha elemu, ^J^ glj To recite a charm 

or any mystic incantation. Bacha aruah, 
cly' S^ To read prayers for the dead, or 
to recite prayers during a time of sorrow 
or calamity. BSrCha di-dalam hati, gl^ 
Jrb> ^bj To read to oneself — i.e., not 
aloud. BS,cha b6riah, 6ijj^ glj To recite 

a topical song. Sftrat iang di-bacha tadi, 
^gj& gbjii Bj^ The letter which was 


B&chak, ,^\i 

recently read. Bacha chap, «-ft^ glj To 
read an order from a rdja or chief to 
the people who have been assembled for 
the purpose of hearing it. Mem-bacha, 
gl*-*^ Bacha-kan, ^^/^^ nnd Mem-bacha- 
kan, ^j<ft.L*-# To read, to recite. Maka 

di-sftroh Mih raja mem-bacha hikayat itu 
ter-lalu nyS,ring suara-nya lagi merdu, 

^^^ ^^ ^b!>** 2V^ He was ordered by 
the King to read the romance (to him), 
and his voice was exceedingly strong 
and it was also melodious. Maka di-bri 
aruah akan 6rang tfta-tfta dan di-siiroh 
bacha doa, ^1^ Hy ^^^' o^' c'ji^' s?^^ *-^ 
^^ E^ *>!>** ^ He read prayers for the 
dead, and he ordered prayers to be said 
[i.e., for the living]. B&rang-si-apa iang 
sftdi mem-bacha dan men-dengar-kan- 
nya, ^j&>^j^ ^b gln^ ^gJ^^ t-il<s*^^lj 

Whosoever may please to read or listen 
to it. Hubaya-hubaya h6 segala sudara- 
ku iang mem-bacha hikayat ini, ^ V^^^^^ 
^1 ut-^K-CK gLj-Mii ^1^1 j^-^ J^^-^ Take 
notice, all you my brethren who read 
this tale. Maka s'telah sudah di-b^cha- 
nya sibrat itu maka di-gantong-kan-nya 
s'mMa lalu ka-ltlar, ^k^ dJu« ^dbuo c&U 

When he had read the paper he hung it 
up again and went out. Di-sAroh-nya 
jftga anak-nya itu mem-bacha stlrat, 

^Jy-^ S^*-* ^^^' 1^^ *-^y^ <^>— **^ He 
ordered his son to study literature. 
Chiiba bacha-kan sfirat itu aku handak 
dengar, ^J ^^^^«-^^' *' h^ c)*^^ 
Read that letter : I wish to hear it. 

Bachak, ^\i The name of a palm-bush 

resembling the PMas, ^U The leaves 
are used as wrappers for cigarettes by 
the wild tribes of the Peninsula, 

Bachang, ^l^ The horse-mango. Inche' 

Ayat pergi ka-p&rit p6tong bachang ber- 
jari-j&ri, ^U AJ^ 3ij\!lS ^j^ &\i\ -^1 

Yi^j^y. Inche'^ Ayat went to the ditch 
and cut oS a hanging horse-mango. 
Note : The more correct written form 
of this word is Hambftchang, A&.L-*Jo of 

which the contractions Bachang, ^Ij 
and Md^chang, ^ U are most frequently 
used in colloquial Malay. The form 
Ambachang ^^^t is also occasionally 
met with in writing. 

Badai, v^Jij 

BUchar, y^\i Talkative, chattering; a 

Bac hau , ^ l^ Noisy, vociferous, loud ; talk- 
ative, chattering; a chatter-box, a noisy 

Bachin, ^jj->&.lj Evil-smelling, malodorous; 
a stench, a stink, an evil odour. Bachin 
sangat bau ikan ini, ^1 ^^^yk 2£>L» ^^ji^^lj 
The smell of this fish is very evil. (See 
also Hanching, ^^^^^ Apak, ^1 etc.) 

Bachok, ^^y^k Vessels of bamboo for 
carrying water, milk, the juice of palms, 

Bachul, ^\i Ready to put up with insult, 

long-suffering, ready to bear any affront ; 
a fool, a poltroon, a coward. 

Bad, Pbbs., jIj Wind. Bala bad, Jlj Jlj 
Above the wind. Zir bad, ^^ jl) Below 
the wind. Note : This word is never 
used in colloquial Malay, and even in 
the written language it is of rare oc- 

Bad, Pers., j^ Bad, evil. Bad-bakht, ^ J^ 
Misfortune, unhappiness. Note : This 
word, which is of rare occurrence, is 
only met with in writing. 

Bada, Jlj Fried plantains; a kind of frit- 
ters made from plantains. 

Bada', Ae., 'Ij^ Commencement, begin- 
ning. Note : This word is only met 
with in writing. 

Bada, Ae., \j^ The hour of prayer. (See 
Baada, \j^) 

Badab, Ae., c,^IJ<jg Unmannerly, rude, 
arrogant. (See Baadab, c,^lj^ Unman- 
nerly, etc.) 

Badah, &J^ and Wa-badah, &J^^ More- 
over, further, after that. (See Baadah, 

Blldai, ^gJb Behaviour, conduct, carriage, 
manners; to behave, to comport oneself. 
Angkau ini bAdai seperti handak mcn- 
jadi 6rang besar, ^*Xj^ &ji^ v^»^lj ^^1 y^' 
J^ t^J^ v^^^fc*-^ You comport yourself 
as though you were intent upon becoming 
a person of consideration I Note: The 
use of this word is confined to colloquial 
Malay. It is for the most part em- 
ployed in jeering or taunting phrases, 
such as the above. 


Badai, ^^Jlj 

B&dai, ^gjlj To adhere, to drift against 
and adhere to, to drift together. Note : 
This word is only used of objects 
floating or drifting on water. Batang 
k&yu hS.nyut ter-badai ka-jamban 6rang, 

ij^^ J^ ^?^^y *^^ >^ t^^ The 
drifting log of wood adhered to someone's 
bathing-hut. (See S&dai, v^jU To run 

aground, etc., of which this word is 
possibly a modified form.) 

B&dai, i^^\^ A squall, a violent gust of 
wind, a heavy storm. Maka badai dan 
ribut pun tftrun-lah, &j^j ^^1^ v^^lj «-sA^ 
dbjijX ^y Gusts and storms swept down. 
Tiang kita ter-patah di-badai tftdi, ^ 
^jIJ ^gJljJ dJUy 4*^ Our mast was 

broken in the recent squall. Note: In 
the Malay Peninsula ttis word is not 
often met with. Klinkert states that 
the term B&dai, ^^^k is also applied to 
a kind of shed. 

, ^jlj The rhinoceros. Note: The 
Malays distinguish between two species 
of rhinoceros — i.e., Bidak Abi, ^^1 ^Jl^ 
or Badak gajah, iicKlS' ^^l^ which has 
only one, and Bftdak kerbau, ^^ ^Jlj 
which has two horns. Badak dpi, ^Jlj 
^1 A fabulous monster resembling a 
rhinoceros, which is described as being 
of a bright scarlet hue. It is said to 
have left the earth in company with Sang 
Kelembai, the magician. (See Kelembai, 

^^g-J^). Sftmbu badak, ^ Jl^ ^^.4-^ The horn 
of a rhinoceros. Kftku badak, jj.Jlj ^^ 

The hoofs of a rhinoceros. Nate : Both 
the above-named parts of a rhinoceros 
are much prized by Malays and Chinese 
for their supposed medicinal properties. 
Guliga badak, ^Jlj *— ^y? A stone, said 

by Malays to be sometimes found in the 
body of a rhinoceros, and which is 
much prized as a charm supposed to 
possess extraordinary medicinal qualities. 
Raayat-nya iang s'blah d^rat-an ia-itu 
segala harimau dan badak singa dan 
machan dan segala meregestu iang me- 
lata di-bftmi, J^ 3^[i ^j]^^ dlj-^ ^cr^**^^ 

-^ji J SX^ yx^j^ All her subjects who 

were on land, that is to say all the 
tigers and rhinoceroses, lions and tapirs, 
and all the jungle monsters which creep 

Badan, Ar., ^jIj 

upon the earth. Maka segala harimau 
gajah bftdak singa dan m&chan itu-pun 
mohun pdlang, ^^Ij deslff^yb JSl** i-sA^ 

^y <^^^ O-^' d^^ o'^ ^**-^ ^^ ^11 
the tigers and elephants, rhinoceroses 
and lions, and all the tapirs craved 
permission to return to their homes. 
Lldah badak, ^^\i fiO-jJ The cochineal 

cactus, {lit., The rhinoceros' tongue.) 
Bfi<dak be-rendam, |»JJ^ jjjlj The name 
of a dish made of fish roasted over fire 
and then put in a sauce of some sour 

Blldak, ^Ji; The name of a small fresh- 
water fish, which has white silvery 
scales. Note: This fish is also called 
Sia, \xr^ by the Malays. 

Bftdam, |»jIj Bed spots on the body; 
leprosy in its primary form. 

Blldam, Pers., (•jIj An almond. Termmalia 

catappa. Minyak b^am, |»Jlj (3^tt-^ 
Almond oil. la meng-Ular-kan minyak 
b&dam dan chiika deri-dalam bakcha* 
nya, ^b^ J -sl^ ^b ^Jlj ^§^t^ oO'^^ ^^ 
^l^ He took from his satchel almond 

oil and vinegar. (See also Kenltpang,. 
iiU^ An almond.) 

BUdan, Ab., ^jI| The body, the person^ 

the trunk. Maka ia-pun ber-llmau dan 
ber-bedak dan ber-sftchi segala tftboh 
b&dan-nya, ^J^^ ^b ^^ ^y ^^1 *.sU 

J^\i djy JC* ^r^ji o'^ ^® washed 
himself with lime juice, and anointed 
himself with cosmetics, and cleaned the 
whole of his body. Patek ti&da derhaka 
d61at tClan-ku per-sembah*kan nyawa 
badan patek, yOly aJ^J •Jl^^j jgj cft\^U 

<-^^ ^»^^ b^J c^^H-*-»y Thy slave has 
done no treason towards thy majesty^ 
and he surrenders (to thee) his life and 
his body. Patek ftntil-kan be-kerja 
kartlna badan psltek ini sudah leteh, 
^1 c^^U ^Jl, ^j\^ e/, J^j] ci\^U 

d^ &j^ Thy slave was working slowly 
because his body was tired. Note : It is 
more idiomatic in Malay to make use of 
the phrase, * My body is tired,' than to 
say simply, *I am tired.' Maka ia pun 
men- jadi-kan diri-nya anak semang hdtan 
kena tekok kena tekek kena sawan kamb- 
ing bisa kftrap Idsong kArap p&kan k{krap 
bi!ikit kddis bdta ti^a ter-mdat bddan- 


B&dan, Ah., ^jIj 

^jlj Sl^y jI-J ul>^ He changed himself 

into a wild tribesman of the jungle, 
afflicted with excrescences and furrows 
on his skin, subject to fits, and so covered 
with the disease which causes the skin to 
fall off in flakes, with irruptions, with 
the skin diseases of the wild tribes of the 
hills, and with blind boils, that there was 
not room for them all upon his body. 
Ter-lalu bftrok rftpa-nya dengan bdsok 
hanching chabok pun penoh s'rata badan- 
nya, ^«^^ ^5^^ ^^ ^Lk^j jj^ji y V 
^jl^ &\^ &jjj ^y ^l^ Very hideous 

to look upon, fetid and evil-smelling, 
and with malignant ulcers all over his 
body. Maka berenga pun mem-ftteh 
a'genap badan-nya, ^y^ ^y ^ji «^A^ 
^jlj i^JuX^ Maggot-eggs shewed white 
on every portion of his body. Be-r&tus 
chermin di-pinggang-nya be-ribu cher- 
min di-kaki chermin besar men-iirut 
pSsak men-&bor me-rata badan-nya, 

^^^ ^a^j^ ^j^ ,^^^^»^ i^tr^j^ ij^'-H 
^jli ijiJj^ ji\j^ c5^^ hy^ y^ o6^>^ 

Hundreds of mirrors were around his 
waist, thousands of mirrors were about 
his feet, large mirrors followed the 
insertions of his garments, and were 
scattered all over his body. Badan-ku 
tidak tahan, ^U ^J^ i^Jlj My body 

cannot endure it. I cannot bear the 
strain. Tahan sdngat bftdan-nya, ^U 

^^\\ a6L) He has great endurance (Zii., 

His body endures greatly.) 

Si!ingei Genok, Sdngei Ma'DMang, 
Ka-tiga dengan Pftlau Kladi, 
Badan gemoK tinggal t{llang, 
Men-anggong rindu di-dd,lam hati. 

t^y^ J^ ^>r^ e>^^ 

JfUb ^bj yX^^ ^y^**^ 

Siingei Genok and SClngei Ma'Dftlang 
make a third with PMau Kladi. A stout 
body is reduced to mere bones through 
enduring longings in the heart. B&dan 
«6hat, im^r^ ^Jli Well, healthy. BAdan 
uzor,^jC> ^alj or Bfi,dan s&kit, i^^Lo ^jI^ 

Unwell, ill, out of health. B&dan sedap, 
^^Jlj In good condition, fit, well. 

Badan, Ar., ^Jlj 

Badan ta'sedap, «-iJ^ *l5 ^Jb Slightly 
unwell, out of sorts. Badan ta'rdt, ^^\\ 
hj *^ Tired, weary, weak, debilitated. 
Badan tegap, «--aG^jli Thickset, sturdy. 
Badan renching, Acs^j ^^*^^ Lanky, 
slight. Badan besar, j^ ^Jlj Large- 
made, bulky. Badan kechil, Jt>^ ^^Ij 

Small; delicately made. Badan tengah 
naik, ^li dAS ^Jlj Growing; not yet 

arrived at one's full growth. Badan 
bdlat, a)^ ^jIj Naked; imarmed, with- 
out arms, without provisions. Badan 
prahu, j«bly ^jlj The hull of a t)oat or 
ship. Ganti b^dan, ^^b ^^^ The heaped- 

up earth over a grave, or the grave- 
stone if lying horizontally over the 
body. Bekas badan, ^jIj JL^ A gar- 
ment which has been worn on the body. 
Note : This phrase is usually understood 
to mean a garment which, having been 
worn, is given away as a keepsake by its 
original wearer. The fact that lovers 
are in the habit of exchanging garments 
in this way, and that it is a point of 
honour to make a parade of the garments 
received from one's lover or mistress, is 
largely responsible for the large morta- 
lity by violent deaths in the Independent 
Malay States. Note : The word TAboh, 
6iy Body, person, etc., is a more refined 

expression than Badan, ^Jlj and the 

former should always be used when 
speaking to a raja, or to any person of 
good standing about his own body, or 
that of any other person of position. 
This is one of the many instances in 
Malay of a foreign word being adopted 
for ordinary use, the pure Malay word 
being used only when greater refinement 
is desired to be expressed. The two terms 
in conjunction, thus, Tdboh badan, 4^y 

^^\i are often used both in colloquial and 

in written Malay. The meaning is in 
no way altered by this conjunction of 
terms, which is merely an instance of 
the redundancy of expression to which 
the Malays are so much addicted. Sebab 
mdlut badan benasa, j-»^j^^ j^^^ ^y^ «n-*i-^ 
The body is ruined by reason of the 
mouth — Pr(w. Note : The following are 
the Malay names of the principal por- 
tions of the human body : — Anggftta, 
u^^\ The limbs. Kepala, J^ The 

head. Hftlu kepala, lA^ Jy> The top of 


Badan, Ar., ^^^k 

the head. Ctak kepala, li? ^^1 The 
brains. Ctak tWang, ^y ^^1 Marrow. 
Tengk6rak, J;i^ The skull. Rambiit, 
i^-f^j The hair of the head. Jambang, 
^-^^ Whiskers. Mlsei, ^^^-tr^ The mous- 
tache. Janggut, &jf^ The beard. Bftlu 
rftma, (^^j j^y. The hair of the body. 
M6ka, -sJ^ The face. Telipis, ^.-M^ 
The temples. Dahi, ^^^1^ The forehead. 
Kening, ^^^^ The eyebrows. Mdta, ul>U 
The eyes. Anak mslta, ul>U ^1 The 
pupils. Biji m&ta, u^U ^e^ The eye- 
balls. Pftteh mata, ul>L. d^^Jy The whites 
of the eyes. Bdlu mata, u^U ^^ The 
eye-lashes. Pelftpok m&ta, ul>U ^^^ or 
Kel6pak m^ta, ul>U ^^ The eyelids. 
Btbir mata, ul>U j^,^ The lower eyelids. 
Pipi» ^^ The cheeks. Hidong, ^>)^ 
The nose. Batang htdong, ^^J^ ^Ij 
The bridge of the nose. LAbang hidong, 
^^j^ ^y The nostrils. Alor hidong, 
^^j^^yi The furrow in the upper lip. 
MMut, sy^ The mouth. Bibir, j^,^ 

The lips. Lldah, &JuJ The tongue. Gigi, 
^^ The teeth. GAsi, ^/ or Peng- 

arang gigi, ^^^^ ^^Ui The gums. 

Langit-langit, Y^^ The roof of the 
mouth. Dagu, /I J The chin. Telinga, 
M The ear. Lftbang telinga, UJj ^^ 
The ear-holes. Chdmping telinga, A»^>^ 
UJJ and Ch6ping telinga, UJJ ^^ 
The lobe of the ear. Tengkok, ^/^ 
The back of the neck. Lehir, ^^ The 
throat. Rongkong, ^^jj Kongkong, 
^^^ or Kerongkong, ^f^)^ The inside 

of the throat, the wind-pipe. B4tang 
lehir, ^ ^b The neck. Bftah kelebi, 

^^^ 6l^ Adam's apple. Tftlang chenak, 
^^Aft. ^yl and TAlang selangka, ^yS 
cMaLo The collar-bone. Bahu, ^^l^ 
The shoulders. Belikat, J5gu The 
shoulder-blade. Ketiak, ^^^^ The arm- 
pits, Lengan, ^ The arm. BAah 

lengan, ^ aly The biceps. Siku, ^^C-^-^ 
The elbow. Tangan, Jj>U The hand. 
Sendi tangan, ^^iJ v^Juu^ The wrist. 
Tapak tangan, ^iJ ^U The palm of 
the hand. Ibu tangan, Jt>^ yA^ The 
thumb. JSri, ^^W The fingers. Jari 

Bfi,dan, Ae, ^^Ij 

tel-dnjok, ^^^ ^J^ The first finger, 
the index. Jari hantu, yj^ sg^W^ The 
second or forefinger. Jari m&nis, i^jW 
^j^U The third finger. Jari kellngking, 
^J^K^ sa>*^^ The little finger. RAas 
jari, i^y^ ij^hj The joints of the fingers. 
BAku tangan, ^^ /ji The knuckles. 
Kftku jari, ^^^Lx^^^ The finger-nails. 
Dada, ^Ij The chest. Sftsu, ^^ and 
K6pek, <5<J>^ The breasts. R<isok, ^^jf^ 
The ribs. Blakang, ^h The back. 
Tftlang biakang, ^Jg ^jJ The back- 
bone. Pinggang, ^S^^ The waist and the 
small of the back. Hati, ^Ifc The liver. 
Paru-paru, Yv^ The lungs. KAra, V>/ 
The spleen. Jantong, ^y^^^ The heart. 
Bftah pinggang, ^S^ &\y The kidneys. 
Prut, &j^ The stomach. Isi prut, ^1 
S^y The entrails. PAsat, l-y The 
navel. Ari-ftri, t'^g;' The lower part 
of the abdomen, the lower bowels. 
P6nggong, ^^y The buttocks. BArit, 
Sijy Jftbor, jiy$. and Pantat, SsjJ The 
anus. BCltoh, dJj^ Pelir, ^^ Chichih 
A-^>^^, and Zakar, ^\} The penis. KAlop, 
t^jS The foreskin. Bftah pelir, ^^ al^ 
and jabil, J-<^W The testicles. Pflki, 
^y Tundun, ^^f^y^ B(lrit,4ijjy <3^^ Parat, 
Sj\i The pudenda. (Speaking of boys, 
BArong, ^jy4 and of girls, Bftnga, l^^ 
are used to describe the private parts). 
Paha, l^ The thigh. Chechichak, ^^^t:^ 
The groin. Pemenggak, ^5^^A^ The hips. 
LAtut, ajy The knee. Tempftrong Ifttut, 
ajy ^jj^UJ The knee-cap. Pe-lipat, ^Li-Jii 

The under-bend of 'the knee. TMang 
kring, ^^ ^y and TMang betis, ^y 

,j*-^>ai The shin-bone. Betis, ,j*-t>ai The 

leg. BAah betis, ^j^^^ &^y The calf 

of the leg. Crrat peng-etul, Jy^i &jj\ 

The muscle under the knee. Mdta 
kaki, ^l^ u^L^ The ankle. Blakang 

kfiki, ^\^ ^Jl^ avd Kekura kaki, 1;j-<f 

^\^ The instep. Tapak kaki, ^l^ ^Ir 

The sole of the foot. Per-emping kaki, 
^l^ ^j^y The side of the foot. TOmit, 

J-^y The heel. Ketin, ^^j-j^^ and lO"rat 
peng-andar, pJoAi &yl The tendon 
Achilles. Ibu kaki, ^l^ ^1 The great 
toe. jari kaki, ^\s ^g;ll^ The toes. 




BftdaDg, ^Jl| 

KAku kaki, ^/^// The toe-nails. Kaki, 
^IS" The foot. Urat, Sj^\. A vein. Sendi, 
^^Juu« A muscle, a joint. (See also Tdboh, 
djy Body, etc.) 

8adang, $Jb The name of a round sieve 

made of rattan, and used for sifting 
grain ; the name of a large, round, flat, 
wooden vessel somewhat larger than a 
Dillang ^^J Badang-kan, ^^^. To 
sift with a sieve of this kind. Badang- 
kan bras, ^j^ ^j^^^ To sift rice, so as 
to cleanse it from impurities. (For other 
words for sieves see Note under Ayak, 


Badar, ^jb orjsy^ The name of a small salt- 
water fish. Badar b&ra, l;li ^Jli A larger 
variety of the same. 

Badar, ^^ or BS,tu badar, ^J^ ylj A kind 
of stone, which is set in a ring, that the 
Muhammadan pilgrims bring back from 
the battle-field of Badar. 

Btdi, ^^Jli Evil magic, an evil supernatural 
influence, a sickness caused by the magic 
properties of blood. (See Bahdi, <^J^ 
Evil magic, etc.) 

Bsidi, Pees., v^^lj Suspicion, conjecture; 

the future. Note : This word only occurs 
in writings which for the most part are 
of foreign origin. 

Badik, ^jb The name of a kind of short 
dagger. Note: This weapon, which is 
unlike all other Malay arms, is said by 
the natives to have been originally copied 
from an Arabic model. Tampil ber- 
tempik me-ngedang-kan lengan-nya dan 
men-chabut badik dan lompat kinja tiada 
ber-kira-kira, ^ ^IJJU ^^^j^ J,^ 

Then he rushed forward shouting, throw- 
ing his arms about, drawing his dagger 
and dancing and capering without reason. 
Badik dAa bilah, ^ \j*^ ^^U Two 

Badok, ^^^Ij An object of uncertain size; 

shapeless; of uncertain size. S'besar 
badok, ^^^Ij ^■^■■>...^ Of uncertain size 

{lit.f As big as an object of uncertain 

Bidong, ^^jI^ A breastplate; a badge 

worn on the breast. Mem-akai badong 
dan tetdpong, ^yJ ^^b 6^jb ^^^-^ To 

Bfigai, J\i 

wear a breastplate and helmet. Chdkup 
dengan prisei badong t6mbak dan lem- 
bing-nya, ^^^ ^^Jb ^y ^^ Ui^^^ 

, ^ ^tf ^ ^^'^ Provided with shield and 
breastplate, lance and spear. Note: It 
is not the custom for modern Malay 
warriors to t\rear armour other than a 
Baju rantai, ^^j ^l^ or coat of mail. 

The use of this expression is therefore 
almost entirely confined to literary 

Badong, i)^\i The name of a salt-water 

fish which sometimes attains to a con- 
siderable size. 

B^dut, Jav., SJli A jester, a buffoon, a 
joker; a jest, a joke; ludicrous, ridiculous. 
Akan di-per-bftat badut-nya, SlyyJ ^1 
^^\^ In order to make his jests. Note: 
This word is not commonly understood 
in the Peninsula, the terms Alan-alan, 
Y^^^ and Pran, ^y A jester, etc., a/nd 
Jenaka, .sJUe. Jesting, joking, etc., being 
usually employed. A practical joke is 
most nearly expressed in Malay by the 

^ word Asa, ^1 

Bagai, ^l^ Like, resembling, similar to; 

as, as for, with reference to, as though. 
Maka pr&hu betara itu bagai pAchok di- 
lanchar-kan bagai kumbang pdtus tali 
bagai blut di-ketil ^kor lalat hinggap ter- 
gelenchir, ^y ^l^ u:^) jLq ytly ^^}l^ 

&^ JU j(j o-^j^ ^/ JU Jj^^ 

^^y ^a^jb a)i jj^] J^j The bark 

leaped forward like a dart which is 
hurled, like a beetle when the thread 
which holds it is severed, like an eel 
when seized by the tail, so that the flies 
which settled upon her slipped off again ! 
Bagai kdku dengan isi, ^^ ^^ ^U 

-^1 Like the nail and the flesh — Proves*- 

bial exp-ession^ equivalent to the English 
aphorism * As thick as thieves.' Bagai 
ikan di-dalam blat, ab ^|jj ^I^L^ 

Like a fish in the fishing-stakes — Frov^ 

Panjang lima k&pal pe-ranggi, 
Sarat ber-mdat di-negri Jawa. 
Jikalau betul bagai di-janji, 
Abang ta't&kut mem-bAang nyawa. 


B&gai, ^Ij 

Five fathoms long is the handsome ship 
which is overloaded in Java. If it is 
verily as thou promisest, I, thy lover, fear 
not to risk my life! Maka Tftan Petri 
pun ter-lalu sAka-nya mem-andang-kan 
ayah-nya sudah hidop balek bagai sedia 

kala, ^l^^^-. y V ^y ^j:^ ^\^ 

Jl^ The Princess was greatly delighted 

to behold that her father had returned 
to life, just as he had been formerly. 
Maka baginda pun ter-lalu sAka hati-nya 
ber-AUh bagai di-chlta, y iy ^y OuJ:^ c^ 
U^j ^U J^lj^ ^U jsiy^ Now the 

monarch was filled with gladness at 
obtaining everything as he had desired 
it. ChAkup lengkap bagai ka-raja-an 

iangbesar, ^^-.^-J^i o^^^^ s?^^ *^JS^ *-^>^ 
Furnished in sufficiency, as for a great 
kingdom. Maka hftjan pun tArun bagai 
di-tdang dan ribut topan bagai di-16ntar, 

^^j o'^ ^!/^ s/*-^ c>^y oy c5^y^ "^^ 

^^j ^L^ ^^ Rain came down as 

though it had been poured, and storms 
and typhoons as though they had beeij 
hurled ! Benar bagai titah, d»-^ J^U y^ 
It is truly as Your Majesty says. Maka 
b&gai hukum aadat, SjIp ^%^ ^l^ v.^^— ^ 

Now with reference to the Law of 
Custom. Maka bagai seperti kfisah itu, 
ut-^l dMsu^ SjiL^ ^li csA^ Now with refer- 
ence to that story. S'bagai, ^^ As ; 
like, similarly ; when ; alike. Sama 
s'bagai, ^^^ f^ Exactly alike, pre- 
cisely similar. Maka Bendahara tfta itu 
pun s'bagai mem-andang Raja D6nan itu 
ber-chAchor-an ayer mata-nya karana 
sangat-lahblas dan kasih-an mem-andang 
ka-laku-an-nya, ^^ybql I^^Lft>jjj c^i—* 

J\/^ £j^ ^^^ ^b ^ dU£>L^ ^l^ 

Now when the old Bendah&ra looked 
upon Raja D6nan the tears fell in drops 
from his eyes, for he was very much 
moved with pity and compassion as he 
watched his behaviour. M&ka Pateh 
Gfi.jah Md,da pun s'bagai mem-andang 
pada Temenggong, ^y jU dcjsl? dSU isX^ 

^j^^ ^J^ 4Jj!-«^ ^U— ^ Now as Pateh 

Gk] ah Mdda looked upon the Temenggong. 
S'bagai l&gi, ^i s5^^ Moreover, simi- 
larly, in like manner, in the same way. 
S'bdgai Mgi ter-sebut-lah pAla kSsah 

B&gai-bagai, p^lj 

TOan Petri itu, Jy d)J^^y ^31 ^L^ 
UL^I ^jsii ^^ly <u n .^ In like manner the 
tale is told of that Princess. Barang 
s'bagai, ^q^U-** ^jU dnd Barang s'bagai- 

^yS'j ^W--» ^^U Similarly, all similar 
things, all things of the same kind, all 

things which resemble it, etc. Me-lain- 
kan sdkor ia mem-bri tahu tftan-nya 
seperti tempat-nya jauh dan barang 
s'bagai-nya, yt>LJ v^^><-^ v^' ^y-^ ^■j.J-^ 

Unless it is difficult for him to give infor- 
mation to the (slave's) master — as, for 
instance, if his dwelling is situated at 
a distance, or for any similar reason. 
Bagai-mana,^U-Jj How? What? In what 

manner? On what terms? In what way? 
(See Bagai-mana, ^U-J^) 

.1, ^l^ Kind, sort, species, class, mode, 
distinction. Maka bdnyi-an di-sflroh 
palu dfta-blas bagai ragam maka kftda 
itu pun di-sdroh men-ari, &j^*^ ^ji csA^ 

^jj^^ c)-^' '^/ "^^ f^b s/^ ^ i^^yu 

^gpU.* He ordered the bands to strike 

up twelve kinds of airs, and he made 
the horse dance. Sekelian b&gai anika 
jenis per-raain-an, ^-tr ^ ^ <^^' ^^^ cj^^^ 
^jjj^L^y All sorts, kinds, and varieties of 
amusements. Per-mftta sambilan bagai, 
J'li ^L ».,t.^ ciiaUy Nine kinds of precious 

gems. Dfta kali di-tiup bftloh bangsi itu 
maka ampat-likor bagai lagu di-dalam- 
nya, M^\ c&U 2i\ ^^^ &^ji ^^^^ ^J^ 1^^ 
^b J ^31 ^l^ ^L) He blew a second 

time upon the bamboo flute, and twenty- 
four kinds of tunes were in it. Pel-bagai, 
^Lii All sorts and kinds, every sort 

and kind. S'telah sudah makan mtnum 
pftla datang tambul pel-bagai rasa-nya, 
^Ui J^ ^|j Jy ^^j-^ ^U &^ dlx^ 

^Lol) When they had eaten and drunk, 

sweetmeats of all sorts and kinds of 
flavours were brought in. Bagai-bagai, 
t* J^li Various, of different sorts or kinds, 

of all sorts and kinds. (See Bagai-bagai, 

Bfigai-bligai, Y^^\i Various, of different 
sorts, of all sorts and kinds; diffuse. 
Note : Bfi,gai-bagai, V^^ in common with 
almost all Malay words which begin 
with an initial Ba c^ and which are re- 
duplicated, usually undergoes contraction 


Bagai-m&na, ^U«^ 

in the colloquial dialects, the first word 
of the reduplication being pronounced 
BS' -i thus Be-b&gai, ^Q Md,ka p&da 

malam itu ber-bagai-bagai bdnyi-an 
segala hantu shfetan pada pohun kayu 
itu, yL^ ^^y. ^s^^J^ "*^' (^^ ^ *-^^— 
u^l ji\^ ^yby J^ ^^^s^ >5J^ That night 
of all kinds and sorts were the noises 
made by the spirits and devils in that 
tree. Bagai-bagai anika jenis, *.sAJl Yc^^ 
^j^.f-a f^ > All sorts and kinds. Bfigai-bagai 
ka-laku-an-nya, ^\^^ ^^^ -^^^ kinds 
of behaviour (i.e., she did all sorts of 
things.) Bagai-bagai rfipa, i^^j ^c^^ 
All sorts of forms. (See Bagai, ^U 
Kind, sort, etc.) 

Bagai -mana, ^U-Xj How? What? In what 

manner ? On what terms ? In what way ? 

Whatever; as to; with regard to. Angkau 
ioi si-apa dan &pa sebab d^tang ka-mari 
ini dan bagai-mS^na datang dddok di- 
tengah laut pftlau ini, ^^l»J <-3l<>.^ ^1 ^£>] 

^1 yy &ji dAJ J J)^^^ Who art thou ? and 
wherefore hast thou come hither? and 
how hast thou come to dwell in the 
middle of the sea upon this island ? Ada- 
pun hamba ini bagai-mana Bendahara 
handak kasih karana nama-nya di-kernia 
duli iang-di-per-tAan akan hamba? ^^y l«Ji 

H--^ v/' o'yy^ ij"^ ^/^ ^^ *^^ ^^j 

servant, how should the Bendahara love 
him, seeing that his (Hang Tdah's) title 
has been bestowed upon thy servant by 
the King ? Maka jawdb bangau itu clda- 
pun badan tdan-hamba ter-lalu kras 
bagai-mana-kah bMih hamba pagut? <-^ 

S/U u,..4Jb 4^ d<JL.*l^ ^/ Then the 

stork made answer, * Thy body, master, 
is exceedingly hard ; how then can I 
peck it?' Mau-kah tdan-hamba men- 
dengar suatu hik^yat bagai-m^na aakal 
bftlih me-lepas-kan deri-pada bahia? 

Lj^ Mj^ ^jjCJUu dJ^ Wilt thou hearken, 

master of mine, to a tale as to how 
intelligence can save one from danger ? 
Maka tttah Sri Bet^ra, ' Bagai-mana 
tipu-nya itu t^ran kris dan tdmbak ber- 
tanggong-nya dan kris pun tifi-da ter- 
htlnus deri-pA,da sarong-nya?' dx-J iSX^ 

Bagai-mana, ^U^ 

^jyL^ J3^j Then quoth the Sri Bet^ra, 
*What is his mode of deception, that he 
can support unharmed the onset of dag- 
gers and spears, and that the daggers, 
too, cannot be drawn from out their 
scabbards ? ' Sekarang bagai-m&na-lah 
bechara itu iang baik ka-pada hati 
mamak kita £ipa sekelian, dhU-J^ 4jl5C^ 

Now what is our best plan in the opinion 
of you, our chiefs ? Bagai-mana di-d&lam 
pe-tftafthlun nujum? I^ ^^Ji^^ ^l »ftCj 

(V^'v)^' In what manner is it set forth in 
the precepts of the astronomers ? Bagai- 
mana kata dia ? ^^ S^ o*^*^ What did 
he say ? H6 sudara-ku jikalau bagai- 
mana s'kali-pun ka-bakti-an kita ka-pada 
raja ini tiada-lah jftga kita ini di-j4di- 
kan-nya mentri besar, ^^ ^\j\^^^ ^ 

>-^ s?^'^ ,i0^^W^^ ^ «^ *-S>^ <OI^Lj 
my cousin, whatever good services 
we may render to the King, he still will 
not make us great ministers. M&ka 
segala hal ahwal-nya bagai-mana di- 
per-bAat dlih suami-nya itu-pun seke- 
lian di-cherita-kan-nya-lah ka-pada istri 

brahmanaitu, ^^U-J^ ^ij"^' J^ J^ *-^^ 
A^^^^ s^j!^^ O-^' cj^lr* ^-?' ^'>y^ 
uw' ^^^ s?>^-^' "^ -^^ ^h® matters 
with regard to her husband's action she 
forthwith related to the Brahman's wife. 
Note : In colloquial Malay Bagai-mana, 
^U-Xj is for the most part contracted 

into * Ge-mfi,na,' and among the Malays 
of Petani it is further contracted into 
* Gena.' Thus in colloquial Malay it is 
more common to say, Ge-mana mem- 
bdat ? How is it to be done ? What can 
be done ? What is to be done ? than 
Bagai-mana mem-bdat, &l^.^4-* ^^U-JCj ^ly 

although in writing the latter form is 
alone permissible. S'bagai-m8,na,^U<X^^ 

As, as much as, such as, in such manner 
as ; in the manner that ; whatever. 
S'bagai-mS,na iang ter-sebut di-&tas ini, 
^ — il ^ — Jia lyi^yf^ ^L.4>^Ci — . As is 

mentioned above. S'bagai-mana ista- 
aadat ka-r&ja-an iang besar, ^l»^ Ci »....» 

j^Jii e)'^'->^ &jUx-^I Such as are the 
customs of great monarchies. S'kettka 


B&gal, J?l} 

sudah ter-siap chAkup lengkap s'bagai- 
mana ator-an perk^kas 6rang iang 
handak ber-t61ek, <^ a f,.. o y fij^^ f^X^gS^,.^ 

<5<sM^ c5^W^ ^JJ^ III a moment all 
things had been made ready in the 
manner in which materials are arranged 
for persons who are about to cast a 
horoscope. S'bagai-mana iang di-ka- 
handak-i Mih Tftan Petri itu, ^i»T,.. ,<> 

u:^! i^y^ ^1^ 4?l ^juL^jsJki To the 

extent desired by the Princess; in the 
manner desired by thePrincess. Handak- 
lah di-ikut s'bagai-mana hukum-an-nya, 
^^jx.*X&. ^UJ!L-u> 6^lj dliSJoLib Yon must 

obey, whatever may be his commands. 

Bagal, Jflj The peduncle of the coconut. 
Ayam bagal? Besar b&gal tiada ber- 
gdna, ^/ji jUr J?lj ^ Jrij ^1 A fowl 

like the peduncle of a coconut ? If it is 
only as large as that, it is of no use . 

Bfigan, ^jjfl^ A kind of square fish- trap 
composed of stakes driven into the bed 
of the stream or sea. It is used both in 
fresh and salt water. 

B&gan, ^^\i A quay, a landing-stage. Note : 
This word is sometimes used to mean a 
ferry, which is a signification doubtless 
derived from its original sense. 

BSgan, ^^Ij A shed, a temporary hut, a 
camp. (See also Bangsal, J^ Barong, 
&fj\i D&ngau, ^1 J Jambor, ^^-acs Sapor, 
yLo Telatap, u^Aj and Terfttak, ^ly 
P6ndok, ^^y P6ndong, ^JJy). 

B&gan, ^\i A rough sketch or plan, a 

map ; to make a plan of a house or 

Bagas, Jav., ^ — SL^ Strong, muscular, 

largely made, broad in proportion (of a 
thing) ; strong or violent (of wind) ; a 
violent wind, a squall. Ribut dan b%as, 
^^ ^^'^ ^j^j Storms and gales. Note : 
This word is not in use among the 
Malays of the Peninsula. 

Bftgas, ^\i Restored, fortified ; to restore, 
to fortify. 

B&gat, 2S\i The name of a species of palm. 

Bagawan, Hind., ^^l^ Blessed, fortunate, 

happy. Note: In the Archipelago this 
term is used as a title. 

Baginda, J^ 

Baget, 3^U The name of a kind of sea- 
fish. It has a leathery shell. 

Bagi, ^l^ To give, to grant, to permit, to 
allow; to give under a strain (as cordage, 
etc.) ; to pay out (as cable). Bagi pada 
aku,yl J3 J:\i Give it to me. Jaugan 
di-bS-gi, ^q^lj^ i^^ Do not give it; do 
not permit it. Baik bagi, ^J\^ ^^U It 
were better to give it ; it were better to 
allow it. Bagi hadiah, diJ^ J:U To 

give a present, to make a present. Bd,gi 
pinjam, f^^ ^Ij To lend. Bagi jatoh, 
aJU ^Ij To let fall, to suffer to fall, to 
allow to fall. Bagi lepas, ,j^ ^L^ To 
let go, to let loose, to set free, to suffer 
to escape. Bftgi izin, ^'^\ ^\^ To give 

permission, to give leave. Takut ka- 
bawah duli tiada bagi, agr ^J &j[^ &^\s 

^Ij Perhaps His Highness will not per- 
mit it. B&gi tali sauh lfi,gi, 6^U ^iJ j?Lj 
^i Pay out more cable. Ta'akan di- 
bagi, ^^^ o^*^ It will not be allowed; 
he will not permit it. Note : In colloquial 
Malay the word B&gi, ^l| is often used 

in a slang way to signify * Hit,' * Beat,* 
etc; thus, Aku b&gi dengan k&yu, ^\ 
jl\^ ^J ^l| I beat him {lit., I gave it 
him) with a stick. 

BSginda, ^aS^ One who is of royal birth, 
whether male or female; a king, a queen, 
a prince, a princess, a monarch, a ruler, 
a conqueror. Ayah-anda bonda baginda, 
jjJ^ jli Ju4il The parents of the Prince. 

Ada-lah s'drang raja ter-lalu besar tahta 
ka-raja-an baginda itu, gl^ Pjy^^ aJIjI 

3i\ OuJ^ c)*^'->^ "'•'^ >^ y ^-^^ There was 
a Prince, and the throne of his kingdom 
was very mighty. Maka baginda pun 
ter-lalu sftka hati-nya ber-dlih bslgai di- 
chita, iij\y. ^U •J^yjy ^y jof? c^U 

U^ J ^\^ The monarch was filled with 

gladness at obtaining all he had desired. 
Mfi-ka &nak rS,ja itu di-n&ma-i Alih ayah- 
finda baginda TAan Petri Q em&la Rfi^kan, 
^ly Joii sX^] dij\ ^g^Uj ail gl; ^1 caL^ 
^1; JL^ ^jsJ The royal infant was 
named by her (lit., the Princess's) father 
Princess Qemd,la R^kan. Maka baginda 
pun hilang di-fi.tas tahta, ^y Jol^ <^.l-^ 
uu^ ^'^ Al^ The monarch died while 
still ruling. Deri-jauh sflsor-kan dekat 


Baginda, J^ 

sudah dekat sampei-lah tiba tdndok 
meny-embah duli baginda sembah ter- 
angkat kadam jari s'pftloh kdchop seperti 
sMor bakong jari seperti sAsun sirih, 

di^ ^^ From afar off they sidled up to 

within a short distance, and from thence 
until they at length arrived they kept 
bowing down and making obeisance to the 
monarch, in homage uplifting their hands 
with their ten fingers arranged like the 
spreading root of a lily, and their fingers 
(one against the other) like a sheaf of 
the leaves of the Vi'per betel. Lalu masok 
meng-adap baginda, Ju^^ <^ jU^ ^3--^Uyi 

And he then went into the presence of the 
monarch. Banyak-lah negri besar iang 
telah di-t&wan-kan ftlih baginda itu, dlifijli 
4i1 Jcdii dij\ ^^j^^ <si«Ai j^ i^J^ Many 
were the great countries which had been 
conquered by that monarch. Note: 
* Strictly speaking, the title of Baginda 
should only be applied to a monarch 
who has conquered the country of which 
he is the ruler, but it has now become 
common to apply this term in Malay 
romances to all persons of royal blood 
without distinction. According to Malay 
custom, however, there are only two 
rulers in all the Malayan States who 
are generally acknowledged by Malays 
as being entitled to the style and rank of 
Baginda, JuJ^ , which is esteemed higher 
than that of Sultan, ^UalL*# These two 

princes are the Baginda Daik and the 
Baginda Trengganu, the former being 
held by Malays to occupy the higher 
position. In former days all the Malay 
rulers in the southern portion of the 
Peninsula were accustomed to do homage 
to the Baginda Daik, and the Bendah&ra 
(^UjjLj) of Pahang always issued their 

chap to their own people with a clause, 
which was merely inserted for form's 
sake, making the contents of these docu- 
ments subject to the approval and sanc- 
tion of Ka-bawah duli, ^J &^IS viz.. 

His Majesty the Baginda of Daik. Many 
of these chap, several of which bear date 
as late as 1875, at which time the power 
of the Baginda of Daik had long been a 
thing of the past, are still in existence. 
Even in Malay States which owed and 

Bagitu, yifj!^ 

paid no homage to Daik, the Baginda 
(JjXj) of that State was always regarded 
as the recognised head of the Malay 


Bagfni, ,^*^ Thus, in this manner, in this 
way, after this fashion, like this. Note : 
This word is formed from Bagai ^\i 

Like, and Ini, ^^1 This. Bagini-lah hal- 
nya, ^ U dLi-Jj The matter is thus, the 

matter is in this wise. Bflat-lah bagfini, 
^eX-5^ ^\^ Do it thus ; do it in this 
manner ; do it like this. Apa-kah S,khtiar 
jikalau bagini, ^^yJ^ ^S^ jt^xd,.) d<il What 

is our best course of action if things are in 
this wise ? Jika men-den gar segala 6rang- 
6rang di-dalam negri bagini banyak-lah 
gila mabok Idpa pada makan minum 
dan lApa pada kain baju-nya, yt>jo^ cA\^ 
^U ^ d^li ^ ^/^ ^Ijj y^^)\ yL^ 

^y^^ ^^^ ^y o'^ (^^ v/^ ^ ^y 
If all the people in the land hear the like 
of this, many will be stricken with mad- 
ness and with delirium, and many will 
forget their food and drink, and will 
cease to be mindful of their raiment. 
Ampat ganjil lima genap tegang ber- 
jela-j61a kendor ber-lenting-lenting ya 
b{ikan dia tetslpi ya dengan dia-lah bagini 
bagitu, ^)^ pj^^ ^ UuS ^ J^ aiL.1 

^^ dU^ e^^ k ^^ s?^ c/> ^ r^y^j^ 
yLfX} Four is odd, five is even : things 
which are taut hang like fringes, and 
those which are slack twang ! Yes is not 
yes, but still is yes; with them it is this 
way and that way. Note: The above 
is a proverbial saying in common use in 
P6rak, and is used to indicate the habitual 
falsehood and untrustworthy character 
of the ruling classes in that State. 
Bagini banyak, ^3jb ^^yj^ Thus many, 
as many as this. 

Ba^u, ys^ So, in that manner, in that 
way, after that fashion, like that, such 
as that. Note : This word is compounded 
from Bagai, ^\i Like, and Itu, u:^\ That. 

Bagitu bftnyak, ^$(,^ ys^ So many, so 
much, as many as that, as much as that. 
' Ya-kah bagitu ? ' ' Bagitu-lah I ' y^ A 
j^yLfX^ ' Is that so ?• * It is so ! * Dahulu 
pun bagitu jftga, *-?>. j»J^ ^y Jy>a 
It was also thus in former times. Jangan 
bagitu, y^ ^\e^ Not so; do not do 
BO ; do not do that ; do not behave in 


that manner. Sampei b&ti handak bagitu, 
yHfS^ ^^^y^ ^J^ ^^aLw-o Can you find it 
in your heart to have such an intention ? 
Biar-lah bagitu, y^t^ ^^ Leave it as 
it is ; leave it so ; let it be so. 

Tanjong bliikar tanjong beliku,' 
T6bor jala s'panjang pantai, 
Janji tAan tidak bagitu 
KAntum mala s&ma di-pakai. 

>^ O^ c)'^ s?^^ 
^Lij pL^ JL^ ^/ 

A headland covered with young jungle, 
a headland where the river winds. Cast 
the casting-net all along the shore. 
Your promise, master, was not such 
as that, but that whether bud or fading 
flower it should be alike to you 
(equivalent to "throughout life"). H6 

Awang ! jikalau bagitu Awang ! ^ 
£l^l yLgJ^ y<-DK ^1^1 Awang ! if that be 
so, Awang I S' bagitu, y ^ ^ -^ As much 
as that ; as many as that ; such as that. 
Krat panjang s'bagitu, ys^JL^^^ A^ ^j^ 
C/ut it as long as that. S'bagitu b3,nyak, 
^Ij yi^Jif^ As many as that. 

Bagoh, &^\y A small fresh-water fish of a 
yellowish hue, which has a black circular 
dorsal mark with a yellow centre to it. 
Note : This fish is found both in running 
and in stagnant water. 

Bigok, ^^^ The name of a medium- 
sized salt-water fish, which is also called 

Bah, &A 

Bagor, ^\\ Of extraordinary length or 
size (of men or animals). 

Bagor, ^\^ To scrape the sand on a river 

sandbank into an enclosure, with a low 
surrounding embankment, in which small 
fish are held captive. 

Bagu, ^\^ The name of a tree from the 
bark of which twine is made, Onetum 

Bagu-bigu, Y^\^ -Al cavity or partition in 
a fruit. Pij. 

Bagup, f^^^i Broad and full in the face, 
fat and round in the cheeks, full or 
heavy of the face. 

B^gus, Jav., ^^\i Handsome, pretty, good, 
fine, capital, excellent, bravo I Anak 
dS,ra iangbagus rftpa-nya, ^^l^^ 1^1 J ^1 
^^U^^ A pretty maiden. Kain bagus, 

O^^^ o^^ ^ ^^^ cloth. P&da pandang- 
an hamba bagus benar, <-r-uJb ^Ija3 JJ 
y^ O^J^^ From thy servant's point of 
view it was truly excellent. * Bagus ! * 
kata dia, <^^ u^^l^ o^^^ ' Bravo !' said he. 
Note : The frequent use of this word is 
to be avoided in speaking Malay, for, 
though it is well imderstood, it is not 
originally a pure Malay word, and it has 
now come to be used by natives as a 
somewhat slang term, and is but rarely 
used by them except when addressing 
Europeans. There are numerous other 
words which convey the required mean- 
ing more idiomatically and with greater 
accuracy, such as Chantek,^5-iXA^ Ch6mil, 
Jtw.^ filok, ^1 Halus, ^Ub H6bat, 
a«^ K&chak, ^l^ M61ek, ^^ T6koh, 
dSy etc. 

Bah, di A flood, a freshet, an inundation'; 
to rise in flood, to inundate, to flood. 
Mdsim bah, dJ (^^r^y^ The season for 
floods, which in the Malay Peninsula is 
generally about the months of Novem- 
ber, December, or January. Bah iang 
ampoh-kan kampong halaman orang, dj 
^j^\ ^^^^ ^yu^ ^^yL.Ui A freshet 
which inundated the human habitations. 
Maka ayer pun bah datang apus-kan 

negri itu, ^J^^\ ^1^ ^ ^^y >i' ^^-^u— 
u:^\ i^j^ The waters rose in flood and 
covered the land. Note : The Malays 
give the names Bah jantan, ^^fjx^ ^ and 
Bah betina, ^^^gs^ ^ viz.^ the male and 

the female floods, respectively to the 
first rising of a freshet and to the 
flood which sometimes ensues after the 
waters have partially subsided. The 
latter is supposed to be usually more 
serious than the former. Bah, d^ is also 
used generally to describe any spreading 
about, as, Khabar itu sudah bah me-r&ta 

pekan, ^^jO ul>1^ ^m &^y^ «^1 j^ The 
news has spread all over the town. Bah 
sllngat sampah ini, ^t ^Ju^ ut^L^ i^ 

This litter is all over the place. Note : 
The disease called beri-beri by Europeans 
is known to the Malays by the name 
of Sfi-kit sebah, &^^ &tSL» which is a 


Bah-bah, Y^ 

derivative of Bah, 6^ , the natives attri- 
buting the swellings which are the 
principal symptoms of the disease to 
an accumulation of water. Note : The 
term Sebak, ^3^-* A flood, etc., is also 

in use for a small rise of water, and it 
should not be confounded with Bah, d^ 
from which it is distinct. 

Bah-bah, y^ To call goats. 

Bah-bah kambing I 
'Nak makan bAah bMang, 
Sa' malam ta' tidor, 
Meng-intei anak 6rang. 

^ , , r f ^ dJ A } 

Come along goats ! and eat the fruit 
of the biilang tree. Last night I got 
no sleep, through peeping at a young 
maiden. (A nursery rhyme.) 

Bahak, Ab., ^5^ A kind of leprosy or skin 

B&ham, ^ To eat like an animal, seizing 
the food with the jaws, and not putting 
into the mouth with the paws. 

Bihan, ^\i and Mem-bahan, ^^j^U-^-^ To 
strike (as with an axe), using both 
hands. To fell timber, to cut timber, 
to cut timber up into logs; to beat, to 
strike, to thrash, to drub, to thump. 
Note : When used in connection with 
timber this word signifies the whole 
operation of felling and cutting up, as 
opposed to Tebang, A-J which means to 

fell only. M&ka k&ta 6rang tfta itu pergi- 
lah angkau ber-bahan ka-darat negri 
Tanjong Bima itu ada kayu merabau 
renting di-pfidang serai di-pMang kflnyit 
di-atas bftsut jantan ada-lah asal kdyu 
merabau itu sempak bahan To' Sang 
Kijang di-PAsat Tasek di-pauh janggi 
ter-planting satu di-pMang itu maka 
angkau bahan jadi-kan betara, uol^ <^A^ 
^^/i &j\jS ^\iy, ^\ dl^y uu^l ly ^^^1 

s^yM ^jUj ^^ ^.y^ ^ ^' «-*• (^ ^y^ 
^ J-ot dJbl ^jjftjjs. t^^ ^b l^^ 6jUj 

««^t 6jUjyL> Lf^Aiji ^J^ 5^Uj ^5j^l5 
jLs^ ^^\e^ ^^ y^t <-^A^ Then said the 
aged man, Go thou timber-cutting to the 

Bahar, Ab., j^ 

back of the town of Tanjong Bima; 
there is an wfsta amhoivensis tree in 
the plain where grow the lemon grass 
and saffron, and it stands upon a small 
ant-hill; that tree has its origin in a 
chip from the wood-cutting of To' Sang 
Kijang, at the Heart of the Lake, where 
grows the mystic pauh tree, a chip of 
which fell upon that plain ; cut the tree 
down and make from it thy galley. 
Masing-masing pun men-jabat kerja-nya 
Ada iang mem-b&at pe-lengar-an dan ada 
iang mem-bdat bangsal per-bahan-an dan 
ada iang mem-bftat jantang tempat men- 

ebang, 2— i ^' cS>^/ ^^ O^ ^^yr^^ 

^^ 2JuS ^\^ S\j.:^ ^^ ol ^lj Each set 

about his work, some made saw-benches 
and some made sheds in which to cut 
up the timber, and some made scaffold- 
ings preparatory to felling the tree. 
Kena bahan, ^^ U? To be beaten. L&lu 

di-bahan dengan ya-ya benar, ^IjJ^J 
j*4 k ^ ^^*^ Then he thrashed him with 
right good -will. Bahan dan gasak pAkul 
dan hentam, ^b J?j-i ^5-u>l? ^^Ij ^^Ij 
^vXA^ To beat and thrash and hit and 
drub. Kena bahan di-te'-po,' ^Ij U-^ 
y f^ J A gambler's slang term, signify- 
ing to lose money at the Chinese game 
of dice called Te' po^ or Po.' Note : For 
other words for beat, flog, hit, etc., see 

Note under Balun, ^yi^ 

B&hang, ^ To divide, to apportion, to 
share ; a portion, share. Pe-kerja-an ini 
baik kita ber-bahang, 3^ ^3ilj ^^1 ^^^^^ 
^ji We had better divide this work. 
Bahang teman, ^ ^ My share. Ka- 
mana kamu Uri bahang aku jftga, ^U^ 
i^y>. ^\ ^ K^y^ y^^ Wherever you fly 
to, it will be my portion to catch you. 

B&hang, ^\\ The glow of a burning and 
glowing body. Pt/. 

Bahar, Ar., j^ Excellent ; to conquer, to 
vanquish, to overcome. 

B&har, Ab., y^ "the name of a kind of 

black sea-weed, usually called Akar 

bahar, ^ ^\ It is used by Malays to 

make simple bracelets and other orna- 
ments for children. 


Bahari, Ab., s^^ 

B&hari, Ae., ^^^ Prudent, virtuous ; well- 
administered, ruled with justice. Pem- 
angku ka-raja-an iang aarif lagi bahari, 

and prudent regent, Negri iang bahari, 
^j^ k — i i^j^ A well-administered 

country. Besi bahari, ^j^, ^^, The 

watering or damascening shewn on steel 
by the application of an acid. 

Bahas, ^j^ That which withholds, pre- 
vents, or protects; a stay; a patron, 
protector; to knock up against, to be 
supported, stayed, or withheld. Besar 
sangat bahas-nya, ,^j^ 3£>l^ j^ He has 

powerful protectors. Ber-bahas pada 
orang besar, ^ ^jj) J^ u— ^j-^ To seek 
protection from a chief. Di-terajang-kan 
Alih To' Sang Kijang ter-planting-lah 
ia ka-laut-an iang lepas lalu ter-bahas 
ka-atas S,pong-an, ^-^ ^^ dJ^I ^j5<^ljJJ 

^y I ^'l^ He was kicked by To' Sang 

Kijang, and was cast into the boundless 
ocean, but was stayed by some driftwood. 


Baha8, Jav., ^j^ To dispute in a friendly 
manner ; to make an allusion ; to satirise. 
Mem-bahas, ^j^-^i-s^^ To drive in a wedge. 
Note: This w'ord is not in use among 
the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Bah at, ^ In league for any evil enter- 
prise. Crang s'bahat, ^L^--.^ ^j^\ Particeps 

criminis; having kno\v ledge of, if not 
participation in, a crime ; men who are 
in league in order to commit evil deeds. 

Bahdi, v^^ Evil magic; an evil super- 
natural influence ; a sickness caused by 
the magic properties of blood or the 
result of something the probable evil 
effects of which were not noticed at the 
time. Thus sickness caused by con- 
stantly overloading an elephant with tin 
is spoken of as Bahdi timah, ^u^ ^^^ 
The expression Bahdi mas, ^jw»l v^^3s^ 
or Bahdi wang, i\j sg'J^ is equivalent 

to * Money the root of evil.' Note : This 
word is for the most part applied 
by Malays to describe a disease which 
is supposed to result from coming in 
contact, with, or stepping over, the dead 
body or the blood of any man or animal 
' which has died a violent death. The 
name of the particular disease incurred 

Bahia, Hind., ^^l^ 

differs according to the nature of the 
dead creature from which it is supposed 
to have been derived ; thus, Bahdi 6rang, 
$yl K^^ Bahdi rdsa, ^jj ^?^ Bahdi 
harimau, ^y^ v^^ ®^- Merely step- 
ping across a place where blood has once 
been spilled is coosidered to be suffi- 
cient to bring on an attack of this illness, 
and the shudder, which is popularly said 
in England to be caused 'by a goose 
passing over one's grave,' is supposed 
by Malays to be a sign that one has 
done something which places one at the 
mercy of this species of enchantment. 
It is customary for Malay hunters to cut 
off certain portions of the entrails of 
their quarry and to give them to the 
dogs, in order to avert the evil magic to 
which they might otherwise be subject. 
This ceremony is called 'Bdang bahdi,' 
v^^ ^^ The symptoms of the disease 
which the Malays call Bahdi, i^^ would 
appear to be of a rheumatic nature, and 
the cause, which they attribute to magic 
agency, is probably merely a severe chill. 
The Malays usually treat patients afflicted 
with this disease by means of mystic 
incantations and other magic obser- 
vances. Kena bahdi, v^J^ ^ To be 
afflicted by this disease ; to be bewitched. 
Tetapi ter-lalu besar pedaka dan jemb&- 
lang dan p61ak dan bahdi chelaka, ^^^ 

^^ i^^ But great are the evils from 

haunting spirits, from spirits which 
inhabit the bodies of animals, and great 
the various bodily ailments arising from 
magic agencies. Note : The form Badi, 
v^^l^ is also met with, but this word is 
more correctly written with the aspirate. 

Bahi, Ar., ^ Beautiful, bright, rich, 
splendid, magnificent. Pij. 

Bahia, Hind., v^L^ or L^ Danger, peril, 
injury, evil, mischief ; the occasion of 
fear. Maka takut-lah ia akan su&tu bahia 
hkgi diri-nya atau b&,gi herta-nya, ^^X^ 

^^iJyb He apprehended some danger to 
himself or to his property. Pada ketika 
kena bahia, L^ U^ ^-^Kr^ '^ Iii time of 
danger, in the moment of peril. Lepas 
deri-pada bahia, v^lfj j^^j ^ .■>. 3 J To 

escape from danger. Kena bahia, U^ 


^gl^ To incur danger. Sem-antara belum 
^tang bahia itu baik kita {liidor,^Uju»^ 
>vjy «^ ^li «-i' W («'^ r>i We had [ 
better retire before this danger comes 
upon lis. Akhtiar-lah tdan-hamba seke- 
lian bagai-mana bMih lepas deri-p&da 
bahia ini, ^^UtA ^<-^ s--^'y J^^^jai.! 
jt Lj^ JJ»^J ,j^ aJy Find a means, 

my masters, by which we may elude this 
danger. Maka jikalau tiada di-chS.but 
neschaya S.kan mem-bri bahia iang &mat 
besar pada dkhir-nya, &ji^^ s^\^j^ iSX^ 

If it is not removed, it will of a certainty 
cause exceeding great injury in the end. 
Sepaya terrplehera jfiwa hamba sekelian 
deri-pada bahia, v^«^* J> \^i^ ^ji^ji^ v^li--« 
sgW* J3>J ^Jg)^ That all our lives may 
be preserved from injury. Maka titah 
r4ja akan ka-dfttang-an su&tu bahia, <-sA^ 
Lft^ &\^^ ^1j^ ^1 eb dx^ The prince 

spoke concerning the coming of mis- 
fortxme. Mar9,-bahia, W ^^ Calamity, 
misfortune. Seg&la iizor mara-bahia fi,ral 
gendaia, Jljui' J^l ^^ yf> J^:!-^ All 
sickness, calamities, misfortune, and ill- 
luck. Maka di-ldput-kan Allah 6rang itu 
deri-pada mara-bahia-nya, ,J^^^ ca\-^ 
,^W^ JJ^J «^l ^j!^l isJJI God delivered 
that man from his calamities. H6 se- 
habat-ku jikalau tiada kita men-dlong 
su&tu mara-bahia iang d^tang ka-p&da 
tftan kita bahwa sia-sia ada-nya iang ber- 
nama hamba, t*-w^ jL>J ^5^^ cMajU^ ^ 

f^j^jsb (•li^^ ^'^1 Y^ my friends, if 
we cannot aid our master in a time of 
calamity it is useless that we should be 
called his servants. Note: The forms 
Bahya, l^ and Bhaya, v^lfj are also met 

B&hil, Jtj^li Miserly, close-fisted, stingy. 
Orang iang bahil, J^^lA ^^^t A miser, 
a stingy person. Ter-lS-lu &mat b&hil 
6rang itu laks&na s&ga di-fi,tas tWam, ^ iy 

^ll ^1J cJ-U ^MJ ^' i>^^ Jt^li ^' 
That man is very close-fisted — ^like a pea 
on a tray. Ti4da-lah pemah p&tek ber- 
temu dengan 6rang besar iang b&hil 
aeperti hamba tAa itu, «^U dJy dJbl^^f 
ly i^-uJb &/^ Js^lA >-i ^^y o^^ >Jy 
t*4l Never has thy slave encountered a 

B&hu, Hind., ybl^ 

man of standing who was as stingy as 
thy old slave (i.c., that noble or chief- 
tain). Note : For other words signifying 
* miserly,' etc., see Chikil, J^t^ Kedekit, 
S^^ Kikir,^:^ L6kek, ^y Sekot, 
&/^ Chen6kek, ^^y^ and Sen6kek, 
^y^ etc. 

Bahkan, Ab., ,^^ Moreover, furthermore. 
Note : This word is used as an expletive 
to mark the beginning of a new sentence 
or paragraph when the sense of what 
follows is interrogative. 

Bahna, Hind., U^ An echo ; a loud noise, 
an uproar, a clamour, noise, sound, 
tumult, loud voices, tumultuous sound. 
Note : The form Bhana is also met with. 
(See Behana, ^Ifj A loud noise, etc.) 

B&ho', yblj To strike, to hit. 

BahtSra, or Bahtra, \yL^ A ship, a galley, 

a barque, a barge. .M&ka angkau bahan 
k&yu merabau itu jadi-kan bahtera, <-ii^ 

thou must cut up that intsia amboinensis 
tree and make it into a galley. Maka 
prahu bahtera itu pun sudah sedia leng- 
kap dengan segala rantai dan sauh serta 
dengan tiang dan layar dan tembSrang 
dan kamAdi-nya, ^^yiail ^yn^ j^'y c&l—^ 

fijL^ o'^ i^J ^y^ C)^*^ uJJXA) ^gJu* &J^^ 

^j^ ^1 J ^j,^ ^la ^i ^b ^ J>^ B^ 

And the barque was ready and furnished 
with chains and anchors and masts and 
sails, jib-stays and rudders. 

BUhu, Hind., yt>lj The shoulder. Note: 

The aspirate in this word is almost silent. 
Md^ka ia pun me-16mpat dfia tiga langkah 
l&lu di-p&rang-nya kena bahu-nya p{itus 
ter-planting kepala-nya, ^y ^gl <^-l--. 

^^ ^ »i fAh JS ^y Then he also leaped 

one or two steps, and struck him with 
his sword on the shoulder, and his head 
was cut off and fell to the ground. M&ka 
segra di-sambut t&ngan B&din Bahar di- 
angkat-nya ka-d,tas b&hu-nya, \j!i^ 

Then he quickly took Radin Bahar's 
hand, and lifted him up on to his shoulder. 
Tangan men-etak bahu mem-ikul, ^U 
^^tt^ >^^ <3stju» The hand hacks while 
the shoulder carries — Prov.^ which is 
used to signify that the man to whom it 


is applied is energetic and always busy. 
Pikul, yt>lj J j5Cji To carry upon 
the shoulder. Kfidang-kadang di-pikul 
di-£ltas bahu ter-k&dang di-pijak di- 
. bdwah, ^jisy y^l^ ^U y^^ \'i^\^ 
; ^\^ &^U^ <5^^^ At times he carries it 
upon his shoulder, at times he treads it 
under foot — Prav., meaning, first he 
praises and then he blames. Kandar 
di-bahu, ybLjj^jjL^ To carry on a stick 
over the shoulder, in the manner usual 
among Chinese coolies. Ter-jAlang di- 
atas bahu-nya, ^ji>\^ ^lj ^^j^ Seated 
astride upon his shoulder. Bahu l&yar, 
^S yblj 09' Per-b^hu, yt>lj^ The upper 

yard of a sail. (See Andai-andai, f^goJl 
Yards, etc.) 

Bdhu,yt>lj The name of a measure of sur- 
face. Ampat bahu men-jadi s&tu jftng, 
^y^ ^l— ^ ^p^l^*-* y^U ^---l Four bahu 
make one jAng. Note : This measure is 
in use in Java and in some other islands 
of the Archipelago. Raffles has the 
following note on this method of measure- 
ment in his History of Java. " Land 
measure is by the natives regulated in 
general by the Bdwat, a measure of 
length, formed of the staff stick of the 
Pdyong^ or umbrella, which the Bopdt% 
or native chief of a province, receives 
on his investiture. The length of the 
stick, when drawn from the umbrella, 
is termed Ghangkal, and is from nine to 
twelve feet. The principal divisions of 
land are into Bahu and Mng. Four of 
the former make a Jung ; but these not 
only differ in size according to the length 
of Ohangkal, but the situation of the land 
and the nature of the soil, the Jung of 
rich land, and in the vicinity of the 
principal towns, being much smaller than 
the poor lands situated at a distance. 
****** The Grovernment JUng of 
two thousand square Ghangkal of twelve 

feet English, is equal to 6^ English 

Bahwa, Ar., 1^^ Whereas; now; that; 
how that ; insomuch as ; as to. Bahwa 
siirat tdlus ekhlas kasih sslyang dan 
mesra, ^b ^L> &^\^ ^^] ^y &j^ j^ 
\j>.^ Whereas this letter full of candour, 
singleness of heart, affection and devo- 
tion. Bahwa maka dda-lah di-ny&ta-kan 

Bahwa, Ab., I^ 

ka-pada mtka-mika sekelian, d3l jt cftU \^ 
^jy)SL^ f *-sA^ ^^J^ o^lai^ Whereas it is 
hereby made known unto you all. M&ka 
ter-dengar pfl.da segala negri bahwa di- 
Bdkit Segdntang itu sek&rang di-tftnm- . 
kan Allah taala deri-ka-Indra-an r&ja 
iang baik bftdi-nya, J^^ ja ^ jy ctVL* 

^jj^ c&\j/gkA 5I; ^•b^-lO^ ^UJ dUI It was 
noised abroad throughout all countries 
that at Bdkit Segiintang a good and 
gentle prince had been sent from the 
hi9avens by the Most High God. Ser&ya 
ber-pikir bahwa sftnggoh-nya kfi-nak- 

kanak ini ter-l&lu benar, |^ j^j^ sP^y^ 
^ yj^ ^1 f^l^ ,£Sr^>^ And thought, 
* Now verily this child is right.* Bahwa 
di-cherita-kan dlih 6rang iang ampflnya 

chertta ftda-lah s'bdah negri, ^j^^^^^ |^ 

Now it is related by him, whose tale 
it is, that there was a country. Jika 
s'orang men-entut pfi.da s'6rang bahwa 

angkau hamba Aku, JJ iyuuu» ^jy^ <-^W 
^\ s— ^ j^^ Ix^ hy^ I^ 81 man claims 
another man (saying), * Now thou art my 
slave.' Note : This word is much used 
in Malay composition as an expletive, or 
as a sign of the commencement of a 
written communication, paragraph, or 
sentence. Bahwa itu-lah iang ber-n&ma 
bijak-sfi^na lagi bangsS.-wan, f^^j^dixiW^^ 
^^LJb ^J o^*"^ That it is which is 
termed wise and well-bom. Jangan-lah 
tdan-ku sangka-kan dalam hati bahwa 
p&tek ini seperti srigfi,la ka-bfi,nyak-kan 
itu,c^U 1^ ^U^Ij ^l5X*y3ly dL6U. 

uw' o^^-s^ J^>-» Sj|A-m» ^I Do not, 
Your Majesty, imagine in your heart 
that I, your slave, am like unto the 
common run of wolves. Jika &da ampun 
dan kernia duli tflan-ku bahwa patek-lah 
chfi^kap mem-bri nasihat serta meng-ftjar 
&nak-9!nda ka-ampat ini, ^^^^ ^l wL©, 
^j.^ c^U. dl5grU 1^ /S]^ ^ J g/ ^b 
^1 ai^*l? JsaMI josUl. ul3>^ ^.kft^ci With 

your Majesty's pardon and permission, I 
your slave will undertake to advise and 
instruct your four sons. Note : The form 
Bahwa-sa, ^j^^^ is often used instead 
of Bahwa Ij^ at the commencement of a 

letter or formal document. The mean- 
ing of both forms is identical. 


Baian, Ab., ^i^ 

Baian, Ab., ^Ij and ^l^j Evident, manifest, 

' distinct ; to make clear. AUo Mem-baian, 
^L,4^ and Mem-baian-kan, ^^^a^Lh-^ Ka- 
ny&ta-an iang baian, ^^^ v^*^ A. pro- 
clamation which is distinct. Note : This 
word, which is rarely used by Malays, 
only occurs in the written language. 

Baiduri, (^j[>M 'I'he name of a precious 
stone. (See Bedftri, i^jj^)> 

Baihyd^lj or f more commonly, 'Pem-haih^dii^ 
A short piece of wood sharpened to a 
point at each end, and used as a missile 
weapon. Note: This weapon was formerly 
much used by the natives of Rambau. 

Balk, «^*li Good, well, worthy, exquisite, 
kind, favourable; whether, or, either; it 
is better; it were better. Ka-laku-an 
iang baik, <^*Mi ol^^ Good conduct. 
Khabar baik, <^*Ij ^^-j-^ Good news. 
Note: The above is the invariable re- 
joinder, under all circumstances, to the 
question, * Apa khabar ? ' j^ «-* I * What is 

the news ? * which is used by the Malays 
as a conventional form of greeting, cor- 
responding to the English, * How do you 
do?* Baik jAga 6rang-nya, <— ?^ ^^^^ 
,^^^1 He is a good or worthy man. 

Maka Si-Rdja Jin itu pun tiada-lah 
kuasa-nya mem-erentah-kan kapal itu di- 
serah-kan bAjor lentang panjang pandak 
Mrok baik-nya mSna-mftna pandei Raja 
Ambong, d3bLjf ^y^l ^^^^ s)jit^ ^-^^-^ 

\y^y eb ^J^ t'c)^ ^'^ c3^^ c5-^ t^ 

The king of the genii would no longer 
take the trouble to manage the ship, but 

made it over to Raja Ambong, to keep 
bow-on or broadside-on, long or short, 
bad or good, according to his ability. 
BAat baik ber-p&da-pada bdat jahat 
jangans'kaii, ^1*^ toUs Sl^ f JU^ c^'lj &l^ 

^ULo Do good with discrimination, and 

do evil not at all. tflih karana hamba 
mem-b&wa* Antong nasib iang tiada baik, 
Jl^a^ s - »Mn^ ^y 'l^^ s-^ O^^ ^-^' 

v^^b Because thy servant endures bad 
luck and ill fortune (Mf., fortune and luck 
which are not good). Jikalau damikian 
baik-lah, a)i<i*li ,^^^ j^ If that is so, 
it is well. Baik, ^*li Good I All right 1 
It is well I Very well ! Very good I Baik- 
lah, dli5Ci*lj Good! All right! Very good! 
Very well ! Ta' baik, clii^l^ 'U Not good. 

Baik, ^X' 

not well, not favourable ; evil, bad, un- 
lucky, unfortunate, inauspicious, not 
right, jangan-lah tftan mem-bAat bagitu 

ta' baik sd.ngat di-nampak drang, dL^Le^ 

^JL>' ^5^^ ^^ ^*^ *^ y^ *'>^ o'y 

Do not act so, master; it does not 
look well. Kata 6rang tiia-tijla ta' baik 
meng-rat kdku lepas masok m^Lta-hari, 
^U ^ // iyu csAji^li "\S t^ly ^jj\ u^\^ 

^g^lfs-* The ancients say that it is not 

well (i.e., is imlucky) to cut the nails 
after sunset. Maka Tftan Petri pun ber- 
anak-lah s'6rang petra ter-ldlu-lah baik 
p^ras-nya, ^^js^ dlttJl^ ^y ^jsJ ^)y cS^ 

^^U tsAi^lj dJyi^ ]jsJ The Princess was 

delivered of a son whose features were 
most exquisite. Asal ka-b^wah duli 
baik sangat di-fttas hamba, ^^ &j\^ J-ol 

s--^ v/-J'^ ^^ <^*li As for His Majesty, 
he is most kind (favourable) in my regard. 
Maka l&lu-lah ber.jftga-jaga pMa tdjoh 
hari tCljoh malam ber-betul-an p&da 
ketika iang baik saat iang semperna, 

^jiu^^aol^ ^'lA, ^^Aj^jJ Jy^ji Then 
they watched for seven days and seven 
nights until a favourable time and an 
auspicious moment had been reached. 
Baik jantan baik betina, <-sAi*lj ^^fj^ <^*li 
^^ Whether, male or female; either 
male or female; both male and female. 
Baik pdteh tdlang jangan p(iteh m&ta, 
UL^U d^y ^U. ^y iijjy JXi^U Better 

white bones than white eyes — Proverb. 
Note: The above proverb contains an 
idiom, PClteh mata, SU dJy (white eyes) 
being a common Malay expression sig- 
nifying * ill-feeling,' * black blood,' etc. 
The meaning of the proverb thus is, that 
it is better that a quarrel should come to 
a head, even though it ends in the death 
of one of the parties concerned, rather 
than that ill-feeling should exist end- 
lessly. Scperti kata 6rang tfta-tda, Baik 
mati dengan nama iang baik jangan hldop 
dengan nama iang jahat sep&ya m&sok 

Shtlrga, J>^ ^U ^'li Hy h^^ &^ «>- 

t^fyo ^5-^U As say the ancients, * It were 

better to die with a fair fame, and so 
obtain Heaven, than to live with an 
evil reputation.' Baik-lah ktta kd,ta-kan 
chelaka S,nak-nya itu, ^^\a^ ^j»^ ^^^U 
I ^1 -aJA-to. We had better declare 


Baik.i, ^-g 

that his child is accursed. Jikd.lau 
damikian baik-lah hamba sendiri ber- 
lawan dengan dia, h-m» j > ^3^*1; ^^t^*^ ^^ 
^^ J ^ J O-?"*-^ ^g>lJ^u« If that be so, it were 
better that I myself should contend with 
him. BaikbMij^^Jiji <^*^ Gracious, kind, 
of good conduct, gentle. Baik deri-pMa, 
jj.^ J tsAi*lj Better than. Baik deri-pada 

iang lain, ^^ JJ>^ J *^*^ Better than any 
other. Baik sangat,5fi>Lo tsA^^l^ Very good. 
Iang baik s'kali, ^ICo c^^lA The best. 
Dia-lah iang baik s'k&li di-ddlam dunia 
aalam ini, I^J ^bj s^^^^ *^'^ ^^ 
^] ^Lc> It is the best in the universe. 
Baik-baik, f *^*^ Thoroughly, complete- 
ly, perfectly, very well. Ch&ri baik-baik, 
t»csAi*lj ^j\^ Search thoroughly. Ingat 

baik-baik, f«-2^*^J ^1 Bear it well in mind, 
remember well. L&lu di-hftnus-nya kris 
ser&ya me-16mpat k&ta-nya * Cheh ! tahan- 
lah bekas t§,ngan-ku baik-baik I' jM 

<^^^ <^ J^ di^y^ ^'>-^ u^^ ^}^^ 
ft^"li cftU^lJ ^j^ Then he drew his 

dagger and leaped forward, crying, * Fie 
upon you ! Endure well the marks of my 

hand!' Jaga baik-baik, f<^*li ^-JU. Have 

a care ! take care ! take great care ! be very 
careful ! Note : In colloquial Malay the 
expression Baik-baik ! f «iAA*lj when used 

alone, has come to mean *Have a carel' 
etc., the word Jaga, c-J'Ick being imder- 

stood but not expressed. Baik dengan 
6rang, ^;^l ^^ ^^^ On good terms with 

any one. Takut men-jadi ta' baik antara 
ka-dfta p6hak itu, c^'l^ *U ^^jUs^ &/U 
Si) ^5^ \jjS j\s^\ Lest it should cause ill- 
feeling between the two parties. Baik-i 
f^^^ and Mem-baik-i ^^"1^4-* To mend, 
to repair, to renew, to restore, to re- 
establish, to cure, to make whole, to 
revise, to adjust. 

Baik-i, ^^U and Mem-baik-i, ^'W To 
mend, to repair, to renew, to restore, to 
re-establish, to cure, to make whole, to 
revive, to adjust. Ta' dapat di-baik-i 
j&ngandi-pichah-kan, ^^^ ^q^*^^ ^'^ *^ 
^^X^*s If thou canst not mend it, do 
not break it further — Proverbial saying. 
Baik-i jS,lan, ^^Ljsk ^^*l^ To mend or 
repair a road. Mslka ia-pun mem-baik-i 

kain-nya, ^l^ s?^*^ c)->^' *"^^— ^ S® 
mended his garments. Sdroh mem-baik-i 

Baja, gl^ 

baik-baik, t'csAji'lj ^^*\.fM^ &^yji Order it to 

be thoroughly repaired. Maka k6ta iang 
rftntoh dan pagar iang rebah di-sdroh 
mem-baik-i blaka, ^1^ ^^^ 4**^ <aL-* 

.sJAj S^K^fj^ &jyA^ d^ji^ ^U He ordered 

all the fortifications which had fallen 
down, and all the fences which had 
fallen flat, to be repaired. Hamba-lah 
iang meny-Aroh mem-baik-i musjid dan 
baiai-balai,^!^ J.*^^ s?^*^ ^^^^ ^^"^"^ 
V^J^ It was thy servant who ordered 
the mosque and the halls to be repaired. 
Di-per-baik-i-nya b&rang iang r6sak, 
&^Jj^ h^ ^£^*^y *^ He renewed all such 
things as were in disrepair. Baik-i negri, 
^j!^ ^^^U To re-establish a country. 
Mem-baik-i peny-S,kit, ^^ ^^*Lh-* To 
cure a disease. Mem-baik-i hfi,ti iang 
risan dengan cherita peng-lipor lara, 

To revive the troubled spirit with the 
tales of the Soother of Cares. (See L&ra, 
ji Care, etc.) Mem-baik-i s'6rang dengan 
s'6rang, ^jj»^ ^^^^ ^jy-^ ^^^U-*-^ To 
adjust a misunderstanding between one 
man and another. Tempat mem-baik-i 
kapal prang, £ly J*l^ s?^'^ ^^^ ^ 
naval dockyard. Note : In colloquial 
Malay, Baik-i, ^^*^ is sometimes cor- 
rupted into B^ki, ^^^ but this practice 
is not elegant. (See the root Baik, <^Li 
Good, etc.) 

ja, gU Manure, dung. BS,ja-kan, ^^e>.\i 
Mem-bS.ja, gLn-* and Mem-bS,ja-kan, 
^^^if^ To manure. B&ja tWang, ^y gl| 

Bone-dust manure. Tahi kambing men- 
jMi baja kebun, gl^ ^^J^kju. ^ ■» ; ^, < ^\J 

^^y^ The droppings of goats become 

manure for the garden. Ada-pun bftah 
pria itu kalau di-tanam di-8,tas b&tas s&gu 
dan di-bfi-ja-kan dengan &yer madu llgi 
di-siram dengan manis-an serta di-letak- 
kan di-atas tebu &pa-bila m&sak pun 
p&hit jAga, ^Ujyi^ «wl ^y ^'ji c»-*'^' 

^j^ a^j^U ^y ^5^L. J^l ^ If the 

fruit of the momordica sp. is planted on 
a bank of sago, manured with honey, 
watered with molasses, and rested upon 
sugar-cane, when it is ripe it will still 
be bitter to the taste — Prov. Tdrun-kan 
l>^j^j C^ v:^->y ^^ ^^J down manure. 


Baja, ^U 

B&ja, ^U A preparation used by Malays, 
both men and women, to give a black 
and shining appearance to the teeth. 
Note : This preparation is made by burn- 
ing the hard shell of the coconut 
(Tempftrong, Sji^JLJ) and mixing the 

soot thus obtained with a little oil. In 
many parts of the Peninsula the soot 
obtained by burning the leaves of the lime 
tree is preferred. Ber-b&ja, glj^ To stain 

the teeth with this preparation. Maka 
p&da malam iang-ka-tiga ka-handak- 
nya Raja D6nan sendiri mem-bakar 
baja itu s'telah ber-baja, ^U jui <.M_^» 

gli^ 4six-rf ufc^l gli On the third night R&ja 

Donan desired to bum the blackening 
preparation for himself, and when he had 
blackened his teeth. Maka sampei ttljoh 
hari ia pun handak ber-bdja per-t&ma 
mem-bakar-kan kayu baja itu, ^Ju^ *^^ 
^/U- f lJ>i gl*^ ^30^ ^^1 ^j^ ^y 
**-4' c^ ji^ When seven days had come 
and gone he wished to stain his teeth, 
and first of all he burned the wood to 
produce the blackening preparation. 
Mem-b&ja, gl--»^ To stain the teeth with 
this preparation. Note : The word Grang, 
4j? is often used to signify the prepara- 
tion itself, but in the verbal compound 
forms signifying the act of blackening 
the teeth, etc., the root B&ja, glj is almost 
invariably employed. 

Bsljftf S^ ^^ Besi baja, gi^ ^^ Steel. 
Besi b&ja dan besi br&ni, ^^ ^1 J gij ^^ 
^1^ Steel and magnetic iron. 

B&jak, ^ U A pirate ; one who commits 
piracy on the high seas. Also Pem-bajak, 
^1,1^ and Orang b&jak, ^l^ ^^^1 
Mem-b&jak, ^1^4-* To commit piracy. 
(See also Bajau, ^l^ Lanun, ^J and 
Pe-r6mpak, ^ji-yy). 

B&jak, ^U A plough. MS.ta bajak, ul»U 
^li The ploughshare, the blade of a 
plough. Tiang b&jak, ^Ij ^ The 
shank of a ploughshare. Siingkal bajak, 
^5c^l^ J^>-* (yr Sdngkal tajak, y^j^ 
^IJ The board of a plough. Pij. Note : 
This word is not in use in the Malay 
Peninsula, the term, Jl^litf 
being there employed to the exclusion 
of all others. 

Bajang, ^\i 

BUjan, Hind., ^^^L^ A pan, a vessel; wares. 
(See, ^l^ A pan, etc.) 

jSna, Hind., ^l<pi A pan, a vat, a vessel; 

wares. Baj&na amas &tau p6rak &tau 
k^yu &tau t&nah, jJ\ ^j^ jJ\ ^j^\ ^\^ 
diUry) jilJ Vessels of gold, or silver, or 

wood, or clay. BajlLna iang kena tAkul 
seperti temb&ga, &jlu^ ^yZ IXJ^ ^\^ 

t-J'l^ A vessel formed by hammering, 
such as copper [vessels]. J&ngan kamu 
makan dan minum p&da bajana amas dan 
p^rak, ^l^ JJ ^♦^^ ^U ^U^l^ ^L^ 

c3^ o'"^ \J^ ^^ ^^^ ®^* ^^ drink out 
of vessels of gold or silver. MAlut bajjLna 
iang sempit atau iang Idas, ^i^ ^^y^ 
^\^ y^\ ^tA ^^ ^h The narrow and wide 
mouths of vessels. Orang pem-bajdna, 
^U^^ ^jl^l A pedlar. (See JS.jah, ^\^ 

To peddle, and- Pen-j&jah, ^i^ A 

pedlar, which are the terms in use in 
the Malay Peninsula.) 

iang, ^Li An evil spirit which is sup- 
posed to be of the male sex; a familiar 
spirit. Segala bd^jang lang-siiir pelsit 
dan p61ong, ^1^ l^J^ ^y^ A^ ^^ J^^— -• 
^^y All manner of male and female 

demons, and all sorts of familiar spirits. 
Men-aroh b&jang,^li 5^U^ To possess 

a familiar spirit. Kena b&jang, ^ l; U^ 

or Kena makan b^ljang, Ac^l^ ^U L^ To 

be hag-ridden, to be possessed by an 
evil spirit. Pen-ftwar bajang, ^l^ ji^U* 

A charm against this kind of evil spirit. 
Ber-ftbat ber-hantu mem-bdang bajang, 
^Li ^yrj^ ^SA^^ ^^'j-i To attempt a 
cure by aid of spirits, in order to cast out 
a possessing demon. Glang bfi-jang, ^ 

^U An amulet worn by children to 
guard them from the evil influence of 
this kind of spirit. A piece of wood in 
the shape of an hour-glass (but flat 
instead of round), which is used for 
joining together two planks, is called 
Tfipak bajang, ^l^ ^U Zii., the spirit's 

footprint. Note: In all parts of the 
Peninsula the Bdjan^ is said to be of 
the male gender, while the Lang-suir 
is supposed to be a female. It is usually 
believed by Malays that the Bdjang is 
merely a malignant spirit which haunts 
mankind, and whose presence foretells 
disaster. In P6rak, and some other 


B&jang-Mjang, f^l» 

parts of the Peninsula, however, the 
Bdjang is regarded as one of tlie several 
kinds of demons which, the Malays hold, 
can be enslaved by man and become his 
familiar spirit. Such familiars, it is 
believed, are handed down in certain 
families as heirlooms. The master of the 
familiar is said to keep it imprisoned in 
a T&bong, ^^^ or vessel made from a 
joint of the bamboo, which is closed by 
a stopper made from the leaves of the 
Cotyledon laciniata^ the D&un chekar 
bfibek, ^5fr8** ^ o-^'*^ or D&un s'dingin, 
^^j^Jw^ ^^^b, as they are variously termed 

by the Malays. Both the case and the 
stopper are prepared by certain magic 
arts before they can be employed in this 
way. The familiar is fed with eggs and 
milk. When its master wishes to make 
use of it he sends it forth to possess and 
prey upon the vitals of any one whom his 
mafice may select as a victim. The 
individual thus persecuted is at once 
seized by a deadly and unaccountable 
ailment, which can only be cured by 
magic agencies. If the Bdjitng is neg- 
lected by its owner, and if the latter 
omits to feed it regularly, it is said that 
he often falls a victim to his own familiar. 
For other familiar spirits believed in by 
Malays see Pelsit, . iLgJLh and P61ong, 

iang-bijang, f^L^ Gramineal seeds. 

au, ^Lj The name of a people of 

Malayan race who live for the most part 
along the east coast of Borneo and the 
west coast of Celebes. Orang bajau, 
y^ ^ ^))^ The people of this race. Note : 
These people in former days were cele- 
brated for their daring acts of piracy, 
and their name has, in the same manner 
but in a less degree than is the case with 
the natives of the Phillipines, who are 
known to the Malays as L&nun, ^J 
become a synonym for a pirate. Bintang 
bfi-jau, ^ii AaJ4>i The constellation of the 
Pleiades, which, when seen clearly, is 
supposed by mariners to foretell fine 
weather. (See Bajak, ^^i). 

B^jii ^^^ ^ wedge. Kena-kan b&ji, ^\^ 
^\\ To fix a wedge. Maka segala 6rang 

i-d&lam negri itu-pun masok ka-dalam 
hfttan men-chfi.ri kayu Ifllu di-dS.pat-i-nya 
s'batang kS^yu bMat m8,ka di-bftboh-nya 

Baju,^Lj- ' 

b&ji di-blah, ^/^ ^1 JJ 6^^l JSL^ 

>i^ >4l^ sS> V-* J^ f^'^ S^^ o^^' 
^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^y >ll^ ^^ ,^SP»*t0J 
All the people in the town went forth 
into the forest to search for timber, and 
having found a round tree, they put in 
their wedges and split it. MS,ka pergi- 
lah segfilla kra meng-g6nchang-g6nchang 
bdji kfl.yu itu maka ter-ch&but-lah b&ji 
itu lalu ter-sepit-lah 6kor kra itu, csJL-» 

AU the monkeys went and shook the 
wedge backwards and forwards, and it 
came out, and one of the monkeys was 
caught by the tail. B&ji tenggala, ^ l^ 
JIOj The wedge or piece of wood m a 
Malay plough which fits in between the 
handle and the shaft, and by means of 
which the depth of the furrow is regu- 

Bajik, Jav., ^5-^^ Good; advantage; profit; 
advantageous ; profitable. Note : This 
word is only met with in Malay in its 
compound form, Ka-bajik-an, ^^^JC^^^ 

which is a corruption of the Javanese 
Ka-bachik-an, ^^^X»^ an abstract noun 

formed from the Javanese adjective 
Bachik, Good. It is curious that the 
compound and not the root has been 
adopted by Malays. The student is 
referred to Crawford's Dissertation^ page 
liii., for further notes on Javanese roots 
in Malay. 

jing, ^--sr^LJ The name of a small species 
of squirrel. (See Tdpai, ^Vy). 

jing, ^r:^U To warm oneself at a fire. 
Note : In the Malay Peninsula the words 
Diang, ^J and Ber-diang ^J^ are the 

only terms used in this connection. 

Biju, ^U A coat, a gown, a vest; an 
upper garment for either a man or 
woman. Banyak-lah iang gila mabok 
Mpa pada makan minum dan Iflpa p&da 
kain baju-nya, JJ «-3y ^U Jj5fc4 d^L; 

became mad and delirious, and forgot 
to eat or drink, and forgot to think of 
their wearing apparel — Qit.y their cloths 
and coats.) Kain baju, ^Ij ^l^ A coat; 
the cloth from which a coat is made; 
cloth suitable for making coats; gar- 


ments; wearing apparel generally. Pakai 
b&ju,^lj ^U To wear a coat; to put 

on a coat. M&ka &nak rdja ka-ampat 
ber-sudara itu ber-main ka-p&dang mem- 
&kai b&ju zirah ka-r&ja-an iang ber-t&tah- 
kan r&kna mtltu manikam, ^^ ^\ ^^k^ ^^ 4jI&^ c^'^ «w' j^^y^j^ ^UU*l^ 

f^^*"^ y>^ s£^J J^^j^ O'^'/ ^ji-> The 
foUr young princes, who were brothers, 
used to play in the meadow wearing 
their state robes, which were studded 
with gems and jewels. Mslka di-p&kai 
pMa baju beldu kesumba miirup, <.£\-^ 

«^j>^ i.^.^yS ^jJg ^\ Jy c^*— *^ He 
then also donned a coat of vermilion 
velvet. B&ju tampal, JiJ^lj or B&ju 
ber-tampal, JA^^ ^ L^ A patched coat ; 
a patchwork coat. Tampal baju ^ \\ Ji^J 
A patch in a coat. P6sak b&ju, y^ Ij ^^^ 

The pieces of cloth let into the sides of 
a Malay jacket to make it hang like a 
blouse. Baju pfisak sa-blah, ^5^^ ^Lj 
iLs^ A coat with one side overlapping 
the other. It is affected in Selangor 
and in old-fashioned Malay countries. 
K^kek b8.ju, ^Ij ^5<->^ A piece of cloth 

let into a coat under the arm-pits. 
Lengan bfl.ju, ^U ^ or T&ngan baju, 
J9.U cT^^ The sleeves of a coat. 
Panjang-kan lengan bfi.ju,^b ^ ^j^^W* 

To lengthen the sleeves of a coat. 
Sengsing t&ngan b&ju, y^^ ^^ ^^ .^.l ^ -^^ 
or Meny-engsing t&ngan baju, ^^-JL^ 
je^^. c>^^ To roll up the sleeves of a coat ; 
to roll up the shirt-sleeves. Meika Raja 
PetfLkal pun ber-s6rak dan me-lompat 
serta meny-61ak t&ngan baju dan me- 
ngedang lengan, ^^y^jk ^y fc^ s'^ "^^ 

Then BAja Petdkal shouted with triumph, 
and leaped about, and pulled up his coat- 
sleeves, and shot out his arms. Ranching 
Mju,^l? 5*^ (yr Bftah baju, y^k ^|>J 
The buttons, studs, hooks or clasps which 
fasten an upper garment. Jahit baju, 
^\^ i^\c^ To sew at a coat. J^hit-an 

b&ju,^lj ^^s^W The sewing of a coat. 
Klim b&ju, f^\^ f^t,^ or Pencha b4ju, 
^\\ L^ The hem of a coat. Klim 
b&ju tSr-kait, i^^^Ji y^\^ ^^ The hem 

of a coat sewn with cross-stitch. Alas 
baju, y^\i ,j-J1 The lining of a coat. 

Baju tlga l&pis, ^:» ^Sitf >^U Three 


coats worn one on the top of the 
other. Tiga hel6 bftju, j^\i J^ ^^Af 
Three coats. Bftju b&sah, aJIj^L^ or 
Baju bftsah-an, ^^^\i y^U An everyday 
coat; a coat to wear in all weathers. 
Baju kanji prak, .±Jy ^^9^y^^ A singlet ; 
a vest. Baju kemfija, ^t*^ j^\i A shirt. 

Note : This is derived from the Persian 
camesaf or more probably from the Por- 
tuguese. Baju k6t, &y ^Li A coat of 

European cut. Note : This is a corrup- 
tion of the English word coat. Baju 
rantai, ^^j y^^ A coat of mail. Baju 
jubah, At^ y^^. or Baju sembahiang, ji^l^ 
^jp ^i .».^ o The long robe worn by pilgrims 

from Mecca and the priestly classes in 
the Peninsula. Note : This garment has 
been adopted by Malays from the Arabs. 
Baju panas, ^[^ y^U An over-coat, a 
great-coat, a flannel coat. Baju hdjan, 
c^y> ^ l^ A waterproof coat, a mackin- 
tosh. Giinting-kan baju, jc^l^ ^O ftg^j? 
To cut out a coat. 

Apa gdna kain di-bentang 
Jikaiau tidak giinting-kan baju 
Apa gdna sarong di-sandang 
Jikaiau tidak di-biinoh-kan madu. 

^^ cH^ OJ-^ *-*' 

What is the good of spreading a cloth, 
if one does not fashion a coat therefrom ? 
What is the good of carrying a sword 
{lit., a sheath), if one does not slay 
one's rival? Ber-baju, y^kji To wear 
a coat; to possess a coat; wearing 
a coat. Tiga 6rang ber-baju kflning, 
^^ y^\ij^ ^jy\ *-J!^ Three men with 
yellow coats. Maka ia pun mem-akai 
serba hitam ber-baju ay at dan mem- 
akai chendei pada bahu-nya, ^^^\ fc&lw* 

^ybli jj ^pjoi^. He was dressed all in 

black, having an under-vest with texts 
from the Kuran written upon it, and a 
figured cloth over his shoulder. Dan 
ber-baju pandak lengan ber-p6sak sfirong 
gflnting Tdan Petri Biru Sakti raja 
negri Kling, ^5-^^ ^ ^y^ y^\iji J^ 

aJ^ Wearing a short-sleeved coat with 


slanting seams, which had been cut out 
by the Princess Biru Sakti (Magic Blue), 
the ruler of the Tamil country. Note : 
The following are the principal kinds of 
upper garment in use among Malays. 
B&ju blah, ^ ys^\i An ample coat, open 

in front, with flowing skirts reaching 
below the buttocks. The sleeves are 
always made amply long, to show that 
the cloth has not been stinted, and they 
are often folded back at the wrists to 
leave the hands free. The coat falls 
in straight folds from each shoulder, 
leaving the breast bare, and a very high 
stiff collar (Kepok-kepok, t*^3>i0 running 
along the back of the neck and reach- 
ing up to the middle of the ears is its 
distinctive ornament. The Baju blah 
katak, ^l^ dlj ^Ij or Bijn blah kfttong, 
^yl^ idi ^Ij as it is variously termed, 

is a tight blouse, with short sleeves, 
fitting close to the arm above the elbow. 
The only openings are two slits on the 
shoulders, which enable the wearer to 
take this jacket on or off. Each of 
these sHts is fastened by a single button 
near the junction of the neck with the 
shoulder. This jacket is chiefly used 
when the wearer is at work, or perform- 
ing some physical exercise. Baju beskat 
a<I^ y^\^ or Bftju meskat, JC^^ ^l) is a 

garment which crosses over the chest 
and is bound by a girdle round the 
waist. Baju 8.yat, I4} y^U is an under- 
coat or vest, the sleeves of which are 
short, not extending to the elbow. It is 
usually printed over with texts from 
the Kuran, and is most commonly worn 

in time of war. Bfi,ju kajari, i^j^ jr-^ 
is a long robe of silken stuff which 
hangs down below the knee. Baju 
kebaya, ^gl^ ^U is a long flowing 

garment reaching to the ankles, and 
opening down the whole of the front. 
It is fastened at the neck and breast by 
means of brooches. The natives of the 
Peninsula say that this garment was 
introduced by the Dutch. It is only 
worn by women. Bfi.ju kftrong, y^\i 

^V^ > s^ called because it is the usual 
garment worn by the women who are 
confined in the palace of a rdja^ is 
formed like a long blouse. It reaches 
to the ankles, and is fastened with three 
buttons at the neck and breast. The 

B&ka, ^U 

sleeves are tight to the arm, and it is 
slightly open down the front. In Pfirak 
the Baju kArong is always short and 
is called KArong (i.e., closed up) in dis- 
tinction to the B&ju blah, which is open 
all down the front. Baju pSsak anam, 
^1 ^^^^ Jc^lj Ap coat made with six 
seams, two at each side, one in front 
and one behind. Bfiju p6kok, ^y.>B^l3 
A coat without sleeves. Baju sedriah, 
ai^J.— ^ ^Lj A coat without sleeves, 

made after an Arabic fashion (like a 
waistcoat) and only worn by pilgrims 
and ecclesiastics among Malays. Bd,ju 
serdja, ^y^ ^li A coat with a quilted 
collar. Bdju sultdni, ^UaL-o ^L^ A 

coat with long glossy sleeves. Baju 
sunting, ^t^aju* Jl^li A coat worn by men, 

the opening of which is on one side. 
It is sometimes regarded as a wedding 
garment to be worn by the bridegroom. 
Baju tekda, V^ ^ij A tight jacket or 

vest worn next the skin by both men 
and women. Note : When attending any 
ceremony at the Raja's palace, it is 
necessary for a man to wear trousers 
(Seluar, ^'j)^), fastened by a waist-belt 
(Kain ikat pinggang, ^^^ ^1 ^^ in 

which a kris was formerly carried, a 
Baju and a head-kerchief (Teng-k61o' 
•yyClkJ) or a round cap (Kepiah, &tfi^). 

Shoes cannot be worn in the BS,lai. 

Bak, ^ The periodical currents in the 
sea, on which the monsoons depend. 

Bak, ^ The noise caused by a smack 
or blow with the open hand. 

, .±JL? Heredity, descent, hereditary 
rank; heirs, descendants, an heir, the 
heir apparent; any right, rank, title, 
quality, habit, peculiarity, or defect 
inherited from forefathers. Men-j&di 
baka, J^lj ^jl^^u* To become an heri- 
ditary possession; to run in the family. 
Patek pachal iang h^na tiada baka ti&da 
saka, -aJLo jl<J -Jl^ jljf L^ J^U ^£X^\h 

Thy slave is a destitute slave, possessing 
neither hereditary rank nor heirlooms. 
Biikan-nya belka dia &kan men-j&di drang 
besar, ^ ^^^1 ^Jl^*-* ^^ k^^ ^^ ^^ 
He does not possess the descent neces- 
sary for him to become a chief. Jikdlau 
b&lu tid.da b&ka b&pa-nya dan n^nek-nya, 
J^ ^b ^I4i M Jl^ yii >C^ If 


Baka, Lfij 

her conduct is determinedly bad, she has 
not inherited it from her forefathers. 
Dia-lah bllka akan meng-ganti drang 
iang m&ti itu, g;^l ^ju-Cju ^I ^U ^*^ 

uwl -jUAji He is the heir who should 

succeed the deceased. B^ka Bendahdra, 
^l^juLj ^l^ The descendants of the 

Treasurer; the heir apparent to the 
Treasurership. S'lama ada baka kita 
anak ber-&nak di-dalam negri Pahang, 
^ i^/3 ^bJ ^1^ ^1 uL^ -sJli Jl |»Ju 

So long as our descendants and those of 
our children exist in Pahang. Baka dia 
m^mang meng-isap chandu, Amc^ ^^j ^l^ 
]fSju^ ^Q..%..>>t^>* Opium-smoking always ran 
in his family. Ber-b&ka, .sJlj^ To come 

of a good family ; to have an hereditary 
claim to any rank ; to possess hereditary 
qualities, etc. ; to have heirs or de- 
scendants ; to have sexual intercourse. 

Baka, Ab., Us^ Enduring, lasting^ eternal. 

Mllka pada ampat-blas h&ri-btilan Ram- 
th&n ayah-anda kita telah kembali ka- 
rakhmat Allah taala pindah deri-dd,lam 
negri iang pana ka-negri iang baka, 
«^ .Xju^I ^^ oIk>^ ^ aL.1 jj 4^U 

lljli ^J^ ^*^ On the 14th day of the 
month of Ramthan our father returned 
to the mercy of the Most High God, and 
removed from this mortal world to the 
world which is eternal. TAhan iang 
baka, iMi ^j^ The Lord who is eternal. 
Kar&na hamba ini dkan kembali ka-negri 

iang baka, ^J^ sj^ c/' o^' "-^-"^ 0->^ 
iMi For thy servant is about to return 
to the eternal land. 

Bakak, ^l^ or Kain bakak, ^\^ ^^ The 
name of a red or blue check stuff used 
for wearing-apparel. 

BSkal, ^U The materials which are in- 
tended to be used in making anything ; 
materials; necessary materials; raw 
material; whatever or whoever is in 
process of becoming something or some 
one. KMit bftkal t&li, ^iJ ^Lj i^^ 

Bast for rope-making. Bakal rAmah, 
^-W J^^ The materials for a house. 
Bakal raja, gl; J^lj The heir to the 
throne. BAkal Laksam^na, ^U^ J^U 
The man who will succeed the Laksa- 
mana. B&kal m&nusia, ^e-^U J^lj A 

B^kar, /Lj 

human embryo. Bakal kahwin, J^U 
^yi^ People who are engaged to be 
married. Mem-b^kal-kan, Jsi^l^.^-* To 
commence anything. 

Bakal, Au., ^ Greens ; green food. 

Bakam, ^\j A ruby. (See also N&kam, 
fS^ and Delima, f^^)- 

Bakar, jS\^ To burn, to consume by fire, 
to set fire to, to bake, to roast ; to fire, 
as a gun or cannon ; burned, baked, 
roasted, fired. Bakar l&dang, ^jl ^L; 

To bum the forest for a clearing. Maka 
di-bakar pdntong chendana gharu dan 
kemnyan bfi^rus, ^^^tj^ ^y ^^^ cs^--» 

L^^jy^ cj^ o'^ -i>W^ He burned pieces 
of sandal-wood, agila-wood, gum ben- 
zoin and camphor. Di-gantong tlnggi 
di-jdal jauh di-rendam basah di-bfi.kar 
hangus di-jemor pftnas di-tikam mftti 
mana-mana titah sedia-lah p&tek men- 
junjong-nya, &j!<^ Jl^^ ^J^ ^yu^^ 

^J ^U y^^ ^l^ /IjJ A^b j*v>3;J 

Hang me on high, sell me afar off, 
wet me with immersion, burn me in 
fire, scorch me with exposure to the 
sun, stab me till I am dead — what- 
ever be thy decree, I, thy slave, am 
prepared to submit thereto I Mati di- 
Mkar, ^l^^ c^^ Burned to death. 
Bakar di-api narftka, .sTjU ^U ^L^ 

Consumed by the fires of hell. Kris- 
nya me-nyala seperti gftnong api handak 
mem-bdkar 6rang banyak itu, Jl^ ^^^ 

"^' i5i^ t)^^ /^ c3^^^ s?*' C^/ ^J^ 
His dagger flamed like a mountain of 

fire which was about to consume the 

crowd. Maka di-tfitup-i Allah taala hati 

Hang Jebat deri-pada mem-bakar astana 

jika damikian ia mem-bakar habis-lah 

negri Malaka itu bensLsa, dUI ^yj ^&U. 

utA^I -sJJL. ^J^ dL^U yL^4-• ^^1 ,^(^^ 
^j-aUj God on high turned the heart of 

Hang Jebat from setting fire to the 
palace, for had he set fire to it, the 
whole town of Malacca would have 
been destroyed. Jika segala hftlubdlang 
Malayu itu m^sok ka-dalam negri mem- 
bakar si-apa-tah dapat men-entang mata- 
nya, ^IJ^ ^^ «^J jl^ ^U^ J*^ <^^ 
^Ix^ Atu,t,^ ^)j dsil^ ^IfM^ i^jS^ If all 
the Malay warriors enter the town and 


B&kav, Ab., ^ 

set fire to it, who of us can face them ? 
Bakar fi.rang, i>l ^U To bum charcoal. 

Bslkar bata, &U j^U To bake bricks. 
Bakar Ikan kring, ^^ ^) ^\i To roast 

dried fish. Tampil pdla mem-bfl-kar 
segala meriam dan 161a mem-bri aalamat 
tanda ka-sAka-an mem-bdang b&la negri 

Mandi Angin, ^^ JC^ /W- Jy Jt^ 

£)^-a^ 0*^->^ '^ ^^ 




^jj<>fi>t ^gJ^^ ^^^ Jlj They straightway 

fired all the cannon and swivel-guns, 
as a token and sign of their joy that 
calamity had been averted from the 
country of Mandi Angin. tTchap-nya 
lepas 161a-nya pun di-bakar s'kali letup 
tigadegum.nya,/l*J ^y ^A^ ^ ^^1 
^/j v^^ftJ iSjsi ^\<^ His prayer 

being ended, he fired his swivel-gun, and 
to the single explosion there were three 
reports. Ikan bakar, ^\i ^jj-^l Baked 
fish. Tebu bftkar, ^l^ ^ Roasted sugar- 
cane. Ter-bfi,kar, ^\ijS Burned, baked, 
roasted, fired; accidentally burned. Hdbis 
ter-b&kar, ^l^y ^ U> Burned up ; burned 

to cinders. Ter-bS,kar kampong ka-lihat- 
an asap ter-bfilkar hati si-apa akan tclhu, 

^[^ ^\^ /by ^iui j{^ ^yu^ jS\ijS 

^to ^1 When a village is burned, smoke 
is seen ; when the heart is consumed by 
fire, who shall know it ? — Prov.^ signify- 
ing that much trouble may be borne in 
secret. K&ta 6rang tda-tAa sial mem- 
&kai kain iang ter-Mkar di-api, ijj] u^l^ 
^1j /l,^ ^l^ ^U. JU-. H^ The 

ancients said that it was unlucky to 
wear a garment which had been acci- 
dentally burned by fire. Rdmah kita 
ter-bS,kar &pi, ^1 /l^y u^ «ujj; Our 

house was (accidentally) burned down. 
Pem-bS.kar, /L^J One who sets fire to. 
anything ; an incendiary. Pem-bakar 
fl.rang, $>) /W^ A charcoal-burner. 

Bakar, Ar., ^ A common male proper 
name. Note : Malays are much addicted 
to contracting Arabic proper names — 
thus Bakar, /j is a contraction of 
Abub&kar, /^ji\ Muhammad, Jo.^^ be- 
comes Mat, 2l^ Mahmud, Jy«^ Mut, &^ 
Ismail, A(ffc»->'fti Semail, Jt^*-*^ or Mail, 
J^jL^ Usman, ^^^j) Man, ^ Patimah, 
duJai Timah, <uJf Seripah, ^j^ Pah, 
^ etc. 

B&kau, y L^ 
Bakarah, Ab., &j^ One head of cattle. 

Bakat, ^ij Flecked, streaked ; a light in 

the sky, a sign in the sky, an indication 
of good or bad weather ; a sign, an omen, 
a presage ; the symptoms of approaching 
disease; traces of something which is 
about to appear. Jalan sudah hilang 
tetfi,pi bakat-nya ada 14gi, ^^ 5Ju^ J It^ 
^J j| ^l^ ^l«J The road has dis- 

appeared, but there are still the traces 
of where it was. Di-pandang ka-&tas 
sampei tfijoh petMa langit md^ka di- 
antara dwan iang pAteh meng-andong 
m^ga iang biru ber-bakat kdning angk^a 
di-langit s4yup-s8iyup bhasa, ^*l^ ^JjJ J 

^y^ c)->' ^^'^ ^^ ^^ J^ ^y s?*^ 

^l5Cfi>l ^/ u^lj^ ^j^^ i^Si^ ^jJaA^ 
^l^ t*«-3jiLo 5fi>Ja He gazed aloft even 

unto the seventh sphere of the heavens, 
and behold, between the white clouds 
which bore black rain-clouds in their 
wombs, and the blue sky streaked with 
yellow, the winds of the heavens were 
soughing gently. Bakat angin, ^^) £\i 
Weather indications. BS,kat ka-tumboh, 
&^t^ ^^ Symptoms of small-pox. B^Lkat 
janggut, &^^ ^l* Traces of a beard. 

Bakat, SS\^ The breaking of the waves 

upon the shore, or against the side of 
a vessel ; the wash or surf of the sea ; 
to break (as waves) ; to blow against 
(as wind). Bakat-nya ber-dengong, ^l^ 
i^j^ The breaking of the waves upon 

the shore made a roaring sound. M&ka 
ftrus pun ber-bakat ka-pada pr&hu klta, 
uu^^fl>ly s^ ^Ij^ ^y ^^1 ^ — . The 

tide broke against our boat. 

BakaUf^L; The mangrove. Pohunb&kau^ 
^\i ^j^ The mangrove tree. D&un 
h&ksMy^^ ^^1^ The leaves of the man- 
grove. Hfttan bakau, ^li ^j^ A man- 
grove swamp. Note : The following are 
the principal kinds : — Bakau pdteh, ^\^ 
AjjJy Bruguiera caryophylloideSy (the term 
Bakau, ^U is applied by the Malays 
to all the following varieties) Bhizophora 
mangle^ Bhizophora conjugata^ and Kan^ 
ddia Rheedii. The Malays further dis- 
tinguish between the following varieties : 
Bakau akit, a^l /l^ , Bakau belAkap, 
4^^ ^Ij , Bakau chingam, ^J^ ^U % 
Bakau nyirih, &^^U , Bakau sesup,. 


Bakcha, Ab., l^ 

f^y.^^ ^\^ 3 B&kau temu, ^ ^U , cmd 
Bakau tenggadi, ^gjl^^C 

Bakcha, Ab., l^ A wallet, a flask; a 
vessel used for holding provisions. la 
meng-l{lar-kan minyak badam dan cMka 
deri-d&lam bakoha-nya, ^590^ cjOl^ s?' 
^l^ ^b^J ^y^ ^b (.jU He took 
^mond oil and vinegar from his satchel. 

Bslki, Ab., ^^ The rest, the remainder, 

the residue, the balance. Baki iang 
tinggal, y^ ^ yJ^U The remainder 

which is left. B«iki herga siitra itu 
s'ratus rfial banyak-nya, \ja^ ^—f^ ^L^ 

^li Ji; u^^y^ «**i' The balance of the 
cost of the silk is one hundred dollars. 
Daftar b^ki Atang, ^^1 ^L^ ^^ A 

schedule of the remaining debts. Berapa 
banyak baki-nya, ^Ij ^l^ *-*t^ How 
much is the balance ? Note : The term 
Baki, ^U should never be applied to 
human beings, such phrases as ^ The 
remainder of the men,' etc., being best 
rendered by * Orang iang tinggal,' ^jj^l 

Bakiah, Ab., d^ or Bakiat, ^ The rest, 
the remainder, remnant, residue. (See 
Bakd, ^^ which is the more common 
form in Malay.) 

Bakik, ^^U A species of wild pepper, 
Pvper miniatv/m. Note: The Malays, 
Sakai, and Semang, when unable to pro- 
cure proper sirih leaves, make use of 
the bark of this vine (or of the leaves 
or stem of the Fiandang, ^Li) bs a. 
substitute, and chew it with their areca- 
nut, lime, and gamhir. Dr. Pijnappel 
states that it is the fruit of this plant* 
which is chewed,. but this is certainly 
not the case in the Peninsula, and we 
have good reason to doubt whether it 
is the practice elsewhere. 

B&kil, Ab., Jil^ To become green; putting 
forth leaves ; to grow a beard. 

;im, Ab., ^^f^ Dumb, mute. (See Bisu, 
^ which is the common Malay term 
for * Dumb.') 

Bdkir, jt^\4 Sour; turned. Sdsu bakir, 
^\^ yjiyji Sour milk. Santan b&kir, ^^^a;u« 
yt^\^ Sour expressed juice of the coco- 
nut. Note : This word is only used when 
speaking of milk, or of the expressed 
juice of the coconut. 

Bakti, ^e»fij 

Bakir, Ab., y U Bich in possessions, or in 

Blikir, ^ij To settle in a place and seek a 
peaceful existence. 

Biko', '^Li A species of wood-pigeon, 

which is smaller than the pigeon called 
Pergam, ^y by the Malays, but which 

is larger than the small green pigeons of 
which the generic name is P(Lnai, ^y 

Note : In Perak and some parts of Kedah 
this bird is called Lenggftak, ^3'^^ by 

the Malays. Note : For different species 
of pigeon see Pergam, ^y Merp&ti, 

^li^ and P{lnai, ^y Of the latter there 

are many varieties known to the Malays. 
Note : The form Berko', "^ji also occurs. 

Bakok, ^^W The name of a salt-water 

fish which swims in large schools, and is 
often taken in the kind of bag-net called 
a Piikat chang, ^ ^y 

Bakong, ^^U A lily, Grinum asiaticvmi. 
Bdnga bakong, ^/l^ \£>^ The flower of 
the lily. Daun bakong, ^/li ^^b The 

name of a kind of reed-grass. Deri-j&uh 
men-junjong duli sudah dekat langsong 
meny-embah angkat kfi.dam j&ri s'pfdoh 
kinchup seperti sdlor bakong jd-ri seperti 
sfisun sirih, d^J &J^ ^^ £^^&^;u« 5^ic^ j^ 
im^f^fS d3yL« ^5p^^ i*«^ ui.*^^) A.f.4>y>» ^jMwJu 
&jfr^ ^^j^^ &jIl^ i^j^ ^j^k ^y^^ SjL^ 
From afar off they sidled up to within 
a short distance, and from thence until 
they at length arrived they kept bowing 
down and making obeisance to the 
monarch, in homage uplifting their hands 
with their ten fingers arranged like the 
spreading root of a lily, and their fingers 
(one against the other) like a sheaf of 
the leaves of the Piper betel. Note : In 
Singapore, and in some other parts of 
the Peninsula, this lily is called Bawang 
temb&ga, ^—fl^J ^l^li or the brazen onion. 

Note : The following varieties of lily are 
distinguished by the Malays. Bakong 
amas, ^j^) £/^ Bakong ayer, ^1 ^/U 
(Ghamdcladon augustifolium) Bakong 
p6rak, ^^ ^yi^ Bakong sufijsa, ^^^ 

^1^ and Bakong pantai, ^mJ i^\^ 
(Susum aniheVminticvm). 

Bakti, ^ettfi3 Pious; worthy; good; good 
deeds ; service ; homage, respect, reve- 


B&kul, J/l? 

rence, veneration. Orang Kaya Bakti, 
ts^ ^^ pJ^^ ^ Malay title which liter- 
ally means, * The pious rich man.' Ka- 
bakti-an, ,jcsdLg^ Piety, good deeds, good 

services, good oflBces, yeoman's service. 
Note : As used by modem Malays, this 
word has almost lost its original mean- 
ing of * pious, piety, etc.,' and is more 
commonly applied to those who deserve 
well of their fellows rather than of the 
Creator. Kita handak kemia n8,ma fikan 
Hang Tiiah itu kardna ia banyak ka- 
bakti-an ka-p&da kita dengan tegoh setia- 

^lftX^5/S^ja^Ji^^^j,,fta^^li ^\ We 

wish to bestow a title upon Hang Tftah, 
for his good services to us are many, and 
he is faithful and loyal. Maka Tan Tiji 
pim ter-kenang-lah akan Laksamana itu 
banyak ka-bakti-an ka-p&da Raja, ^ csA> 

el; JJ^ Tan Ttji thought of the Admiral 

who had rendered so many good services 
to the King. Maka pMa bechara hS,ti- 
ku sedang banyak angkau mem-bftat ka- 
bakti-an-mu dan jasa-mu lagi di-bdnoh- 
nya Alih ra.ja, ^J^-^ cs^l^^^ j^ c^A — * 

t,:^ &\y^ /^\ ^,\i 

Sb ^^^ ^M"^ ^ thought in my heart, if 
when you had rendered such good ser- 
vices and merited so well, you also were 
to be slain by the king * * * * 

Blikul, J^U A basket. Segdia raga dan 
b&kul dan segdla kranjang dan ambong, 

£^^l AH the creels, and baskets of 

different kinds, and all the dorsal bas- 
kets. Maka m^sing-masing pun men- 
junjong bakul-nya lalu ber-jalan, fc&lw* 

Each one placed his basket upon his 
head and started upon his journey. 
Tiada-lah ter-mftat di-dalam b&kul-nya, 
J^\\ ^bJ S'>^y dJbLJ It could not be 

forced into the basket. Masok-kan ka- 
d&lam bakul, J/b ^1j^ J^^^ Put it 

into the basket. B^kul iang penoh 
bekal-an, J^ &yMi J^l^ A basket full 

of provisions for a journey. Bakul lama 
ber-isi dAri, ^g;^J s?^'-H f* J/}^ The 
old basket is full of thorns. Ampat- 
pWoh-ampat 6rang pergi mem-Angut 
d&un k&yu s'telah dapat pMa s'6rang 

B&la, Ah., JL^ 

s'bakul di-bawa' sembah-kan ka-pftda 
raja, ^^IJ S£>y^ J:y ^jj] iiu»] d)y «juJL«l 

gVj jJi^ ^^.^.^A^^ Forty-four men went 

forth and plucked leaves, and when each 
had got a basketful they brought them 
and presented them to the king. Note : 
Bakul, J^lj is the name given to that 
section of the table or mat at the game 
called Te*'pOy^ .y '^ which is nearest 
to the banker. Tikam blah bakul, ^%C^ 
J^ij ^ To bet on this section of the 
table. (See Note under Api, ^1 Fire, 
etc.) ChAkang bakul, J^l^ ^^ To split 

bamboos by splitting them slightly at 
the end, and then introducing a wedge, 
against which the bamboo is pushed, 
the portion already split being simulta- 
neously pulled in the opposite direction, 
until the bamboo is split throughoilt its 
entire length. Note : This phrase is in 
use among the natives of the Tembeling 
River, in Pahang, and the natives of 
triu DAngun, tJlu Trengganu and tTlA 
Lebir in Kelantan. In most parts of the 
Peninsula, Blah 16seng, ^y ^i^ or Blah 
16seng chekak ampat, ^UUl ^3^ A^y dig 
is the phrase used. Tem-bakul, J^W^ 

The name of a sea-fish, which has a 
blunt coarse head and two thick fins, 
and is thought by the Malays to re- 
semble a basket. It is sometimes to be 
seen leaping about in the mud at low 

BUkup, t^^U Half -oval; puffed or swollen 
of the face, or of the body. Note : This 
word is not usually applied to swellings 
in the hands or feet. 

Bila, Ar., JLj Calamity, misfortune, 
disaster, evil, ill-luck ; a plague. T61ak 
baia, Jl^ ^33^ To avert calamity — (i.e., 

by means of prayer or some supersti- 
tious observance). Kena baia, JI3 \xS 

To be afflicted by misfortune. Baia-lah 
kJta sekarang, ^j\iL. u^ d3ili We shall 

presently be in a * parlous state.' Men- 
jadi baia benar-lah itu, d3^ Jl^ ^^^b*.^ 

ufc-^l It will become a veritable calamity. 
Negri itu di-minta men-jadi laut handak 
mem-bdang baia mergestu itu, utA^I ^^ 

utA^I He prayed that the country might 
become a sea, in order that the plague 


Bfila, JU 

of monsters might be driven away. 
Tampil pMa mem-blkar segala meriam 
dan l^la mem-bri aalamat tanda ka- 
siika-an mem-bftang bala, ^L^ Jy ^)JuS 
^•is:^ juJ ^lo ^j^j^ J^ ^b ^^ J^ 
JLj ^|>H-^ They straightway fired all 
the camion and swivel-guns, as a token 
and sign of delight that the calamity 
had been averted. Melka di-siiroh mem- 
bacha doa mem-bftang bala, 6;^ J caL-^ 

Jli ^l^t-4^ ^*y gWf-* He ordered prayers 
to be read in order to avert calamity. 
Besar b&la-nya, ^h y-^ The evil is a 
serious one. M&ka titah Baginda, ^Ada 
d&tang bala di-atas negri-ku ini,' <^A — # 
^\ v^ya ^|J Jli ^1j j1 JoJ::? daJr Then 

quoth the monarch, ^A misfortune has 
come upon this my country.' Note : In 
colloquial Malay the form Balak, ^^\i 
is also met with. 

B&la, Jl* The people, the common people ; 
the subjects of a monarch; the private 
soldiers in an army. Dapat di-tAmpang 
Alih segSla raayat bfi,la ber-tedoh di- 

b&wah n&ung-nya, J^ <J)I ^L#yj iib 
^jU fijLjj esyJ^ JU uu.^^ All the 

peasants and conamon people were able 
to share the shadow of his protection. 
Di-sAroh tftnggu-i dan di-j&ga-kan dlih 
segllla raayat bala malam dan siang, 

A>^ i^'*^ f*'^ J^ -^^ ordered it to be 
watched, and it was guarded by all the 
peasants and common people, both by 

night and by day. Akan hamba mentri 
s'pfdang lima, ftkan saiyid-saiyid s'pAlang 
t}ga, ber-mMa b&la s'pMang d£la, jika 

maplis di-bdnoh, ^y^ ^?>*^ <-r-*^ ^^1 

^J^ J^ dr'J^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ (^ 
di^j ^jJi^ <^^ t^J If the slave (stolen) 

belongs to a minister, his value must be 
repaid fivefold, if to a descendant of 
the Prophet, threefold, if to a common 
person twofold, and if the thief is too 
poor to pay, he shall be slain. Bala- 
tentra, SysjS X^ A soldier, a private 

Bala, Pees., JL^ Above. Bala bad, jl^ Jl? 

Above the wind. Note : This word is 
only met with in this sense in the above 

Balad, Ab«, jJl^ Region, province. 

Baiai, ^L^ 

BHIah, <JU A dispute, a quarrel, ill-feeling. 

Aku takut men-jadi b^lah antara ka-dda 
pehak itA, \yjS ^l»JJ d3li ^^aUj^ S/U ^] 

«^' Si^ ^ ^^s afraid lest a quarrel 
should arise between the two parties 
concerned. Ber-bfilah, dJl^j-^ On bad 

terms; by the ears. Dan jftngan-lah 
angkau ber-b&lah sama sendiri, ^lj 
^^jiJju^ -•Lo d3l^^ j^) dLi^lft. And be not 

on bad terms one with another. Mem- 
baiah, d3l^.4^ To have cause for quarrel 

with anyone ; to quarrel, to dispute. 
Sehaja ia mem-bMah samda iimor, gi^— -» 
j4^ \^4^^ dJLu^ ^p) It is only that they 
are always quarrelling. Per-balah-an, 
^jj^l^y A quarrel, a dispute, a disagree- 
ment. T&kut men-jftdi per-b&lah-an, 
^Ijj-i ^^jl^*-* S^lJ Lest it should cause 

a dispute. Note: Dr. Pijnappel gives 
"To allege anything'* as the primary 
meaning of this word. 

Balai, ^U A hall, a reception hall, a hall 

of state, a council chamber; the state 
hall at a Malay Court, in which all im- 
portant functions take place ; the outer 
or common-room of a large Malay house ; 
a building in a Malay village which 
serves the purposes of a town-hall, in 
which justice is administered, feasts 
given, and strangers lodged, but which 
is not regularly inhabited, being only 
used for occasional and public purposes ; 
the small frames or open houses erected 
in the rivers during the feasts which are 
given to celebrate circumcisions, and 
where the youths about to be operated 
on are subjected to immersion imme- 
diately before the operation ; a police 
station. Maka pada masa itu Baginda 
tengah ber-hathir di-balai di-hadap iilih 
segala orang besar-besar, ^U jj dsX.^^ 

Yj^, ^^^' Now at that time the monarch 
was sitting in the hall of state, faced by 
all his chiefs. S'telah sampei ka-bfi,lai 
maka di-pandang ka-tengah balai fi.da- 
lah anak semang itu ter-lalu bdrok rdpa- 
nya, ^Ij dAJl^ ^Xjj csX* ^[^ ss*^^ ^*^ 

d)^^J> c3-A^ -^ V «^' t^ <3^' ^^' 'WTien 
he arrived at the hall he saw the wild 
tribesman, who was exceedingly hideous 
to look upon, sitting in the centre of the 
hall. Balai besar, bS^lai me-lentang, balai 
s'uj&na mS^ta mem-andang, s'lelah kftda 


Balai, ^U 

ber-lfi,ri, s'elok makan pelftru meriam, 
s'jenoh bArong terbang, ^b ^^-^ ^JL^ 

^jS The great hall, the hall which ran 

at right angles to the main hall, the 
hall which was as vast as the sight 
could carry, as far across as a horse 
could gallop before it became spent with 
fatigue, as wide as a cannon-ball could 
take effect, and as long as the flight 
of a bird. Maka segala orang besar- 
besar dan hiilubalang raayat bala-tentra 
pun d&tang-lah ber-himpun deri-pada 
hAjong negri sampei ka-pangkal negri 
penoh sesak di-balai besar b&lai me- 
lentang, ^Life ^lj t>W ^jj^ J^^ ^ — • 

^5uJl* J l^ j^ All the chiefs and warriors, 

and all the common people and soldiers, 
assembled from one end of the country 
to the other, so that the main hall and 
the hall which ran at right angles to it 
were crammed to overflowing. NoU : 
The Balai, ^ L^ or state hall, in a modem 

Malay Court in the Peninsula, consists 
of a long building, oblong in shape, 
down the centre of which runs a long 
raised platform called the Sri bS,lai, i^^ 

^Ij or Balai sri, ^g^ ^U The space 
which surrounds this raised platform is 
called the Pesiban, ^ .■y>'.'> » (in Pfirak pro- 
nounced Peseban). A room adjoining the 
Balai, ^l? is also called Pesiban, ^^^ ' 


The whole building is called the Balai 
rong, ^jjf) Ij or Balai besar, ^ ^ l^ It is 

usually joined to the palace at one of 
the narrower sides, and a door from the 
interior of the palace usually communi- 
cates with it on that side. The B&lai, 
^Ij , has a number of pillars (Tiang 

b&lai, ^li ^) placed round it at regular 

intervals, supporting the roof, but it is 
not walled-in, and is open to the air on 
every side except that on which it 
adjoins the Palace. The Sri balai, i^^ 
^Ij is reserved for the use of Bdjas and 

SaiyidSy the latter ranking as though 
they were of royal blood in most Malay 
countries. The only occasion on which 
a person of lower rank is permitted to 
ascend the Sri balai, ^J\^ s^j^ is that on 

which the Bd^a sits in state to receive 

Baiai, JU 

the homage of his chiefs and people, who 
come, as the Malay phrase has it, *to 
receive his foot upon their heads ' (Men- 

junjong duli, ^J J ^.^^s^"*^^)- The officers of 
the B^laJ, ^ k 9 and the attendants who 
serve them, are, of course, allowed to as- 
cend the Sri bdlai, ^ \^ ^y^ ^^ ^^ Per- 
formance of their duties. The Serambi, 
i^y^ or broad verandah which encom- 
passes the Sri b&lai, ^^ k ^y^ is reserved 
for the use of the chiefs and gentry who 
are not of royal blood, each one sitting 
in the place allotted to him by the Peng- 

hMu balai, ^l^ J>^ according to his 
rank. In some places the laymen sit on 
the left, and the priests and clergy on 
the right side of this verandah. When 
any ceremony, such as the circumcision 
or marriage of any of the Bdja'^ rela- 
tives, is about to be celebrated, a tempo- 
rary building is erected at the end of 
the Bfi-lai rong ^^j^^k which is situated 
farthest from the palace and running 
at right angles to the main hall in such 
a manner as to form the top of a T, of 
which the main BMai, ^li is the stem. 

This temporary building (which is called 
the Balai me-lentang, ^»aL* ^\\ because 

its length runs at right angles to the 
B&lai rong ^^j^^) is used as a place in 
which to feed the common people who 
have no place in the Pesiban, ,^^^p^ and 

also it is here that the Chinese spread 
their gambling mats every night during 
the duration of the feast, which some- 
times continues for eighteen months at 
a time, and here the rdjaSy nobles, chiefs, 
gentry, and people assemble to gamble, 
eat the rdjd!8 sweetmeats, which are 
served at frequent intervals, and to retail 
the gossip of the court and country. 
Jutting out from the covered passage 
which joins the house to the Balai, there 
is often a small structure called the Bdlai 
ftyer, >l' ^JU which is a sort of pantry 

in which the vessels containing drinking- 
water are all collected and filled, and 
whither they are brought back after the 
feast. In former times the rdja was 
wont to sit daily in the Balai, ^i; in 
order to administer justice in person, 
but this duty is now usually performed 
by deputy. B&lai peng-hadfl-p-an, ^JL; 

^jj^Ij^ The royal audience-chamber. 


B&lai, J\i 

Note : This phrase is often contracted 
into Peng-hadap-an, ^^^y^ the word 
B&lai, ^J\^ being understood but not ex- 
pressed. Aadat b&lai, Jl^ &Jlo The cus- 
toms which are rigorously observed in 
the Bdja*8 state hall, and which the igno- 
rant chiefs of the interior are often at 
some pains to acquire. Peng-hAlu bUlai, 
ij^ Jx** ^^® ^^^^^ borne by the officer 
of state whose duty it is to preside over 
all ceremonies in the Bdja\^ hall, to show 
every one where they are to be seated, 
and to see that none of the customs 
connected with the Balai, ^b are vio- 
lated. These duties are often performed 
by two officers, of whom the senior is 
termed Peng-hdlu balai tfta, •/ ^^ J>^ 
the junior, Peng-hiilu balai mAda, Jj^ 
b^ Jli Note : For a description of the 
costume which is worn on all official 
and state occasions in the Balai rong, 
tpy^^ see Note under BS,ju, ^l^ A coat. 
G-antong di-b^lai, ^J^^ ^j^ ^^> more com- 
mmdify simply Gantong, ^y^ The initial 

ceremony of a state celebration which 
consists in hanging the curtains (Tabir, 
^l5) round the Sri balai, ^\i ^g^ and 

looping them up to the pillars. Note: 
For a complete description of all the 
ceremonies performed in connection with 
a state feast, see Note under Kerja, g %^ 
To work, etc. Balai kembang, ^^ ^Jl^ 

A smaller hall, at some distance from a 
rajahs palace and near the gate of his 
enclosure, which is used as a kind of 
summer-house. B&lai kechil, J^^ ^^ 

A state hall of secondary importance 
outside the royal enclosure, in which the 
principal officers of state, the Bendahara, 
^IftOutj and Temenggong, ^^^^ hold their 
audiences. Balai gendang, ^^ ^J Ij The 

building in which the musicians of a 
raja sit and play. Ada iang naik kAda 
ftda iang naik balai gendang ada iang 
naik ka-atas bdmbong, ^1 iJ^ cS^*U ^ ^1 
^y ^•l^ c^-U ^ Jl ^j^ J\i csAi^b ^ 

Some mounted horses, some got on to 
the musicians' hall, and some climbed 
on to the roof-trees. Balai gambang, 
f^ ^\i A house erected on a raft. 

Bd.lai timbul, J><-^ ^^ ^ Balai plangi, 
^J^ ^\i An erection in the water used 
for bathing purposes on state occasions. 

B&lak, ^U 

Balai madat, 5jU Jlj A roofed-in shed 
built over the water at a place where a 
bridge and a rampart meet, and used as 
a look-out post or watch-house. Note : 
This building is so called because it 
is supposed to be tenanted by opium- 
smokers, who sleep not by night. B&lai 
meriam, ^^ ^J^i or Balai peng-gantong 
meriam, ^^ ^ytJUi^ ^U A shed in 

which cannon are stored or slung by 
cords from the roof, B&lai derma, ^J\s 
^j^ The hall of charity — a hall whence 
alms and food are distributed to the 
poor. Balai limas, ^j-«-*-J ^Ij — Ut^ the 
hall with a double sloping roof — the 
name given to the small rafts containing 
offerings to the spirits, which are sent 
floating down river by the Malays. (See 
Anchak, ^] A tray, etc.) Pe-bMai, 
^^ or Pe-baiai-an, ^l^ The raised 
platform in the interior of a palace which 
is situated on the left-hand side, and 
upon which the women of the palace sit. 
Balai per-angin, ^jj^^'y ij^ -^ summer- 
or pleasure-house. Ikan balai, ^l^ ^I 

The name of a sea-fish. Note : In 
Javanese, Balai means a bench, a couch. 

Balai, ^l^ or Mem-balai, ^l^ To treat 
with indifference ; to leave to itself. Pij. 

Baiai, JU or Ikan b&lai, ^l^ ^1 The 
name of an edible sea-fish. 

B&lai-rong, ^jjj^i A state hall, which 

is joined at one end to the astana, 
^U-d) or royal dwelling-house. Sabar-lah 

dahAlu ! J&ngan kita tikam di-atas bS^lai- 
rong rfi-ja itu s'61ah-61ah kita tiada t&hu 
bhasa, ^)J ^ u^ ^\c^ JybJ iij.^ 

Have patience ! Let us not fight in the 
king's hall, for if we did so it would be 
as though we knew nought of courteous 
ways. Note : This term is often written 
as one word ; for a full description of a 
state hall, etc., see BS,lai, ^Lj (See 
Rong, ^jy A passage, etc.) 

Bilak, ^33Lj A large log of wood; also 
Pem-baiak, ^ W Kerja balak, ^l^ c/ 
To cut large timber. Balak tdjoh batang, 
^b dcKy ^l^ Seven large logs of timber. 

BS,lak besar me-lentang sAngei, j^ ^§}\i 

-£>^ ^aA^ a large log of timber lying 

across the stream. Di-blah b&Iak mem- 


Balak, ^)l^ 

bftat papan, ^^U Sl^.^*^ ^l^ dli J He split 

the log in order to make planks from 
it. Note : The term Blilak, ^5Jli is applied 
to a log which is larger than the ordi- 
nary tree trunk or B&tang, AJli 

Balak, ^U Calamity, misfortune, evil. 
Note : The form Bala, J Li is also com- 
mon, and is the usual form of the word 
in the written language. In colloquial 
Malay, however, the form Balak, ^\i is 
frequently met with. 

Balak, ^ Short hair (of an animal). 

Balakh, Ab., ^ Proud, haughty. 

Blilam, ^L^ A dove, a pigeon. Meng-6ko' 
balam di-hAjong bendul, ^^^ ^l^ t/^^ 
J^JuL? The doves cooed at the ends of 
the floor- plates. Note : This word is 
more frequently met with in written 
than in colloquial Malay, the terms Ter- 
kiikor, ^^j^ or KAkor ^^ being more 

frequently employed in the spoken dia- 

BHIam, ^L^ To paddle with quick short 
strokes, after the manner employed by 
the Malays when racing boats. 

Balam, ^U The name of a tree which 
yields a species of timber suitable for 
buildiog ; Pouzohia pentandra. 

Bilam, ^U A kind of bush, with the twigs 
of which many birds build their nests. 

Balam, ^Lj Dim, indistinct ; dimly or in- 
distinctly seen through distance or want 
of light. Belum chuacha balam- 
baiam, f^lj ^^ gl^ ^^ It was not yet 
light, and objects were indistinctly seen. 

Balam-bilam, Y(^U Hardly visible, indis- 
tinctly seen, in the dim distance, dimly 
seen. (See BS,lam, ^li Dim, etc.) 

Balam bang, ^^ A bundle of things 
fastened or bound together. 

B&lan, ^U The large pieces of timber 
sunk as piles to form the framework of 
a dam. Maka di-diri-kan balan-nya serta 
di-kena-kan pantak sepiiya mem-bftat 
ampang, ^^^ i^y^ ^k ^ji^^ ^-sA.— ^ 
^^•1 S\yiJ^ v^li-o ^5xjJ They set up the 
large piles and fixed the smaller ones, in 
order to make a dam. Note : The smaller 
pieces are called Pantak, ^^sjJ Both 

B&las, ^l^ 

these terms are in use in Pahang and in 
some other parts of the Peninsula, but 
the word TArus, ^j^ A pile, is more 
commonly met with on the western 
coast of the Peninsula than either B^lan, 
J\i or Pantak, ^^us Note: The term 

B&lan, ^ij is sometimes applied to the 
whole dam, although its correct mean- 
ing, as given abqye, is more restricted. 
See Notes under Ampang, Aft^l A dam. 

Bdlang, ^U A bottle. Baiang kacha, ^1} 
^ A glass bottle. Bd^lang kdsong, Ail; 
^^ An empty bottle. TMong bfi-lang, 
^l^ ^jy A bottle stopper; aUo Peny- 
ihnbat balang, ^ k ^yt^ Maka di-siiroh 
t&lam itu pergi ka-p&da Tdan Petri 
Chaya Intan me-mohun-kan ftyer mawar 
sS^tu balang, JJi^ ^y ut*il ^iJ &yy^^ tsA^ 

A) \^ He bade the tray go to the Princess 

Chaya Intan (Sparkling Diamond), and 
beg from her a bottle of rose-water. 

Balang, ^1^ To throw. uiZso Hum-bWang, 
L.4jb Note : For other words for * To 
tlirow,' etc., see Note under Bftang, 4|^ 

Bilang, ^L; The name of a kind of boat 

with two masts; also Sampan bfi.lang, 
A) l^ ^^^u^ Note : This boat is larger than 


the kind called Sampan johor, j^ 

Bilar, yLj White; of a clouded white or 

pinkish colour. Orang balar, ^U ^jt?' 

An albino. Kerbau bS-lar, J\^ ^jS A 

white buffalo. Pantang &nak Pahang 
m&kan daging kerbau b8,lar, ^ ^1 ^ax* 

yi^ ^^ ^\^ ^\^ It is forbidden for 

the people of Pahang to eat the meat of 
a white buffalo. 

Balarh, Ab., ^ A book-mark; a mark 
to shew the place where one left off 

Balarhah, Ab., d^Jg or ^Jg Eloquence. 

Balas, ^U To retaliate, to return, to 
make return, to reply, to answer, to 
atone, to requite, to reward, to revenge; 
retaliation, a return, a reply, an answer; 
atonement, requital, revenge, retribu- 
tion. Mem-b£llas, ^W*-» Mem-b&las-kan 
^jjCJLji4-* and Balas-kan, ^^CJl^ To reta- 
liate, etc. Sepaya p&tek b&las dendam 
p&tek bdnoh k&um keliirga gagak itu 


bh&ru-lah patek me-r&sa piias h&ti, ^^li^ 

cJ>^ f^^ ^^ ^^^ >^^ u-J^ <^^ 
^U ^ly ^1^ aVU d)^^ 4i) ^ir In 

order that thy slave may retaliate upon 
them for the malice which he feels, he 
will slay all that clan and race of crows, 
and then only will his heart know satis- 
faction. B&las sal&m, |»Xy» ^l| To return 

a salutation. Bftlas bMi, ^^^^ ^\^ To 

return a favour; to requite an obliga- 
tion. Adek ber-diam diri ini kar&na 
mem-tkir-kan iang p&tut handak di- 
b&las-kan kirim-an TAan Petri ini, ^^^1 

JJ^ utJfliAA ^/^^ ^^J^ ^^1 i^jl^ ^^^ 

ol' ^y^ o'y cT*-^ v:5<-Jl|^ Thy younger 
brother is thus silent because he is 
considering what would be the proper 
means of making return for these pre- 
sents sent by the Princess. B&las-kan 

sftrat, Spj^ o^-J^ To answer a letter; 
to reply to a letter. Bdlas ch8,kap, ^Ij 
•J^l^ To reply, to retort; a reply, a 
retort. Balas pantun, ^^j»^ ^^ To cap 
verses, to reply in verse to verses re- 
peated by another. Maka Mih Tftan Petri 
di-balas pMa pantun damikian bftnyi- 

^^ cJ«^*^ ^^® Princess answered the 
verses in the following fashion. Hang- 
k&sih clnak-ku itu Allah taala iang mem- 
b&lafi dia, ^ ^Ur <jJJI uz^\ cMfi^l d«w^i5CJU 

^^a ^IfM^ My son^s love for me will be 

rewarded by the Most High God. JS,ngan 
Beperti 6rang pen-jiidi alah handak mem- 
bdlas menang handak Islgi, Sjlu^ ^^^ 

^S Be not like unto a gambler, who, if 

he loses, wishes to revenge his loss, and 
if he wins, wishes to continue to do so: 
Proverbial saying. Jika ia mati t&hu-lah 
ftku mem-bfilas dia, dSyblJ ^V*^ s?' ^^^--«^ 
^pj ^Ih-^^I If he dies, I know how to 
revenge him. Men-d&pat adek-nya minta 
tfdong b&las-kan di-d,tas 
negri Gedong B&tu, ^y Uju* ^jI ^Ijuu* 

ylj ^>xJ ^^ ^b ^lyU^ ^Lj He 
went to his sister and besought her to 
aid him to revenge the shame which had 
been put upon him by the country of 
Gedong B&tu. Bfilas gAna, ^y ^b 
To wreak vengeance, to revenge, to 
give tit for tat ; to repay one's trouble. 
M&ka TtLan Petri pun ber-siap-lah 


handak mem-bri bd.las ka-pfida &nak 
Raja Jin itu dengan meriam, ^^ly 

*^^ fj^U s?>H-» ^*^^^ ^^i^f^jt ^^y 

^-K o^*^ <*^' c>e^ Cb i5^' The Princess 
thereupon made ready to make retalia- 
tion upon the daughter of the king of 
the genii, by means of her cannon. Bd,las 
sdrat, &jj^ ^y or SArat bftlas-an, Bjyjt 
^^\i A letter in reply, a letter in answer. 

-ipa beuda bllas-nya, ^\^ Jul^ uJ\ What 
was his answer? What did he send in 
return? Sep&ya fi,ku bri b&las darah 
Laksam&na itu Mih bekas tllngan aku, 
O^ d)y ^1 ^U^ 5;IJ ^li ^ji yi ^^14^ 

^) ^^\! In order that I may give a 
requital for the blood of the Laksamana, 
by means of my strong right arm. 

Ada h{ljan d.da p&nas 
Ada hftri bMih b&las, 

^U j) ^yb j) 

If there is rain, there is also fine weather: 
the day of retribution will surely come — 
Prov. Pem-b&las-an, ^^^JL^ and Bfilas- 
an, ^jj^li An answer, a reply, a reward, 
a return, a requital, a retaliation. 

Balasan, Bub., ^Ug Balm, balsam. 

BSIa-tentra, 1^ Xj Private soldiers, the 
warriors of a war-party, fighting-men, 
an army. Dan di-kasih-i Mih segala 
raayat bala-tentra-nya, d)^l -^-^^l^'j .|j 
^lyJ !^ B^s>j yiji And he was beloved 
by all his subjects, and by the men of 
his army. S&ngat-lah aadil dan mArah 
tangan-nya ka-pd.da segala hamba sahya- 
nya dan raayat bala-tentra-nya dan ka- 
pada segala dagang sentri, J^^ d)La£>L«o 

He was very just, and his hand was 
merciful upon all his slaves and servants, 
and upon his subjects and fighting-men, 
and upon all the foreigners and traders. 
OhAkup lengkap dengan lashkar hMu- 
bftlang raayat b&la-tentra-nya, 4-if 

equipped with an army, warriors, sub- 
jects, and private soldiers. (See Bala, 
Jl| Common people, etc.) 

B^lau,yLj The name of a tree the timber 
of which is used for making masts; 



DipterocoA-pea. Note : The following 
varieties are distinguished by Malays : — 
Balau batu, y Ij ^ l^ Balau bAnga, l^^ ^ Ij 

and Balau telor, j^ ^ ^ Note : The term 

Hembrdau, ^ L*^ is also met with, but in 

colloquial Malay its use is uncommon. 

Balau, yU and Mem-balau, ^U^-* To pare 
off, as the thorns off a Mii-an, or the 
husk off a coconut. Chftba balau dAri-an 
itu jadi senang sedikit di-bawa',y Ij <T^ ^ - rv . 

*l^bj 5^j^ ^jL-^ s?"^^ '•^ oi>->^ Pare 
off the thorns of that duri-an^ so as to 
make it easier to carry. Note: In 
Perak they always say Malau, yU or 
Me-malau, ^ U^ The terms GAbal, J?/ 

Meng-gdbal, Jj^^ are also used in this 


Balebar, j.:^ The name of a kind of 

Baledang, ^J^ Balfidang seperti ayer di- 
tapis atau seperti peng-hMu raayat, Sj^ 

afS>j J^i^i syu y) j-M-siU^ ^1 &jiL> To 

shine like filtered water or a leader of 
men. Note : In Perak Me-lMang, p^uU 

is always used in this sense, and it 
means to attract attention, to move with 
a swagger " like one in authority." 

Baiek, ^U To come back, to go back, to 
return, to retire, to withdraw, to turn, 
to reverse, to turn to the other side; 
behind, beyond, the reverse side, ^the 
other side; back, back again, again. Aiu- 
hai mamak Bendahara mana-tah orang 
iang mati itu ter-hidup balek, ^U ^q^>l' 

Father Bendahara, how can those who 
are dead come back to life ? Maka peldru 
dan Abat bedil itu pun balek ka-pada 
tangan-nya, ^^^' Ji^ ^^1 ^^^ ^j^ ^-^^ 
^IJ ^ ^^\i The bullets and the gun- 
powder came back into his hand. Maka 
petra itu pun ka-lftar deri-dalam kan- 
dong-an bonda-nya lalu jatoh ka-tanah 
sampei ka-batu hampar s'ketika lennyap 
di-d?ilam tanah itu maka ka-lAar balek 
di-mftntah-kan Alih bflmi ter-letak di- 
bawah pe-lembah-an astana, 1^ c^i — • 

^^ J^l o^r*^ St^^ J^^ "^^ ^ ^^ 

^U^l ^JJ^-^J^ &^k^ S^j^ The royal infant 
came forth from its mother's womb and 

• ♦"»• 

Balek, ^\i 

fell to the ground, penetrating even unto 
the bed-rock, and for a moment dis- 
appeared in the earth, but it came back 
again, being belched forth by the earth, 
and was left lying underneath the floor- 
ing of the palace. Maka Si Jebat pun 
balek naik ka-astana pfda dftdok makan 
minum ber-sftka-sAka-an ber-senda ber- 
gftrau dengan segala dayang-dayang 
astana iang tAjoh ratus orang itu, 

o^^jt)/^ '-^^^^ c)'^>^ '^j^y^ c*-^ s^^ 

^' tj^^ u-^b ^yH e)^' t^^^'^ J^ Then 
Si Jebat went back into the palace, and 
sat there eating and drinking, laughing, 
jesting, and romping with the seven hun- 
dred damsels and women of the palace. 
Ada-lah hal pe-langkah patek deri-pada 
rAmah pStek di-hftlu negri ini pada pe- 
rasa-an patek shAkor jftga akan ber-balek 
pMang, d^jj JJ^J ^^0*^ ^^^ J-e=^ <3JI Jl 

^y ^ ^y. cT^' *^y^ ^y^ The omens 
which accompanied thy slaves' depar- 
ture from their houses in the interior 
were such as to cause them to feel that 
it would be a matter of difl&culty for 
them to go back home again. Maka ia 
pun men-chita-chita ka-pada pedang- 
ny a iang patah itu, * Jika sfinggoh angkau 
sama-sama men-jadi dengan aku balek- 
lah seperti sedia-kala,' t'^^^^ O-^' ^"^^ 
X^\^/^\ iSis>y^ csAe, ail <sJU ^ ^lj^ jJiS 
Jl5siJw^ syu A)JLs3b ^\ ^j v^Jl^^ Then 

he made known his desire to his broken 
sword, saying, * If verily thou camest 
into the world together with me, return 
to your former condition.' Maka Mta 
Hang Tflah, ' Jika ada kasih Peng-hMu 
akan hamba ka-lima ber-sudara ini hamba 
handak balek-lah ka-Bentan,' eol^ ctA — « 

^^^ dk&Jlj JJJa^ S-*^ O-i' ^'^>^^ 

Then said Hang Tdah, *If thou, Chief, 
bearest love unto thy servants, who are 
all five related one to another, they 
desire to return to Ben tan.' Maka 
ahlun-nujum itu pun ber-mohun pMang 

balek ka-rftmah-nya, ^^y^' i%«J^l ^ — • 

^^i:f <5^^ t^y^ ^^y^y^ The astrono- 
mers thereupon craved permission to 
return to their homes. Maka prahu itu 
pun Andor balek ka-tengah, ^ly csA— ^ 
^^^ ^5^"^ ^^^' O^^ The boat then 


Bfilek, ^li 

retired to the middle (i.e., of the ocean). 
Mdka ia-pun baiek ka-bldkang, ^) c^U^ 

^kS ^li ^^y He turned back. Balek 
kembali, ^ Ih^ ^5<>3 1} To turn back again, 
to turn once more, to return once more. 
Maka sekelian dAdok meng-intei di-balek 

dapor, ^IjJ sT'''**^ ^"^^"^ cJ«*^*^ *-^^^-^ 
j^\^ They all sat peeping out from be- 
hind the fireplace. M8,ka apa-bila ber- 
j&lan Brahmana itu ter-lindong ka-balek 
hCltan itu, ^^U5>^ vU^W^^ J^' "^ — * 
*«^' cjf^^ S^^ h'^J^ "^' '^ow when 
the Brahman had gone forward and was 
hidden behind that patch of jungle. 
Maka ter-dengar bAnyi k6ko' ayam balek 

tanjong itu, ^*J ^1 ^// ^,>j ^oy *s\^ 
ca^l ^^^ The sound of the cock's crow 
was audible beyond the next bend in the 
river. Maka ia pun sampei-lah balek 
ka-kapal-nya lalu di-sAroh bongkar sauh 
itu, ys ^Kf ^b ^Uu^ ^y ^^1 vsA^-^ 
iil es^Lo j^^ 5j(^ J He arrived back at 
the ship and ordered the anchor to be 
weighed. Ia pun terjun meng-ambil 
tiang layar itu s'telah d&pat di-kena-kan 
bilek ter-lebih filok deri-pada lama dan 
ter-lebih chendaiam deri-pada mftla, v^l 

AJy ^la j»3 JJ;pJ J^l dJjS ^\i ^L^J 
J^ JlJjO i%jit^^^j^ He plunged in and 
fetched the mast, and when he had got 
it he fixed it back again, so that it was 
more beautiful than before, and more 
striking than it had been in the begin- 
ning. L&lu di-kemas balek seperti per- 
bilat-an TAan Petri jftga s'hel6 benang 

tiada ber-Abah, J\ji^ SjL^ ^^Jb ^j^^^i 
d|^)^ ^IftJ ^ ,J^ ^y^ K^y^ o'y "^^^^ 
he packed it back again exactly as the 
Princess had done, so that not a single 
thread was changed. Maka batang pAlei 
itu-pun ter-bAka sendiri-nya maka di- 
masok-kan segala barang-b&rang-nya ka- 
dlllam batang pftlei maka ter-tfttup billek, 

^l| «^yyf Then the trunk of the 
alstonia scholaris tree opened of itself, 
and he put all his things inside it, and 
then it shut back again. M&ka di-tetap- 
kan b&lek ayah bonda-nya di-atas tahta 
ka-r^ja-an negri itu, djtl ^Ij ^:5^^*^ ^^^ 

«^' s?-^ O*^'/ ^"-^ u^'^ *£>''^ ^® 

Baiek, ^l; 

re-established (put back again) his father 
and mother on the throne of the country. 
M^ka Tftan Petri pun ter-l&lu sftka-nya 
mem-andang ayah-nya sudah hidup b&lek 

bagai sedia-kala, ^^^ ^^>* ^j^ o^y ^ 

jK^jcu) The Princess was exceedingly 

delighted at seeing her father alive again, 
just as he had formerly been. Jangan 
perchaya ^kan per-k&ta-an-nya itu asal 
di-balek blslkang lain-lah bichara-nya, 
^Ijj J^l «^J ^*U^y ^1 ^\^jh ^^[^ 
^Vjl^ dLqiJ ^^ Do not believe what he 

says : when once he leaves here he will 
tell a different tale. Tiada sempat bS,lek 
hari, i^j^ ^^k ^^i-*-© ^LJ There is not 
time to go and return in one day. Balek- 
kan, ^j5^&«31j To turn over; to turn upside 
down. Bdiek-kan balak, ^b ^j/XJb To 
turn a log over. Balek-kan peti itu 
sepaya tMong-nya lepas ka-atas, ^^^^U 
^^\^ ^j.^ ^jy ^\iL^ «^l ^ Turn 

that box over, so that the lid may be 

uppermost. Ada-kah tftan tahu akan 
per-kata-an-nya ber-balek, y>lJ ^ly dS'lJl 

^Ij^ ^*b:^y ^/' Did you understand 
that he meant the reverse of what he 
said? Ter-balek, ^l^y Upset, over- 
turned; wrong side up; inside out. 
Maka prfthu pun ter-balek, ^^y y ly <-sX* 
^Ijy The boat was capsized. Mem- 
akai baju ter-balek, ^l^y ^Ij sS^^ ^^ 
wear a coat turned inside out. Balek- 
i^ya, ,^fiJlj The back; the reverse side of 

anything; the converse of a proposition. 
Chakap ber-balek-balek, vjj^y, ^^^ 
To repeat oneself over and over again. 
Pohun daun balek adap, ^5Jli ^^lo ^y 

<^^\ The Mussaenda pondosa^ a tree the 
leaves of which are white on the reverse 
side. These leaves turn over in the 
sunlight, and at a distance have the 
appearance of white blossoms. Pohun 
daun balek angin, ^\ ^Ij ^^|j ^y 

The Mappa gervanica^ a larger tree which 
has the same peculiarity. Ayam bftlu 
balek, ^ b ^y ^I The name given to a 

peculiar species of fowl, which presents 
the appearance of having its feathers 
aU set the wrong way. Bhasa balek, 
S^^ ^Wi A way of talking to conceal 
what is said from bystanders by re- 
versing the syllables : — ^thus, M&ri be- 


BftK, JU 

comes Btma^ N&si is Stna, and M&kan is 
K&man. Note : In the colloquial dialects 
of Kelantan and Petani the word B&lek, 
^li is contracted into Klek, ^jjl^ 

Blili, JL^ Disturbance, uproar, trouble, 
tumult. Note : This word is only used 
in the expression H&li-bali, ij^ ij^ 
Disturbance, etc. 

Kaffi.rat Mlu ka-niaaripat-nya 
Pd,tah tiinjang si-m&li-m&li 
Ku-tArut IWu p&da tempat-nya 
£!ntah*kan &pa hali dan bali, 

t*^U • ^yJ dJLi 

Infidelity passes to perfect knowledge. 
The stumps of the Leea aambucina are 
broken. I will follow it to the place 
where it dwells, though I know not 
what trouble may result. 

Ball, ^U The name of an island situated 

east of the eastern extremity of Java, 
and between that island and Lombok, 
Note : The people of this island profess 
a religion which is a corrupt form of 
Hinduism, and it is here the mystic 
Kdici language has been preserved in its 
greatest purity. For accounts of this 
island see Raffles' History of Java, Vol. 
ii.. Appendix JST, and Journal of the 
Indian Archipelago, Vol. iii., pp. 117, 
119 and 235, 1st Series. Kain Mat-an 
BMi, J\i J)ji ^l? A cloth of Bali manu- 
facture. Note : This term is usually 
applied to a sort of striped cloth said to 
be made in this island. 

B&lia, Hind., LJ^ Fresh, youthful, young. 

Baliah, Ab., <sl^ or ^ Proof; a trial, a 

Baltia, Jav., !kfX4 Injurious words; to 
create a disturbance, to make an uproar. 
Note: This word is not in use in the 
Malay Peninsula. 

B&ling, ^\^ To throw, to fling, to throw 
with a sling. Bslling-b&ling, t*^^ A 
missile; a stone flung from a sling. Ti&da 
sempat me-16mpat kar&na ter-l^lu dras 
d£ltang*nya seperti b&ling-b&ling, %^L^ 

&jIl^ ^^^^ l}^j*^ Jt'^J^ i^J^ ^j^*^y^'^ i !u^ ^ ^ 

B&lirh, ^U 

Y^ ^ He had not sufficient time to avoid 

it by leaping, because it came with ex- 
ceeding swiftness, like unto a stone from 
a sling. Kar&na tikam Si Jebat itu ttkam 
6rang br^i ter*l&lu dras d4tang-nya 
seperti b&ling-b&ling, JU' ^^^^a^ (^ ^^^ 
r^ll «yu ^J ^j^ pjS ^»^ ij^) ^ 

For the stab of Si Jebat is the stab 
delivered by a brave man coming with 
exceeding speed, like a missUe from a 

Billing, ^L^ Perpetual revolution, on the 
same centre, of an object which forms a 
radius of the circle (e.g., as the revolution 
of the arms of a windmill) ; perpetual 
revolution. B61ang-b&ling, ^l| ^^ An 

instrument set on the top of a house, or 
in some other exposed place, which, 
when the wind blows, revolves and gives 
forth a loud discordant noise ; a weather- 
cock. PelAru bdlang-bfiling, ^j^ JuA^ 
At^lj Chain-shot. Baling-b&liug, YAt^^ 
A revolving weathercock; a weather- 

Bill ing- baling, VAy)U A missile; a stone 
flung from a slmg; a sling. (See B&ling, 
To throw, etc.) 

Baling- baling, V^U A weather-cock; a 
revolving weather-cock ; an instrument 
which, set in some exposed place, revolves 
in the wind, and gives forth a loud dis- 
cordant noise. Note : The form B61ang- 
bdling, ^ij ^jj is also met with. (See 

Baling, ^ li Perpetual revolution, .etc.) 

Balingkong, ^^^ A long sword or chop- 
ping knife, which is said to have formerly 
been a favourite weapon with Malay 
pirates. (See Blingkong, ^<iJ^). 

BHIirh, ^L^ Puberty, the age of puberty; 

marriageable, adult, of age ; arrived at 
the age of discretion. Aakal bMirh jLo 

^l| Puberty; the age of puberty or 
discretion. Also Aakil balirh, ^\^ J«^ 
Ada-pun ish&rat b&lirh itu tiga pek&ra 
su&tu dengan genap umor-nya limarblas 
t&hun ka-dda dengan &da ha'ith ka-tiga 
&da khatalam herti-nya mttnpi &da 
tflmboh htibi ari-&ri~nya itu pun belum 
maat&mad itu-lah aald^mat b&lirh, ^yl^l 
i^JuS ^J S\j^j\SL^ i-J^ «Hil ^li JfljAl 

j) ^^ \^ ^b ^j^ ^ ^J4^ 


Balkfls, ^jJl^ 

j^ji ^^-•y ^^ ^gW^ ^j^ f^^ ^1 
aJIj auXo dlai) Jojtiu* j^y^ ^ybql ^^l*v^^l The 

signs of puberty are three in number: 
firiBt, when the age of fifteen is reached ; 
secondly, when the menses have com- 
menced; thirdly, khatalam^ which means 
impure dreams; the growth of hair 
about the lower part of the stomach is 
not necessarily a sign of puberty being 
reached ; such are the sig^s of puberty. 
Ada*pun jik&lau &da baka-nya itu besar 
ia-itu aakal b&lirh, ^\^\i i^iy<^ o^'"^' 
^kj Jfto ij\i y^ 4»^l If any of her des- 
cendants are full-grown, that is to say, 
have arrived at the age of discretion, 
K&nak-k&nak iang belum b&lirh, )f^\^ 
^\^ r>Mi Children who have not yet 
arrived at years of discretion. Ada-pun 
b&lirh iang kechil ia-itu iang belum l&gi 
baiirh, ^J f^ l^\i J,,^ ^li ^^U\ 

^ 1^ The lesser age, namely the age prior 
to the arrival at the age of puberty. 

Balkas, ^^^ A large knitted bag. Pij. 

Balkie, Aa.» ^j^^ The name of Solomon's 

BHIoh, Aj3U The frame of a drum. Baloh 
gendang, £Ju^ &^\^ The frame of the 
long Malay tom-tom or drum. B&loh 
rebana, ^J^^J &^k The frame of the Malay 
drum, which in shape resembles a large 
tambourine. Note : The frames of Malay 
drums are usually made of one of the 
following woods : Nangka, \^ Aiiocar- 
pus; Merbau, j^j^ Intsia amboinensis ; 
Medang ty^ Phcebe sp.; Nylor jj^ Oocos 
wtxct/era; Klfidang, ^J«J^ Serdang, 4Jj--o 
and Changhai, ^^^ 

Bllloh, es^Lj Armour. 

BUlok, ^^U The name of a kind of sailing- 
boat which is used alike at sea and on 
the rivers, and which can carry a large 
cargo. Note: Pijnappel remarks that 
though these vessels were once common, 
they are now seldom seen. These vessels 
are said to have no load-line. Fasal 
pada me-nyftta-kan hukum Shahbandar 
itu ia-itu meng - hukum - kan seg&la 
dagang dan &nak i&tim dan segtlla iang 
ter-ani&ya dan aadat seglLla jdng dan 
bMok dan b&rang-s'bdgai-nya itu^ J^a^ 

BWong, ^yii 

t?^ c>'^ jy^ c)'^ t^ jf^ *^^ ii>'^ 

ijt^) ^\^^ A section defining the laws 
concerning the Shah-bandar; i.6., he shall 
decide all cases relating to foreigners 
and orphans, and to all who are suffering 
from oppression, and all matters con- 
cerning the customs which relate to 
junks and sailing-ships, and all matters 
of that sort. 

Baiok, ^U or Mem-balok, ^l^ To 

* string' for choice of position at the 
game called Main biiah kras, esl^ ^U 

^^ Note : This is done in the follow- 
ing manner. The two nuts which are 
to be pitted one against the other are 
thrown on to an inclined plane until one 
ceases motion in an upright position, 
while its fellow lies over on its side. 
The owner of the former then has choice 
of position. See Note on this game under 
BAah, &)ji A fruit. 

Bilok, ^U A log, a beam* (See B&lak, 

^l| which is the form invariably used 

in the Peninsula. Pijnappel derives this 
word from the Dutch Balk.) 

Bilong, ^yii The comb of a cock. Balong 
llyam di-krat Mih ju&ra-nya, &jS^ ^1 &^\^ 
^1;!^ d)^l The combs of fighting-cocks 
are cut off by their keepers. Balong 
&yam, ^' ^^ li A cook's comb ; the name 
of a flower, Gelosm aetata. Balong 
s'rdga, c-?!^ ^yi^ A full crest, a full 

cock's comb — ht.^ a bsisket full of combs. 
Baiong kAlit, aj/ ^y li A double fold of 

bark; two thicknesses of skin or bark. 
Bagai-mfina pohun ta' tftmbang di-p&nah 
halilintar sebab belong killit ftda di- 
b&tang-nya, ^3Uj ^^y *LJ ^^y ^L*.-^ 

How should a tree be prevented from 
falling when sta^uck by a thunderbolt? 
By reason of two thicknesses of bark 
upon its trunk. Note: Malays, more- 
especially those interested in cook-fight- 
ing, distinguish between five different 
kinds of combs. Bcllong bsltu, ylj &^\^ 
A very small comb, which is unaccom- 
panied by gills. Bsllong limau s'Mas, ^^ b 

^jSi^ j4^ A single thick round comb. 

BMong merga, cJy» ^^U or B&long 

morga, cJJ^ ^ l| A rose comb. B&long 

s'Upis, ^^ ^^\i A long thin single 


Balong-bidei, ^gJ^ ^yi| 

comb, such as are borne by jungle-cocks. 
Bfilong sirih s'Mpor, jilsLo ^j^g^ syij A 
comb formed by three separate growths, 
of which the centre one is the longest. 

Balong-btdei, ^^j-jJ ^^U The name of an 

evil spirit supposed to live in rivers and 
to have the form of an open mat which 
envelops and drowns its victims. 

Baler, yU To flog, to chastise, to beat; 
chastisement, flogging, a thrashing. Jika 
di-pAkul balor sedikit, ^Ij Js:yj c^JL^ 
3^sX^ If he be slightly chastised. Kena 
balor, ^l) U-^ To be flogged. Bftlor 
r6tan d{la-blas liang, aJ ^^J^ I^o ^j^^ ^Lj 

Flogged with twelve strokes of a rattan. 
(See also Balan, ^^^U To flog, and for 
other words signifying *To beat,' etc., 
see Note under Behan, ^li). 

Balor, j3U Flesh-meat of any kind which 

has been jerked in the sun ; meat dried 
in the sun; the untanned hide of an 
animal. B&lor kerbau, ^^ j3 L^ Buffalo 

beef which has been dried in the sun. 
Note : In Kedah and some other parts 
of the Peninsula jerked meat is called 
Daging tapa, ^iJ ^lj In P^rak the 

term Bftari, ^g;'^ is generally used, and 

in Johor, Binding, M^^ 

Bill or, J^\i Discoloured; a dirty sort of 
white. Kerbau balor, j3lj y^^ What is 

called the white or red buffalo. Kaki 
tangan-nya sudah balor, eswU© ,^jxi>l5 -^l^ 
yij His hands and feet have turned 

Balor, yU The track or wake left by a 
ship or sailing-boat. Besar 6mbak di- 
balor kapal api, ^1 Jil^ ^bj ^5-!<?' j^ 
The waves in the track caused by a 
steamer are large. 

Balor, Pers.,^^ Eock-crystal. 

Bat r ham, ^ Phlegm. (Often pronounced 
Balarham.) Pij. 

Bilu, y b An orphan ; one who has no rela- 
tions ; a widow ; a widower. Balu laki- 
laki, V^^ ^^ A widower. Orang betina 

balu, y b ^ ^j^] A widow. Jikalau balu 
ti&da baka bapa-nya dan n^nek-nya, 
J^ o'^ ^^^ ^^ jLiyi^yX^^ If she is an 
orphan, who has no relatives descended 
from her father or grandfather. Balus 

Balun, ^^U 

dan balu, ^k ^b ^L^ Childless and 

widowed; bereft alike of children and 

Balu,yU Used to describe an old log of 
wood or fallen tree of which the timber 
is still sound. This word is also used to 
describe the conduct of any one who, in 
spite of all efforts to reform him, remains 
unchanged. The idea is no doubt the 
same in both cases, and implies stubborn 
resistance to the effects of atmosphere 
in the case of the wood and to advice or 
chastisement in that of the individual. 

Bat u art i. Port., ^j^ A bulwark. 

Balui, ^^U To play in such a way that 
one's adversary must lose ; to force the 
luck ; to cheat at a game. 

B&lun, ^^^U To flog, to chastise, to beat. 
Maka di-hukum-kan si-p61an itu kena 
balun dengan dfta-blas liang rotan, <^Aw. 

^jj k^ He sentenced that individual to 

be flogged with twelve strokes of the 
rattan. JAhi di-krat sftsu-nya serta di- 
bAang-kan-nya ka-lAar negri dan istri 
Brahmana itu di-sftroh-nya b&,lun segala 
tftboh-nya dengan batang padi kring lalu 
di-tftang-i minyak di-sfiroh-nya bakar, 

^^ ^Jy^"^ Then they cut off her breasts 
and exiled her from the country, and 
the Brahman's wife they also ordered to 
be flogged with dry rice straw, and then 
to have oil poured over her and to be 
set on fire. lang salah mslti di-sftroh 
bdnoh iang ber-d6sa di-p{lkul di-balun 

*-0^ ^y ^ "^ Those who were guilty of a 
capital offence, he ordered to be killed, 
and those whose crimes deserved the 
punishment of whipping, he ordered to 
be flogged. Bedal dan bfi^lun, ^^'*^ Jj^ 
^yb To drub and flog. Naga b&lun, 
^yij t-JlJ The name of an evil spirit 
which is supposed by Malays to convey 
disease. Naga balun is also the name of 
a very tough grass that grows equally 
well on sand-banks or under water. It is 
a great trouble to persons fishing with 
casting-nets. (See Note under BS.han, 


Balim, ^j^^U 

Balun, ^^^U To roll up, as a mat or a 
cigarette. Note : The word Gfllong, ^^ 
To roll up, etc., is more commonly used 

in this connection. 

"■^1 c)-^'^ ^^ recover consciousness; to 
come to oneself from a state of uncon- 
sciousness, fit, seizure, or possession. 
Note: This word is not in use among 
the natives of the Malay Peninsula. 

Balus, ^jJU Barren; having no children. 
Balus dan balu, ^l^ ^\^ J^U Childless 
and widowed; bereft alike of children 
and spouse. (See also Mandul, J^Xs^ 
Barren, childless, etc.) 

Balut, 5^1^ To wrap up, to wrap round, 
to swathe, to bandage ; a bandage, a 
wrap. Jari iang ter-lAka itu di-balut 
dengan kaiQ pAteh, «t-^l ^^jsJ^i v^^Le^ 
d-Jy ^l^ ^6 sybo He bandaged his 
wounded finger with white linen. Balut 
dengan kain barut-an , ^J^j^ ^l^ ^J &j3l^ 
To wrap in a broad waist-cloth Balut- 
kan, ^j^yU To wrap up, etc. Jika 
angkau sAnggoh hati handak mem-bunoh 
aku pergi-lah angkau ambil kain balut- 
kan badan aku maka ikat tegoh-tegoh 
sudah itu tAang dengan minyak maka 
angkau bakar-lah neschaya aku m&ti 
dan hanchor sekelian hati-ku, tsA &, 

u^i c^ /I ^jg ^Jh, ^\^ jU' y^i 

«^\aJljb If truly ye wish to slay me, 
go take some cloth and wrap my body 
up in it, and fasten it tightly; then 
pour oil over it, and burn it ; then for a 
certainty shall I die and my heart be 
reduced to dust. Balut-an, JJ^U A 
bandage, a wrap. Maka sogra di-iirei- 
nya balut lAka Hang Jebat itu dami 
kain balut-an itu ter-Arei maka darah 
pun meny-embar ka-mAka-nya, \Jiji ^^ 

^\^^ y^^^ ^y 5;b c^v v^^^ly h^ Then 

speedily did he unbind the bandages 
from Hang Jebat's wound, and when 
the bandages were unbound the blood 
spirted up into his face. 

BUlut, £pLj To swell; swollen (as the 
eyes from weeping). Scrta kata-nya, 
' Diam-lah tAan jfilngan sangat men-angis 
s&yang m&ta iang manis men-jadi balut I 

Bambu, Jav.,^^ 

dan suara iang merdu men-jadi pS,rau 
dan rambut iang selesei men-jadi kAsut,' 

i-^y v^jIs^.^ And he said, * Peace, 
Princess ! Weep not so bitterly ! It were 
a pity that thy sweet eyes should become 
swollen, and that thy melodious voice 
should become discordant, and that thy 
braided locks should become tangled!' 
Mata-nya balut bekas men-angis, ^^bu^ 
^j.^L/. ^j^ 5j3b Her eyes were puffed 
with traces of weeping. 

Balut, Ar., iyU The oak. 

Balut- balut, ^s>^U A kind of fish-trap, 
made with a bent cane which springs 
up when the bait attached to it is taken, 
and carries the fish with it. Note : This 
term is used in Perak. In many parts 
of the Peninsula it is termed Jut, &y^ 
See Note under Bemban, ^^^^ A fish- 

Bam, ^ 07* j»b The cross-beam of a rudder; 
the spars of a mast of a native vessel ; 
a cross-beam. 

Bam, Ar., ^ Bass; deep-voiced; deep of 

soimd. Note: This word is more espe- 
cially used in reference to the drum 
called G^ndang, Sjo? which has two faces, 

one of which gives forth a much deeper 
sound than the other. 

Bam bang, ^^ Beautiful, resplendent, 

striking, that shines out. (Often used 
of the moon.) Bdlan ter-bambang, ^^ 
^-f-«^y The beautiful glittering moOn. 
BMan tengah men-ambang, A^♦Ju• dJJ ^^ 
The moon is rising in its effulgence. 

Bambang-an, ^Jl^ A species of salt-water 

Bambu, Jav., j^. The bamboo, Arundo 
bambos. Note : The proper Malay words 
for a bamboo are Bdloh, &^y, , which is 
the generic^ name for all species of bam- 
boo, and Aur, j^\ , which is a generic 
name for a certain class of bamboos. The 
word Bambu, ^^ is only understood by 
Javanese and in a few places, such as 
parts of the Straits Settlements where 
European influence has been much felt. 
Its use is to be avoided. In Acheen the 


Bambu is a measure of capacity equal 
to 3 lbs. 10 oz. av. In Bencoolen it is 
equal to a gallon. 

Bftmi, ^U The name of a kind of maca- 
roni. (See Laksa, u^)- 

Ban, Pees., ^L^ Overseer, superintendent. 

Bana, ^U A tidal wave. (See Bena, U-j 
which is the more correct form.) 

BSnan, ^l^ Well beaten, thrashed, drubbed. 

BSnang, ^Ij Large of its kind. Note: This 
word is only used in the following con- 
nections : DAku bS^nang, ^ l| ^^ J A. large 
species of the Lansium domesticv/m. 
PAput b&nang, ^li ^^ The name of a 
large species of the salt-water fish called 
PAput, ii^ and Slput b3.nang, S ^ .^ — o 
^b The name of a large edible shell- 
fish. Note : Compare the use of the word 
Betong, 4yb 

Banang, ^L^ The name of a plant, Jusbica 

Bllnar, ^U Shining, brilliant, bright. 
Note: This word, for the most part, is 
only met with in the phrase Sinar banar, 
jJ l^ y.fg^ Very brilliant, etc. L&ku-nya ber- 
sinar b&nar seperti gandum m8,kan ftyer 
chahaya tAboh dengan chah&ya mAka- 

i£>^r* s?W c)^^ ^y s?W His actions 
were brilliant as corn dipped in water, 
by reason of the shining of his body and 

B&nat, ^Ij Desolate, remote. Hfltan iang 
lepas rimba iang b&nat, s-W^ ^j^ ^ ^y^ 
iilj ^ The boundless, the desolate 
forest. Meng-embara ka-dfi,lam rimba 
iang b8,nat, iil| ^ s-W^ ^1«^ ^M-^ 
To cast oneself away into the desolate 

Binat, Pebs., 2L3Lj The name of a fine 
woollen stuff. 

BSnat, Ji^Lj To beat, to drub, to thrash. 

Banchang, ^^ To chat, to converse, to 

talk familiarly, to talk about, to gossip. 
Bh&ru kita ber-banchang sehaja belum 
di-bechara-kan dengan s'benar-nya, ^j^ 

As yet we have merely spoken about it 
in casual conversation : we have not yet 

Banchohi &y^ 

discussed it seriously. Ber-banchang- 
lah ia dengan 6rang B&tang K&pas, 
^^^l^ ^l| ^^^1 ^j ^\ alJ^^ He con- 
versed with a man from B&tang Kd.pas. 
Banchang-banchang, t*^^ Chit-chat, 
gossip, casual conversation, (See Bdal, 
Jl^ To chat, etc.) 

Banchang, ^^ amZMem-banchang,^^^.^^ 
To hinder, to prevent. 

Banchi, ^e^ To count, to add up, to 
enumerate ; a census ; an arithmetical 
calculation ; an enumeration ; a poll-tax 
to which, under Malay rale, every cir- 
cumcised male is liable. Note: In the 
Independent Malay States the word 
Banchi, ^^^ is almost exclusively used 
to express the census which it is the 
custom of the U&ja and of the Great 
Chiefs to take with a view to imposing 
a poll-tax. The census and tax thus 
taken by order of the ruler of the 
country is called Banchi r&ja, ^^ ^^^ 

the sum paid by each adult male being 
usually one dmas. The census taken by 
the Chief of a district is called Banchi 
6rang besar, ^ ^j^\ ^^^ The tax 

imposed by the Chiefs is usually one 
half that collected at a Banchi r&ja, 
sb cs^ M&ka di-banchi-kan b8,nyak- 
nya tiijoh rfi^tus drang, ^^^X^^a tsX_^ 

$>^l ,j-Jfb ^y^ J^^ He counted their 
number, which was seven hundred men. 
Kena banchi, ^e^ U^ To be called upon 
to pay the census or poll-tax. Di-s6roh 
banchi seg8.1a isi negri, J^ ^^^ f^j^^ 
y^^ ^e^l He ordered a census oi all 

the inhabitants of the country (i.«., he 
imposed a poll-tax upon them). Banchi- 
banchi, t'^e^ Sums in addition; statis- 
tical lists of population. Aadat banchi, 
^e^ &^\s> The customs relating to the 
collection of the poll-tax. 

Banchi, ^^^ An adze. 

Banchi, ^^^ An hermaphrodite. (See 
also Khunsha, ^ aj A i Papak, ^U and 
Sangkan, ^^i^)> 

Banchoh, &y^ To shuffle (as cards); to 
mix one with another, to mix together. 
Awak-lah mem-banchoh s'kali ini, ^\j^\ 

^1 ^IC^ es^^^..^*^ It is for you to shuffle 
this time. K6pok, y^ is more com- 
monly used to shuffle cards, and Banchoh, 
^^^ to stir together, to mix. 


Bandala, Port., JIjj^^ 

Bandila, Pobt., J<o^ A bale of goods. 
Note: The forms Bandela, SJo^ and 
Mand.&Ia, J'J^j^ are also met with. 

Ban dan, ^Jul^ Metal- work, brass- work, 
things wrought in metals. 

Bandang, fyj^ The name of a fish which 
is found both in fresh and salt water. 

Bandang, ^^ A rocking, swinging, or 
swajing motion. 

Bandar, Pees., ^j^ A town, a market 

town, a trading centre. M&,ka Bftkit 
Segiintang itu jadi bandar besar-lah ter- 
l&lur&mai, i^^\^^ «:^l ^j^ ^^ «^^ 
cs^b ^^J ^J^ >^ Biikit Segflntang 
became a very great and exceedingly 
populous town. Ter-sftrat di-dalam 
bandar Singapiira p&da 3 hari-bMan 
Sh&wal tahun 1303, j^ ^IJJ hj^jJ 

Written in the town of Singapore on 
the 3rd day of the month of Shawal in 
the year 1303. Bahwa sArat ini di-per- 
bAat di-d£dam bandar Pekan negri 
Pahang, j.y^ ^ba Sl^yj ^1 Bjj^ 1^^ 
L^ s?y^ O^ ^^^^ document is drawn 
up in the town of Pekan in the country 
of Pahang. Bandar bharu,^^ j^ A 
new town. Bandar l&ma, |»S j^ An old 
town- Bandar tengah men-jftdi, M jJ^ 

^^\^^ A town is springing up. Shah- 
bandar, ^OoLj^ A mayor of the palace ; 
the Chief who is in charge of the town 
or district in which the raja's court 
is situated. Pasal pMa me-nyata-kan 
hukum shah-bandar itu ia-itu meng- 
hukum-kan segala dUgang dan anak 
i&tim dan seglla iang ter-aniaya dan 
aadat segftla jong dan balok dan barang- 
«'b4gai-nya itu, > v-t.» f A> ^%<fe. c5^^ "^ J^ 

u:^l ^Ir-* ^j^ o'"^ i3^^ ^ section 
defining the laws concerning the Shah- 
handa/r — i.e., he shall decide all cases 
relating to foreigners and orphans, and 
to all who are sufEering from oppression, 
and all matters concerning the customs 
which relate to junks and sailing-ships, 
and all matters of that sort. Note : This 
('hief usually ranks first of the four 
(/hiefs (Orang besar ampat, 56^1 ^ ^^^1) 
who are the principal nobles in most 

Banding, ^Jo^ 

Malay kingdoms, and, according to the 
ancient customs, none of these Chiefs 
could approach the Sultan, ^^UaL© without 
being introduced to the presence by the 
Shah-bandar, ^wU^^ft» In Pahang the 
Shah-bandar, ^Juug^ had the privilege 
of putting to death by the h^ in the 
manner called Sdlang, ^L^ by the 
Malays. In P6rak the Shah-bandar is 
not one of the four principal Chiefs : he 
is one of the Orang besar di-ldpan, $y) 
^3 J j^ the eight Chiefs, and amongst 

them he only ranks sixth. In colloquial 
Malay the title of Shah-bandar, ^Jju,.^ 
is usually contracted into Dato' bandar, 
^juL^ yJl J or To* bandar, ^Ju^ •y Kawan 

bandar, ^Ju^i ^j^^l^ The underlings of the 
Shah-bandar, ^Jsjl;.^. 

Bandarsah, Pees., d^^j^ A school. (See 
Mandarsah, a^^^Juu. A school, etc.) 

Bandgia, Port., Sju^ A bale of goods. (See 
Bandala, JIJol^). 

B&nddra, Port., \jiXf^ A flag, a standard, 
an ensign, colours. (See Bendfira, l^wU^). 

BandSrang, ^^^u^ A long spear orna- 
mented with plumes of horse-hair, which 
is carried before Malay rajas on State 

BandTa, Port., Ujuu^ A salver, a waiter, 
a tray. 

Banding, ^Jol^ To compare; to form a 

judgment or comparison as to the rival 
merits of different objects ; to appre- 
ciate the relative values of different 
objects ; a comparison ; that which is 
capable of comparison with any other 
object; that which is equal in value, 
beauty, etc., etc., to some other object 
with which it is compared. K&mi ta' 
pandei handak banding-kan, *lJ ^\i 

^^^^ ^^yf^ %^y^ I am unable to com- 
pare them. Banding pr^hu iang Akan 
ber-lAmba, s--^jJ^ ^^k y^'y ^J^ To 
form a judgment as to the rival merits 
. of boats which are about to race. Ti8,da- 
lah dslpat di-banding, ^J^J l^\^ d)ljL^ 

It cannot be compared with anything 
else. Maka ia pun dCldok mem-banding- 
kan &yam di-h&dap Mih auak 
raja-r&ja,j%jl) ^J.^^- jj^j ^^I csA — * 
t*gl; ^\ JC* aJjl cJ Jlibj He sat comparing 
the fighting-cocks, with all the princes 


Bandong, ^>J^ 

grouped about him. Abang-ku tiada ka- 
tara-an abang-ku tiada ka-banding-an, 
^.u^ jL^ .^1 ^^)j\x^ jLj csALjI My 
lover has no equal: my lover has no one 
who can compare with him. Ter-l&lu 
baik paras-nya dan manis s'b3.rang laku- 
nya tiada-lah tdlok banding-nya di-dalam 
sa'16rah negri Tanjong Bftnga itu, yj^ 

«^l \£>^ ^j^ ^/^ &j^ ^Ijj ^jo^ ^y 

Her features were exceedingly beautiful, 
and all her conduct was charming, and 
there was none to compare with her in 
the whole land of Tanjong BAnga. 
Dengan meshhor gagah br&ni-nya di- 
dalam aalam dunia ini tiada si-apa tdlok 
banding-nya, ^IJJ ^1^ d?l?^^.^A^ ^J 

^^ ^y ^W-- *y^ eri' ^^ (^^ H^s 
prowess and bravery were far-famed, 

and in the realms of the earth no one 

was capable of comparison with him. 

Bandong, ^^J^m A pair, a match. 

Bandong, ^^^>^ To arrest the flow of 
water by means of a dam or dyke ; to 
dam water. 

Bandut, SjJolj To bind, to fasten, to bind 
up anything that is cracked or split; 
the piece of metal which fastens the 
base of a blade to the blade itself in 
certain Malay weapons. Note: This 
binding of metal usually passes over 
that portion of the base of the blade 
called Aring, ^^1 by the Malays. The 
verbal form Mem-bandut, ^^Jol^4-* is also 
met with, but this word is not commonly 
used except in connection with the metal 
ring on the blade of a weapon. Bandut 
sAndang, ^^ ^^Ju^ The metal binding 
which fastens the blade of the short 
Malay sword to its base. 

Bang, ^ The call to prayers, which is 
intoned by the Bilal JAj of a Muham- 
madan mosque at each of the Inma 
waktu, 23^ ^ or five prescribed hours of 

prayer. Maka bang pun ber-bAnyi di- 
masjid, .x,y^J ^^^^ ^^y ^ <^^-^ The 

call to prayers sounded from the mosque. 
To' Bilal pun ber-bang, ^^ ^y JA^ yJ 

The Btlal sounded the call to prayers. 

Bengal, ^^U Abandoned (as a house, a 
village, or a piece of work which has 
been begun but never carried to com- 
pletion) ; to remain (as a girl who has 

Bd,ngau, ^U 

not been asked in marriage). Generally 
the meaning is, to leave undone some- 
thing that ought to be done, like leaving 
a door open, or the lid ofE a box. 

Blingar, ^L^ Unpleasant to the taste (as 
water which has stood in a dirty vessel) ; 
unpleasant to the smell ; fetid, stinking^ 
evil-smelling, evil tasting. 

Bangar, j&^U A noise, clamour, tumult. 
Note : This word is only met with in the 
expression Hingar-bangar, ^L^ j-^^ 
Dengan hingar-bangar raayat-nya di- 
dalam hAtan itu, ,^:/^j j^^ y^ v:r^*^ 
uw' ^Jy^ ^1^^ With a great clamour of 
all the people in the forest. Hingar- 
bangar 6rang di-dalam pasar, j^\^ y-jb 
^U ^1 JJ ^jj\ The people in the market- 
place were clamorous. 

Bangat, ^U Quick, active, fast, hasty, 
sudden, immediate; to be quick, to go 
fast, tio make haste. Bangat-lah ! dls^L; 
Be quick ! Make haste ! Look alive I 
Biar-lah bangat sedikit, ^lXjiJu^ ^Ij d3^ 
Be a little faster; be a bit quicker. 
Bangat jflga ia d.kan tiba ka-m&ri, JL^l^ 
i^j\^ «-r--J ^^\ v^l *-J]^ He will shortly 
arrive; he will soon be here; he will be 
here immediately. Bangat amat, i*l afi>Li 
Over-hasty; too soon; too quick; pre- 
mature. Bangat-bangat, t'i^L^ Very 
quick, etc.; to make great haste, to be 
very quick. 

Bsingau, ^L^ The white padi-hird; the 

small white stork, Bubidcus coromanchis. 
H6 ma' b&^ngau meng-&pa kau kArus? 
Aku kArus sebab ikan ta' timbul, *U ^ 

J.j-4-jJ *lJ * mother stork, wherefore art 

thou thin ? ' * I am thin because the fish 
do not rise.' Note: The above is the 
first of a long string of questions and 
answers which forms a kind of nursery 
rhyme in use among the Malays. M&ka 
s'bentar lagi ia pun timbul-lah datang 
men-d&pat-kan bclngau itu, j s : ^ ^^ c&L^ 

A moment later he rose to the suriace 
and went up to the ^^t-bird. M&ka 
&da-lah s'^kor b&ngau diam di-situ, <^A^ 
jSLf,^^ ^J j^\4 jjf^xr^ <J'*^' Now there 
was a stork dwelling in that place. 
Maka naik-lah ketam itu ka-d&rat serta 
di-sepit-nya bdtang l^hir bangau itu per- 


lahan - perlahan, u^\ ^ <sKi*l) 

^ ^li ^ ^l^ ,^f^jL^^ i^j^ Sj]^ 

f ^Sji The crab came ashore and took 
liold of the stork's neck gently between 
its claws. tinggi terbang b^agau 
akhir-nya hinggap di-blslkang kerbau 
jfiga, ^i<M> ^j^^/>^ ^J J^ ^^^ 
i^yc^ ^^ AS'AjJ However high a stork 

may soar, it will eventually settle on a 
buffalo's back — Vrofd. Note : The Malays 
distinguish between five kinds of atoi : 
Bangau besar, ^ j^U (Herodias alba)^ 
Bd^ngau kerbau, ^^^li {Herodias torr a) ^ 
Bangau kambing, ^|-«-^ ^L? (Herodias 
intermed.ia), Bslngauftlar, ^^)yt>U (Hero- 
dias gai'zetta)^ and B&ngau bru, pji ^^ 

Bangau, j^U The curved piece of wood 
fixed to the bow of a Malay sailing-boat 
on which the sails, spars, poles, etc., are 
rested when they are not in use. Bangau 
payang, ^U ^(j This piece of wood in 
the large saUing-boat called Pdyang by 
the Malays. Anak bangau, ^Ij ^) A 
piece of wood which is sometimes fixed 
into the Ibu bangau, j^\i ^1 or main 
piece of timber, at an angle of about 35° 
in order to keep the spars, etc., which 
may be resting upon the main piece of 
timber, in place. Chslbang bangau, A? U 
jAl^ The joint at the place where the 
Anak bangau, j^^ ^\ is fixed into the 
Ibu bangau, jt> l^ ^i 

Banggi, Jav., ^J^ A traitor; treason; one 
who rebels against the state; rebellion 
against the state. (See Derhaka, .f^lib^j 
A traitor, etc.) Note : This word is not 
used or understood by the natives of the 
Malay Peninsula. 

Bangka, «^AAi The name of an island which 
is situated off Palembang, on the east 
coast of Sumatra ; a slab of tin. Note : It 
is probable that this secondary meaning 
is derived from the name of the island, 
as much tin has been exported from the 
mines in Bangka. It has been suggested 
that the name of this island is a corrup- 
tion of the Sanskrit Vanga = tin. 

Bangkal, J<J^ The name of a plant, 
Nanclea orientalis. Note: The Malays 
distinguish two varieties of this plant 
—viz., Bangkal l&ki-iaki, v^i JCjg 

and Bangkal per-ampA-an, J^^j^ J^ 

A more common pronunciation is Beng- 

Bangkas, ^^-^ 

Bangkang, ^<&3 To contradict, to oppose 
verbally, to argue against. Per-kata-an 
kita di-bangkang samua iimor, ^^'l^^j-* 
y^s> )^4— ^ ^M^ «^ He continually 
contradicts my statements. BAkan-nya 
hamba handak bangkang per-ch&kap-an 
tAan, ^ly J^\^j^ ^ JJ^ s-^ ^ji 
It is not that thy servant wishes to 
dispute thy words, master. Note : 
The words Bantah, dx*^ Mergai, ^Jj^ 
Meng-galang, ^1&l« and Me-lentang, 

Afj^ are all used in the sense of to con- 
tradict, to oppose, etc. 

Bangkang, ^^ Abandoned, deserted ; left 
in suspense or uncertainty, as an un- 
finished house where work has been 
carried on to a certain point and then 
stopped, or as a woman whose husband 
neglects her. 

Bangkang, ^Oj or Bangkang Palembang, 
^-Jii ^<^ The name of a kind of cake 
or pudding made in Penang. (Gf. Bing- 
kang, ^<^). 

Bangkang, ^^ The name of an edible 
salt-water crab. 

Bangkang, ^<J^ Broad. 

Bangkang, ^<J^ Lame ; deformed of foot 
or leg. 

Bangkar, j^ Hard (as the flesh of the 
dnri-an) ; tough (as meat) ; stiff (as a 
dead body). Note : The form Mangkar, 
^<^ is also met with, and in Perak it 

is used in . preference to Bangkar, ^M 
The word Liat, ^ to express the tough- 
ness of meat, etc., and Chekang, i5C&, 
or Kras, ^j^ to express the stiffness 
of a corpse, are more generally used. 
Bangkar, J^ and Mangkar, J^^ are 
more often applied to the flesh of the 
duri-an than to any other thing. 

Bangkar, /^ Twigs, bones, or frame. 
Jala sangkut kena bangkar, S^it^ Jl^ 
/^ \iS My net has caught in the 
branches of a submerged tree. Gsljah 
ini tinggal bangkar sehaja, J^^ ^^ji) a^I? 
gl^ ^M This elephant is so thin he is 
only a bag of bones. 

Bangkas, ^j-Xaj White flecked with black, 
yellowish, brownish. Note : This word 
is only used in connection with fowls, 
game-cocks, etc. (See Ayam, ^1 A fowl.) 


Bangkawan, ^^^^ 

B&ngkawan, ^^^^^ The lath into which 
the leaves used for thatching are sewn, 
so as to make them into lengths which 
can afterwards be laid across the rafters 
of a house. (See Bengkawan, j^^^^)- 

Bangkei, ^^^ A corpse, a carcase, a dead 
body ; carrion. Note : This term is 
usually applied to the dead body of an 
animal, the word M&yat, Ic^ being gen- 
erally used when speaking of a human 
corpse ; Malays, however, occasionally 
use Bangkei, ^g^ when speaking of 
dead Chinamen or other persons who 
do not profess the Muharamadan re- 
ligion. M&ka d^tang-lah segala 
deri-dalam hAtan me-m&kan bangkei 
itu, ^jjJyb ^b j^ Jl^j-* J^ isJ^b <^l. 

u^\ ^e^ ^^^ The wolves came out 
of the forest and devoured the carcase. 
Takut-kan hantu ter-pelok-kan bang- 
kei, ^ ^^jf y»J^ c5^/^ Through 
fear of a ghost to hug a corpse— Prcw. 
The meaning is equivalent to the English 
aphorism, * Out of the frying-pan into 
the fire.' Habis-lah raayat mS-ti ber- 
tindeh bangkei, esJuJ^ s^^ ^^-s:Pj dL^Lfc 
^oCa^ All the people were slain and 
were crushed down under one another's 
heaped-up corpses. Maka bangkei setA- 
bah itu pun di-^ngkat-lah ftlih segala 
srigala lain ber-kampong-lah segala ben^- 
tang itu me-makan dia dengan sAka- 
chita-nya, dka<fi>lo ^yi^il d^ys^ Sj^i <^L-* 

^Ix-ja^^ ^J ^^J c^^-^ «w' Then the 
wolves lifted up the carcase of (the bull) 
Setdbah, and all the beasts assembled 
together and ate it with great delight. 
Ada-kah bu^ya men-dlak bangkei, dJ\^\ 

^^^ ^y^ v^ly Will ^^ alligator reject 
a dead body ? — Prov. Maka g&gak pun 
naik-lah ka-&tas-nya mem-ftngut seperti 
laku mem-{LDgut bangkei, ^y ^IS <^A^ 

^^ i£>yj^ /J SjlL^ ity^ ^^\i ^U 

The crow got upon it and pecked it, as 
though it was pecking carrion. Bangkei 
kerbau, y^ s?^ ® carcase of a 

buffalo. Bangkei China, ^^(^ ^^^ The 

corpse of a Chinaman. Bangkei iang 
bAsok, ^^y^h i^^ A putrid carcase. 
Mslka ter-k&par-lah md.yat dan bangkei 
me-r&ta p&dang itu, ^lj ^-« dJy ISjJ «.sA-^ 

wu^l^jU ulaIj-^ -<^ Corpses and car- 
cases lay sprawlmg all over the plain. 

Bangkit, l(^ 

Mftka baugkei pun ber-tambun-tambun 
p&da s'genap Idrong dan pd,da s'genap 
kampong dan pintu dan jambat-an pun 
penoh dengan bangkei, ^y ^^^ csL-* 

J^ ^J &yJ ^y ^L-wjK ^1 J yi^ ^b 

Corpses lay in heaps in every lane and 
in every compound, and the gates and 
bridges were full of corpses. Kembang 
bangkei, ^^^ ^^ The name of a plant, 

Amoiyhiij)hallus variabilis. 

Bangkil, J©^ To upbraid, to reproach with 
anything. Properly speaking, Bangkil 
or Ka-bangkil, J«^M^ (which is more 
common) is only used to describe the 
action of a person who has reproached 
another with a certain action and then, 
after a time, does that very thing him- 
self. DahMu kamu kata jangan me- 
r6koh sekarang sudah ka-bangkil, Jyb j 
J^A^^ &^y^ ^j^<^ "/jj^ o^W^ 5ls ^1$" 
Before, you told me not to smoke to- 
bacco : now you have done it yourself. 

Bankin, ^^(^ The name of an earthen- 
ware jar or pot. Note : This pot, which 
is made, among other places, at Ku3.1a 
Tembeling, in Pahang, is shaped like 
a vase, and also in some measure re- 
sembles the earthenware jars known to 
the Malays as Delima, ^o 

Bangking, ^^i^ A large round lacquered 
box, in which clothes are put ; a dorsal 
basket made of closely-plaited rattan : 
it is circular at the mouth, generally 
about two to three feet long, and fur- 
nished with four short legs, so that 
when not being carried it can be placed 
on the ground in an upright position. 

Bangking, ^t^J^ To fall (as of a spear 

which has missed its mark). Maka 
mftta tdmbak itu pun ter-banglang, tsA.^ 

6^-^ O^^' <5^y *^ The blade of the 
spear fell, missing its mark. B6ngkang- 
bangking, A^ ^y To fall all of a 

heap ; to fall down and remain motion- 
less, like one stricken suddenly dead. 

Bangkit, 3^i^^ To rise, to rise up, to arise, 
to get up, to rise from; to rise from 
sleep, to get out of bed, to stand up; to 
begin to do something for the first time. 
Mika Baginda pun ber-debar h&ti lalu 
bangkit mem-egang t&ngan Bendah&ra, 


Bangkit, i^^ 

JWjl^ ^^\S The monarches heart was 
troubled, and he rose and seized the 
Bendahara^s hand. M&ka Hang TAah 
pun bangkit serta ber-sujud p&da Mki 
Sang Adi-petra serta ber-jSlan ka- 
r{lmah-nya, &j^^ i(^ ^y esly ^ ca\_^ 

Then Hang Tdah rose up and prostrated 
himself at the feet of Sang Adi-petra, 
and then betook himself to his house. 
Maka Pateh pun meny-embah lalu ber- 
&nggap bangkit men-ari maka Sri Betara 
pun s^lka ter-tfi.wa me-lihat Pateh men- 
&ri itu ka-billda-bAda-kan, ^y dJU 

*M^\ i^j^ aJU l^ \^^y2 -aJj^ oy^ ^^ 
^^^ ^y^ P&teh did reverence to the 
king, and, inviting others to join him, 
he arose to dance, and Sri BetS.ra 
laughed aloud to see Pflteh dancing with 
such abandon. Tari j6get dan tandak 
w4jang dan t6ping ber-genta bangkit, 
men-ari, ^lj ^1^ ^^^ ^b ^^r^ v^;Uf 

^g^L^iLJ<A^ UJ"^ ^o^y Dancing-girls and 
dancers of all kinds, players, and those 
with masks upon their faces and bells 
upon their feet, arose to dance. Maka 
&da-lah di-dalam ant4ra mejelis itu 
8'6rang Brahmana bangkit ber-d^tang 
sembah ka-pdda ra]a,^U}T ^b j d3bl <^\^ 

AH--0 ^|j^ Je5C^ ^Uft>^ ^j^ a^l ^j^^t^ 
gl; jJis Now in that assembly there was 
a Brahman, who arose and made repre- 
sentation to the king. Maka Bija D6nan 
pun men-dengar kata bapa sudara-nya 
ia-pun bangkit pergi mem-bftka peti 
kechil banian sakti, ^y ^^a gip 

^y If^ ^y^l ^|;la^ ^l^ 4-*lf /> 

s?«^ 0<f^ i^ %^ -^^H- Raja Ddnan 
heard his uncle's words, and he got up 
and opened his small magic treasure- 
box. Ada-pun ia ber-kata ka-pada aku 
ia handak tidor sampei tfljoh hari tfljoh 
maiam bharu ia handak bangkit, ^ybt 
^y ^^p'U-o jj^^J ^JJuL^ i^\ /\ JJi^ &ir^ ^\ 
ifi<A| jJJjJb ^^1 ^y^ ^U desy ^y<^ He 
told me that he intended to sleep for 
seven days and seven nights, before he 
would arise from slumber. Di-pangku 
dan belei tiada bangkit stang dan maiam 
hftlit dengan TAan Petri itu, ^lj yClUJ 

td'y j>^ ^j^ ^^ o'^ ^ ^y^ ^^ ^ 

*^ s^jsJ He cuddled and embraced her. 

Bangkong, ^/^ii 

and did not get out of bed by day or by 
night, but lay by the Princess. Note : 
This word HMit, usu^yb is probably an 
obscure form of the word Ber-h61ek, 
St^j^jt Orang tfta itu pun datang-lah 
ber-jaian s'lang-kafa tiga kaii bangkit 
mem-betul-kan plnggang-nya dan tAjoh 
kaii ber-napas panjang, ^^y«Al ty ^jji\ 
J^ys^^ 2^ ^l? JX^ d5CALo J\c>.ji aUJi J 

6^ u-^^ji J^ ^y c>'^ ,jr*^ The old 
man for every step he took stopped 
three times to stand upright, and rook 
seven long breaths. Bangkit sembah- 
iang, ^^ *.n.f^ «t-<s^ To begin to pray 

regularly. Bangkit-kan, ^^^^ti^ , Mem- 
bangkit, 3^(^Suj^^ and Mem-bangkit-kan, 
^ %<# ,i,».>» To erect, to raise up, to wake 
any one up ; to cause, to give rise to. 
Bangkit*kan tiang r(lmah, ^ ^^j^^©^ 

^V To erect the posts of a house. 
Bangkit-kan 6rang iang tengah tidor 
itu, ^1 jj^ dkiki ^j^S ^^Af^ Awake the 

man who lies sleeping there. Bangkit- 
kan tflan-nya deri- tidor, ^*^ ^'y ^^/^a^^ 

j^^^ He awoke his master. Bangkit- 
kan per-gadoh-an, ^^J*^^J^ ^^jX^Xa^ To 

cause a disturbance. Mem-bangkit-kan 
per - gempar - an, ^yUSy ^, » C»,».4^ To 

raise a riot. Bangkit-kan per-khabar-an, 
^^^y ^^f^t^ To give rise to a report, 

to spread a report. Ka-bangkit-an, 
^ ^<M ^ Resurrection. There is a special 
sense in which Bangkit, i^^ is used : 
if a person has been very good to 
another and then recalls all that he has 
done, the person under the obligation 
will say, *Kata nesta bangkit bangkit- 
nya sa'Mri-hari,' r^g;^^ ^^l*V^ *»-^ ^^ 
*He said all kinds of unpleasant things, 
and daily reminded me of all he had 
done for me.' Note : The word Bangun, 
^U To rise, etc., and Bangun-kan, 
^^^^. To erect, etc., are more re- 
fined expressions than Bangkit ^it^^ 
and Bangkit-kan, ^.v^Cij although the 
meaning which they convey is precisely 
similar. In speaking of a rdjcbi or in 
any case where politeness or elegance of 
expression is an object, the former 
words should be used in preference to 
the latter. 

Bangkong, ^y^ The name of a kind of 
knife or chopper used as a weapon. It 


Bangkong, ^/^ 

has only one edge, and the blade is sharp 
at one end, the back being straight and 
the edge gently curving towards its 
extremity. Note: In P^rak the Pisau 
bangkong, ^y^ j^^ has no point, but 
an almost square ornamented end, and 
is generally used by women. The name 
Kl^wang, ^yt^ is given to a similar 
knife the edge of which is straight, 
while the back curves down to meet it 
at the point. 

Bangkong, ^/^ A species of jack-fruit. 
(See also Chempedak, ^a6.».^> and 
Wangka, csAiJ). 

Bangku, ^L^ The name of a tree the 
fruits of which yield an oil used for 
burning. Minyak bangku, ^^ <5^s>-* The 
oil produced from the fruit of this tree. 

Bangku, Port., j<J^ A bench, a seat. Ber- 
tenggek di-jltas bangku, ^\^ ^^S^j^ 
^M To sit upon a bench or seat. Dftdok 
ber-juntei di-&tas bangku, ^g**^^ ^J"^-^^ 
y^ ^r^'^ To sit upon a bench, with 
the legs hanging down. 

Bangkut, syJb Stunted, dwarfed, de- 
formed, maimed, twisted. Awang bang- 
kut, ^yCiy ^1^1 Awang the dwarf. Orang 
bangkut, &^S^ ^^^1 A dwarf, a hunch- 
back. Kayu semambu bangkut, y^^j^^ ^^ 
s>^M A twisted Malacca cane. Note : 
Some sticks twisted and deformed by 
nature are much prized by the Malays, 
who believe them to give a very deadly 
blow, and, among other magic properties, 
to have the virtue of protecting whoever 
holds or carries them from all wounds, 
etc. Sticks which have abnormal swell- 
ings on them are called Kayu bftnting, 
^ft2d(y ^l^ or Sticks which are with child. 

Bangsa, Hind., LA; Race, family, rank, 
nationality, tribe, species, caste, class; 
quality, kind, sort. Si-Apa nama jftru- 
batu jAru-mudi-nya dan &pa bangsa 
6rang-nya, ^^y y^y^ ylj y^y^ j^lJ ^-^L^-^ 

^^^1 Lii <-3l ^lj What is the name of 

her pilot, and her steersman, and of 
what race are the people on board her ? 
Ada-pun llkan bangsa lembu itu tiada- 

lah tegoh stia-nya, 4i' ys^ ^^ ^^' o-^*'*^' 
^1<>A^ esjiG d)ljl<J Moreover that race of 
oxen are not loyal or faithful. Orang 
bangsa lain, ^"i LJ^ 4yl Men of an alien 

race. Bagai - mana - kah kamu sekelian 

Bangsa, Hind., LJ^ 

handak men-jadi-kan raja akan b<irong 
hantu itu per-tama bangsa-nya hfina dan 
prangei-nya pun bengis dan mata-nya 
bAta pada siang hari, ,^^^^ y*"^ 6^\a!J^ 
pUy «:^l yL^ ^^^ ^1 eb ^ol,^ JJO^ 

v^^l^ k^ jj ULA^ How is it that ye all 

wish to make the owl king ? In the first 
place, he is of low family, his character 
is cruel, and^ his eyes are blind in the 
daytime. Ada-kah orang men-j&di 
mentri itu sebab ka-bakti-an-nya atau 
sebab bangsa-nya, v^^^l^*-^ ^^\ 6S\^\ 

men become ministers on account of their 
good services, or on account of their 
rank? Lain ia ber-seru-seru dengan nyfi.- 
ring suara-nya, * Aiu-h6 che' 6rang prslhu 
si-jlpa drang-nya dan deri-mana datang- 
nya dan handak ka-mana pergi-nya dan 
&pa bangsa-nya dan mfi,sok ka-mari &pa 
hajat-nya,' ^^Ij ^^ V^j^j-^. s?' pJ 

Then he cried out with a loud voice, * 
ye men in the boat, who are ye ? And 
whence come ye, and wither are ye 
wending? Of what nationality are ye, 
and what is your object in coming 
hither ? ' Deri-pada s'b3.rang bangsa 
6rang, cji^l LJb ^^W-* *^j^ Men of every 

nationality. Maka laut itu sudah-lah 
sesak penoh tftmpat dengan raayat ka- 
dAa bangsa itu, ^5.^*^ <sittO^ wix^] &^S cfil^ 
«-^) Ljg I^J^ a^s^; ^J afi^y &yJ The 

sea was full, crowded, and stufEed full 
with those two tribes of monsters. 
Bharu-lah lempah dan maamor dan 
mftrah dan Sman sentdsa lagi sejahtera- 
nya pada sekelian bangsa isi negri tAan- 

ku ini, ^1 J &jy* ^^)^ jysu* ^)0 aL) ^^yi^A 

^1 yaly ^^ -^1 Then for the first 

time will there be liberality and bene- 
volence, ease and peace, prosperity and 
happiness for all classes in Your Majesty's 
dominions. Benatang ini lain bangsa- 
iiya, ^LJ^ ^^J ^^I ^^ This animal is 
of a different species. M&ka TAan Petri 
itu-pun tampil ber-krah segsLla hamba 
sahya dan tnang peng-asoh-nya di-s(iroh 
ber-bAat segala zuadahnaamat pcr-m&kan- 
an ampat-pMoh-ampat bangsa md,cham 


Bangsa, Hind., Lj^ 
masak-nya, Jt^ ^^^^1 v^^ ^ly 

<«^JL*I ^jji^Uy ^Ua) 6j1^^ J^^ *'>^->^ iijI^J 
^^U ^U Lij 2&^l d3y The Princess 

immediately called together all her slaves 
and servants and nurses and attendants, 
and ordered them to make all sorts of 
confections and sweetmeats for eating, 
with forty-four kinds of ways of cooking. 
Bangsa-nya kArang, ^j^ ^^^^-^ His 
origin is lowly; he is of inferior birth. 
Bangsa m&na kain iang di-sftroh bli itu ? 
ufc^l Jj cj^^xki ^l? ^L» UJlj Of what 

quality was the cloth which was ordered 
to be purchased ? Tiga kali tiup tiga- 
pMoh-anam lagu di-dalam-nya dfta-blas 
bangsa ada bdnyi per-main-an di-dalara- 

At the third blowing there were thirty- 
six tunes in the flute, and twelve kinds 
of music. Pel-b%ai per-main-an iang 
dAa-blas bangsa, ,jJ^ )j^ cr^^y ^^ 
Lib Many amusements of twelve dis- 
tinct sorts. 

Jikalau anak-ku handak ber-istri 
Ampat pekara handak di-ch&ri 

« « » « « 

Iang per-tS,ma orang ber-bangsa 
Iang ka-dfla ribu dan laksa. 

If thou, my son, would take unto thy- 
self a wife, there are four things that 
thou shouldst seek: — first, a woman 
of good family, and secondly, one who 
has thousands and tens of thousands. 
Kar^a ia drang iang hSna pdpa tiMa 
ber-bangsa, ol^J <-iU L^ ^;<Ay' s?' c)-^^ 
LJk^jt For he is a mean poverty-stricken 
person of low birth. Bangsa- wan, ^^^LJ^ 
Of high descent, of ancient lineage, of 
good family, well-bom, noble. Anak 
bangs&-wan, ^^^LJb ^1 A member of an 
old family ; a scion of nobility. Bahwa 
itu-lah drang iang ber-n^ma bijak-sana 
Isigi bang8&-wan, ^^j^ ^ji^l ^^^ ^ji — i 
^LJ^ ^J ^LJJ^ He is a man who may 
rightly be described as both wise and of 
ancient lineage. 

Bangsi, ^^^ 

Bangsai, ^^^^ Pddi which has been 

pounded to clean it, but of which the 
husk has not yet been thoroughly re- 

Bangs^i, ^^^^ Timber which has been 

felled or has fallen a long time, and the 
core of which has rotted away. 

Bangsal, J^ A shed, a bam, a hut, a 
hovel, an out-house, a temporary build- 
ing. Bangsal jAdi, i^*^y^ J-J^ A tem- 
porary shed erected as a place in which 
gambling can be carried on. Segala 
6rang ka-tAa-an iang ber-jaga-jaga-i di- 
dalam bangsal itu rambut iang hitam 
sudah pAteh men-jadi ftban, ij^) J^'^— -• 
B^^j uhH J^ ^Ijj v^r^W^>A e)'!>^ 

^j) <^^Ufc*.^ AftJy esJ — ^fij i All the 
people in authority who presided in the 
sheds who had black hair became grey. 
Masing-masing pun men-jslbat kerja-nya 
ada iang mem-bAat pe-lenggar-an dan 
&da iang mem-bAat bangsal per-bahan- 
an dan ada iang mem-biiat jantang 
tempat men-ebang, ^l»*-^ ^^y f A<j-*oL» 

u:.JlJ ^SA^ S^>^^ ^ ^' ^^t«J c^^y d^' 

^-ju* Bach set about his work; some 
made saw-benches, and some made sheds 
for cutting up the timber, and some 
made scaffoldings for felling the tree. 
Bangsal ktlda, lo^ J^ A stable, a shed 

in which a horse is kept. Bangsal kftli, 
. ^^ J^ Coolie lines. 

Bangsat, ^LJ^ Destitute, poor, indigent, 
poverty-stricken. Orang bangsat, £^^l 
i^ A poor man, a vagabond, a beggar, 
a rascal. 

Bangsiwan, Hind., ^^^tjg Of high de- 
scent, of ancient lineage, of old family, 
of gentle blood, high-born, noble. Anak 
bangs&-wan, ^^^^^ ^3^1 A member of an 
old family, a scion of nobility. Note : 
This word is formed from the root 
Bangsa, Lib Race, etc., the suffix -wan, 
^^ being added to the stem. This suflBx 

is added to several words, mostly of 
Sanskrit origin, in order to give them 
an adjectival meaning : thus, Stia, ^ex^ 
Faith, etc., becomes Stia- wan, ^^l<>x-^ 
Faithful, loyal, etc. (See Bangsa, ^-J^). 

Bangsi, ^^^^ A reed, a reed-pipe, a flute, 
a musical pipe. Also BMoh bangsi, a^ly 


Bangsong, ^j^ 

^tf^ Note : The latter form is perhaps 

the more common of the two. Men-iup 
sdling ber-biinyi bangs! m&ka bangs! 
sSgra hanchor, ^^^ ^y^j^ ^y^ *->>o^ 
j^^ \^Lj> ^^^ caU If when the pipe is 
blown the flute gives forth a sound, the 
latter will speedily be worn out — Prov.j 
inculcating the wisdom of minding one's 
own business. Lain ia meng-ambil bMoh 
bangs! ka-sakti-an itu iang sama-sama 
men-jadi dengan dia s'k&li tiup dtla-blas 
ragam lagu di-dalam-nya, Ji^^i^ ^^1 jj J 

/Jl ^V) ^ 1,^ ^^ ^\^^^ ^^^^ 

^b^ Then he took his magic flute, 
which had come into existence with him, 
and at the first sound thereof there were 
twelve airs of melody in it. Ampun 
t<ian-ku ini-lah bMoh bangs! per-main- 
an patek drang di-h{ltan di-per-btlat 
iilih bapa patek pada anak-nya s'drang 
satu, ^^t.y ^^^ &^^ ^] j»ly ^y-^l 

yLo ^jjSL^ ^1 JJ <^U Pardon, King, 

this is my flute, which is a musical 
instrument used by all thy slaves who 
inhabit the jungles; it was made by 
my father, who gave one to each of his 
chOdren. Iku minta raup kampong-kan 
semangat-nya bawa' masok ka-daiam 
bMoh bangs! in!, ^^^jlu^ <-*^b ^**^ >^' 
cH' ,^ &^jf ^1j^ ^U ^]j\i ^\^ I 
ask you to seize and gather up her soul, 
and bring it into my reed-pipe. 

Bangsong, ^^^ The short pointed shoots 

of the roots of certain trees (such as the 
Perebat, ^ji Pulai, ^y etc.) 

Bangsong, ^j^ A kind of pointed basket 
carried ok the back as a knapsack by 
means of cords, through which the 
arms are passed, and a band across the 
forehead. (See also Ambong, ^>5-^l 
Derong, ^jj^ Tdnggok, ^5^y etc.) 

Bangun, ^^ij To rise, to rise up, to arise, 
to get up ; to rise from sleep, to wake, 
to wake up, to get out of bed ; to stand 
up ; to sit up. Maka ia pun segra bangun 
dan meng-embang-kan bftlu-nya, <iX-^ 
^y^ ^j5-<2hA^ ^^b ^\i \jSL^ ^jii\ He 

speedily rose, and caused his mane to 
stand erect. Maka Bendahara ttla itu pun 
bangun-lah perg! naik ka-atas tanjar-an 
karang itu serta mem-andang ka-s'blah 

Bangun, >l, 

seiatan, ^y dL^l^ O-^' ly^UcOs^i 
^Jo^ ^j^ «^| ^j\i ^^^^ ^•l^ ^-\i 

^Xj9 dL i .„.^ -< The ancient Bendahara arose 
and went to the look-out, and gazed 
forth to the south. Maka T(lan Petri 
bangun deri-pada ber-adu pagi hari 
diidok pada tingkap kechil r&pa m(lka 
tengah handak santap sirih di-dAlam 
p<ian cherana banjar, ^^\^ K$y^ oV *^^ 
^JiXi^ j^ ^6)6 ^y^ ^Li ^^Iji JJ;U 
^1 J J &yfg^ <^ftA«,^o ^^yjJB^ M ^y^ f^X> J«9^ 
J^ oW o'y ^^® Princess arose from 
slumber in the early morning and seated 
herself at her little casement, the shape 
of which was like unto that of a human 
face, and was in the act of eating betel- 
quids from out the «triA-boxes which 
stood in a row. Maka Hang Jebat pun 
ter-kejut deri-pada tidor-nya laiu bangun, 

^^\i Hang Jebat awoke from sleep and 
arose. MakaiaiaiuMngun deri-pada tldor 
mata-nya lagi jerikat mMut-nya sudah 
ber-kata-kata, ^Nyamok kAtok nyamok 
cheiaka kita handak me-radam pun tiada 
bMih,' ^U ^^^J^ J^j^ J>\i y S ^1 cs^ 

i^^ i3r'k V^^j^ ^^^ ^r^ ^j^ s/^ 

^^ ^^ c)y r^'-K c3^^^ "^ -^^ c3r^ 

Then he awoke from his slumbering, 
and while his eyes were still closed his 
mouth spoke, saying, * Accursed mos- 
quitoes 1 Ill-omened mosquitoes 1 I can- 
not even doze because of youl* Telah 
sudah selesei ber-kata-kata itu maka ia 
pun ter-kejut bangun deri-pada per-adu- 
an-nya di-daiam anjong p6rak, aj^ dLJ 

k3^ t>^^ l^^"^"^ ,i3^l>^'j-* ^>>^ When 
this conversation was ended, the Prince 
arose from ofE his couch in the silver 
porch. Tengah maiam ter-lampau dini- 
hari belum sampei btldak-biidak diia-kaii 
bangun jaga 6rang tda ber-kaiih tidor, 

jyx^ ^Jl^^ ly ^jy] ^lc^ J>\i J\S When 

midnight is long passed and the dawn 
has not yet come, when the children have 
twice woke up and the elders have sunk 
into their second sleep. Bangun-kan, 
^^j^U and Mem-bangun-kan, ^^x£>K^j^^ 
To erect, to raise up, to build ; to wake 
any one up, to call any one from sleep. 
Maka ia pun meny-flroh tegang bandut 
meriam dan meng-dkoh-kan segaia ftpil- 


B&ngun, J>U 

an dan mem-b^ngun-kan sSg&la chagak 
l^la dan raeng-isor segala pedati meriam 
dan me-lekat segala tAnam, ^y v^l tsA^ 

^y J51-0 ^<U ^b ^^ ^\^ jL^ ^^..^ 

He ordered them to tighten all the gun- 
stays and strengthen all the fortified 
bulwarks, and erect all the swivel-gun 
supports, and train all the gun-carriages 
and light all the port fires. Maka 
Bendahara dan Laksamana pun b&ngun- 
kan astana itu endah-endah per- 
bftat-an-nya, ^L^-JJJ ^b ^l^Ju^ tM — - 

The Bendahara and the Laksamana 
built a palace which was of exceedingly 
beautiful workmanship. Maka ia pun 

8egra bangun-kan &yah-nya, ^y ^gl <-sA-^ 
^1 ^^^^ \JL^ He speedily woke his 
father. Bingun-bangun-an, ^Y^\^ A 
crow's-nest; a fortified look-out place; 
a turret; a battlement; a tower; an 
elevated place. Bangun-bangun-an kiibu, 
^^ ^Y^U The crow's-nest in a 
stockade. Diidok-lah ia di-atas b^ngun- 
bangun-an k6ta-nya, ,j^l^ ^gi aLfJj^j 

^l5^ O^^o^^ He sat upon the battle- 
ments of his tower. Note : Bangun, 
^jj^U and B3.ngun-kan, ,^^\^ are more 
refined terms than Bangkit, ^L^ and 
Bangkit-kan, ^^a^^ and should be used 
in preference to them whenever polite- 
ness or elegance of expression is an 
object. See Note under Bangkit, i^^ 
To rise, etc. 

Blingun, ^U Shape, appearance, aspect. 
Di-&mbil pMa bAnga lain di-karang 
seperti b&ngun kapiah, \&y Jy J^'^ 
6^ ^U &y^ ^j^^ y 3J She took sOme 

flowers and wove them into the shape of 
a hat. Bfi-ngun r<imah, a^jj; ^\a The 
shape of a house. Bangun apong pun 
biikan apong dan bdngun pMau pun 
biikan pMau, ^b £yl ^^ ^y ^yl J>U 

-^y oO» O^ py o^^ It had the ap- 
pearance of drift-wood, and yet was 
not drift-wood; it had the appearance 
of an island, and yet was not an island. 
T6koh dan k&chak bS,ngun-nya, ^lu d^y 

^^^ <3^^ B^ appearance was splendid 
and handsome. Bangun-nya, ,^\^ It 
appears, it %e&m&, it would seem ; it has 

Banian, ^\^ 

the appearance of; it looks as though. 
Bagitu-kah bangun-nya, ,^^1^ d^ysu^Ji^ 

Is that so P Is that the case ? Is that the 
position of affairs ? Bangun-nya per- 
bdat-an 6rang ber-aakal jAga, ,^^U 
i^jj^ yLs>ji ^jy] J\y.j^ It looks as 

though it was the action of a clever 
fellow. Mati-lah kita di-tengah laut ini 
bangim-nya, ,^^ij ^1 &j^ a&IJ uu^ ^^ 
It seems that we shall die here in mid- 
ocean. Aku tengo' lain rdpa bangun 
laku kamu, /J ^/>\i i^jj ^2» y^J ^1 

^l^ I see your conduct in a different 
light (meaning a worse light). 

Bangun, ^j^U Indemnity ; a fine paid in 
expiation of a murder. Note : In the 
Malay Peninsula the word Diat, ii^ is 
usuaUy employed in this sense. Hukum- 
nya mem-bfi-yar bangun per-ampft-an itu 
lima-pMoh r^al, 4^|>i-»y ,.5^^ jlK^ ,^*^ 
^)lJ ^y (^ **^' His order was that an 
indemnity of fifty dollars should be paid 
for the death of that woman. 

Bllngun-bingun, Vi^ji>U A shrub rather 
like a croton. 

un-an, ,^^U and B&ngun-bangun-an, 
s^V^^^ The crow's-nest in a stockade ; 
a turret, a watch-tower, a tower, battle- 
ment, a turret in a fortified wall. Note : 
The term RAmah palas-palas, f^U <uy 

is also used for the crow's-nest in a 
stockade. — The look-out post on board 
a ship is called Tanjar-an kS^rang, ^^j^^ 

^j\i by the Malays. See Bangun, ^U 
To rise, etc. 

Bfini, Jl^ and Per-b&ni, ^^^y An interval 

of peace ; an interval of cessation of 
change or motion ; an interval of rest 
or quiet. BMan bani, ^ l^ ^^ The first 

and last quarters of the moon. Ayer 
per-bani, ^^^ jl^ The still waters be- 
tween the ebb and the flow. 

Bani, Ab., ^ Sons ; people ; nations. 

B&nian, ^^ A small bag or sack for 
holding provisions; a box in which 
treasure or valuables are kept. MS^ka 
Rfi-ja D6nan pun men-dengar kata bapa 
sudara-nya ia pun bangkit pergi mem- 
bdka peti kechil banian sakti, gl^ <3L^ 


Banian^ Guz., ^Ij 

Raja Donan heard his uncle's words, 
and he got up and opened his small 
magic treasure-box. 

Banian, Guz., ^U An under-shirt, a vest, 
a singlet. Note : This word is not 
Malay, and is only understood by inha- 
bitants of the Straits Settlements and 
other natives who have come much into 
contact with Europeans. As a rule, the 
term Kanji prah, &^ cs«^ ^ Baju prak 

^ji^b is used by the Malays to de- 
scribe a merino vest. 

Banian, Hind., ^^^ An Indian merchant. 

Baning, ^L^ The name of the largest 
species of land tortoise found in Malay 
countries. Note: Two other kinds of 
tortoise which live entirely on land are 
found in the Peninsula: the larger is 
called Bitiku, ^^^ and the smaller Kiira- 

kiira, Yb^ by the Malays- Telor baning, 
^^ J^ The egg of this tortoise. KAlit 
baning, ^\^ aJ/ The shell of this 

tortoise. Note : The shell of this tortoise 
is sometimes used as a gong by the 
aboriginal tribes and by some jungle- 
dwelling Malays, and hence the expres- 
sion Mem-baning, A^^W^ is sometimes 
used to express the action of making a 
noise in the jungle by artificial means 
in order to guide any one who has lost 
his way, etc. 

Banir, ^U The projections of the wood 
near the roots of certain trees. Banir 
kemAning, ^y^ j^\i The projections 
at the root of the Murraya exotica. la 
pun tiada ber-bAat kftbu hanya-lah ber- 
prang balek segala banir kayu, ^y ^^1 
jj\i JC^ ^l^ ^^y. ^lifc ^/ &)^y Jljj 

^l^ They did not make stockades, they 
only fought from behind the buttress- 
like projections of the trees. Ber-banir, 
ji^^y Having projections of the wood 
near the roots. KemAdi prahu besar di- 
bdat dengan kayu iang ber-banir, K^^y^ 
y l^^ y l^ ^j Sl^ J j^ ybly The rud- 
ders of large boats are made from trees 
which have projections near the roots. 
Chelah b&nir, ^b dU. The space between 

two of these projections. Isang banir, 
^Ij i^l The tip of these projections at 

the highesfpoint at which it joins on to 
the tree. 

Baniul, J^^ 

Bantah, dsj4 
The name of a species of 

Banjar, Jav., ^^ A row, a rank ; to stand 
in a row. Meng-&tor samAa-nya p&da 
dda banjar, ys^, \^^ J^ ^^y^'^ yUL^ To 
arrange them all in two rows. Maka 
TAan Petri bangun deri-pada ber-adu 
pagi hari dftdok pada tingkap kechil rApa 
mAka tengah handak santap sirih di- 
dalam piian cher^na banjar, ^)y «.sA^-^ 

^ c3^-^^ ^^^ s/^ -^^'^ ^^^ O^^ ^y^ 

4-ftx;L.^ ^J^jJb <JAJ £^y^ *^jj Jj^ «-^^^ 

J^ oW o'y f^'^^ ^Jif-^ The Princess 
arose from slumber in the early morning, 
and seated herself at her little casement 
which was shaped like a human face, 
and was in the act of eating betel-quids 
from out the sirih-hoxea, which were 
arranged in rows. Di-atas petr§.na suatu 
s'6rang ber-banjar-banjar, ^)yi^ ^^^^ 
Yj^y ^jy^ &|>-^ On sofas which were 
arranged in rows and allotted one to 
each person. ChAkup dengan kAda gsljah 
ber-banjar-banjar, dc^l? Ij^ ^^*s ^^y^ 

Yj^y With cavalry and fighting-ele- 
phants drawn up in line. (See Baris, 
^^b A line, etc.) 

Banji, Chin., ^^^ A kind of trellis- work 
made of wood or porcelain, and used as 
an ornament above a door or window; 
a pattern. Kain pr6 bAnga banji, ^l^ 
s5^ ^^ v^ji A black silk cloth with a 
trellis pattern. 

Banjir, Jav., j^^^ Inundation, flood, 
freshet. Note : This word is not in use 
in the Malay Peninsula. (See Ampoh, 
^syL•l Bah, dj arid. Sebak, ^5--^). 

Banta, la;^^ This word is used in Perak 
with Anak^ ^1, and the combination 
Anak banta, Isa^ ^\ means a child of the 
Sultan born while the father holds that 

Bantah, dxx^ To dispute, to argue, to 
wrangle, to quarrel in words, to haggle, 
to squabble, to contest, to resist. Bantah 
dan engkar deri-pada hukum-hukum-an» 
^^Yl^ ^j^ /^^ ^'^ ^sLXi To dispute 
and oppose the laws. Also Ber-bantah> 
6»^y To quarrel, etc. M&ka bising-lah 

bdnyi 6rang iang ber-bantah dan ber* 
t&ki itu, ^b dao^ ^^^1 ^^ aU^^ ,.,..^ c&l^ 

4il ^q^^^^ The people who were wrangling 


Bantal, Jxq 

and quarrelling made a great noise. 
S'telah Sri Betara men-dengar kata 
Pateh Gajah Mada, ber-bantah dengan 
Temenggong itu, ^^y^^ ^1»j K^y^ dL:— ^ 

«^l When Sri Betsira had lieard the 
words of Pateh Gajah Mada, as he argued 
with the Temenggong. Pasal iang ka- 
anam-blas pMa me-nyata-kan hukum 
bantah ada-pun jik&lau ada s'6rang bef- 
klahi atau ber-bantah dengan s'drang 
6rang lain, ^\^ ^ ^ ^*^ J-'^=^ 

^J ^jj\ ^jy^ y^^ ^^^j^ Section the 
sixteenth, setting forth the law concern- 
ing quarrels; if a man fights or quarrels 
with any other man. Bantah bentoh, 
6^ajj a»j4 a violent quarrel. Ber-bantah 
bentoh, fiyuj axj^j^ To quarrel violently. 
Per-bantah-an, ^;yi^^ A dispute, a 
quarrel, a wrangle, a squabble. Sepaya 
j&Qgan men-jadi per-bantah-an, ^^lil^o 
^jj^aA3y ^g^^^ o^W In order that a 
dispute may not arise; in order that no 
quarrel may result. (See also Mergai, 
/JT^ Galang, A) I? Lentang, AoxJ and 

Taid, j\s). 

Bantal, \t^ A pillow; a cushion. Sandar 
pada bantal ka-amas-an, Jxa^ j^^Jj;-^ 
^jy..-^*li To recline on pillows of gold. 
Lepas bantal ber-ganti tikar, Jx^j ,jJLJ 
yC-J ^^r^j^ To let go the pillow and 

take the mat in its stead — Prov. Note : 
This saying is applied to one who has 
exchanged some article for another 
closely resembling it, or of nearly the 
same value. Mata tidor bantal jfi-ga, 
^Uk J:u3 j>>^J & ^ The eyes slumber 
while the pillow remains awake — Prov. 
The meaning is that if you rely on some 
one else and neglect to watch your own 
interests, the person you rely on may 
take advantage of you. Tikar bantal, 
Jsa; jS^ Bed ; bedding. Note : This ex- 
pression is used to mean the furniture 
of a Malay house, and in this sense is 
often coupled to Pinggan mangkok, 
jjj^l^ Jl^ Plates and cups — thus, Ping- 
gan mangkok tikar bantal, ^^^ ^/^ 
Jaj^ ^^ i.e., all one's personal property. 

Maka sarong itu di-td,roh pada bd,lek 
bantal besar. JJ &j\56 u^il ^ji^^ c5\— ^ 
j^^ ysj4 ^3Jlj She put the cloth away 
behind the big pillow. Maka di-gantong- 


kan kelambu s'laboh ber-gemala dd.un 
bddi dan chiikup lengkap dengan tikar 
bantal iang-ka-amas-an, ^^^yuS^ tsAw» 

^^y^-KAi ^ /^ J>^ Ui^ They hung 
up bed -curtains with an ornamental 
fringe, and fully furnished with mats 
and pillows of gold. Ber-bantal, J^wJ^ 
To have a pillow; furnished or provided 
with pillows. Tidor tiada ber-bantal, 
^y^Ji ^Lj j^j^ To sleep without a 
pillow. Ber-bantal-kan, ^j<1«a^^ To use 
as a pillow; to make a pillow of any- 
thing. Ber - bantal - kan tanah, ^j^^ls^^ji 
S\S Making a pillow of the ground, 
MS,ka ia pun ber - adu ber - bantal - kan 
riba Hang Jebat, ^^1^ ^^y ^g) <-2A — « 

a.5^ ^ c^^ ^J^^j^ The king slept, 

using Hang Jebat's lap as a pillow. 
M&ka TAan Petri pun ber-titah ka-pada 
Ma' Inang tiia di-siiroh jaga ber-bantal- 
kan nyior bdlat, ^y ^jAh ^ly <^ — # 

4^ j>>4 The Princess spoke to the old 
nurse, telling her to keep awake and 
to use a round coconut as a pillow. 
— When a short section of a rainbow 
is seen in the west and lying almost 
horizontal, it is called Bantal, Jxjlj and 

is supposed to betoken the death of the 

Bantar, ^^ The science of curing disease 
by magic or by charms; to prevent, to 
avert, to prevent a threatened evil, to 
avert some threatened calamity. Jikalau 
tiada di-bantar-kan-nya neschaya men- 
jadi besar, ^^l^-^ ^jsu^^ jLJ^J yC-^. 

^ ^gjl»ju« If it be not prevented, it will 
certainly become great. Note: The 
method commonly used for the curing 
of disease is to put a little chunam on 
a leaf of the tree called Katak kran, 
^^^ ^^ and then squeeze the juice out 

of the leaf and anoint the affected part 
with it. 

Bantara,^Uj;^ A herald, a marshal. (See 

Bantati Ssl^ The stern, the end, the butt- 
end; the buttocks, the anus. (See Pantat, 
&ui which is the more usual form.) 

Bantei, ^^^ To cut up meat; to joint, to 
dismember, to cut up into joints, or into 
large pieces; butcher's-meat. Note: Thia 


Banti, ^e«j^ 

word is often employed by Malays when 
a European would use the term *to kill/ 
it being the habit among Malays to cut 
up an animal as soon as it has been 
killed. Thus a Malay says, * Orang handak 
mem-bantei kerbau/ ^.?i ■■■♦># ^3v3oJb ^^^1 

^^ * A man is going \jCi cait wp 2^ buffalo,' 
when a European would say a man is 
going to /ctW a buffalo. This use of the 
word has led to some confusion, but 
nevertheless Bantei, ^e»j^ never means 
to kill. This word, for the most part, is 
only used of cutting up large animals, 
such as cattle, etc. The word Slang, ^^ 
is used in speaking of cutting up small 
animals, or of cutting up meat into small 
pieces. In colloquial Malay, when the 
word Bantei, ^«»a^ is used by itself 
without any noun as its subject, it is 
generally understood to refer to a buffalo : 
ilfiu^^ Lama 6rang tiada mem-bantei, ^i 
^ ,v j ,..»,» jLjJ £^^I It is a long time since 
any one cut up (viz., killed a buffalo), 
lang haraba sudah mem-bantei b&gai 
6rang hamba, ^\\ ^.yi ■■■♦># esJ^-^ w-H*i 

«-r-^^ A^^l Which I have cut up for my 
people (to eat). Si-&pa 6rang iang mem- 
bantei s'm&lam, i%)U^ ^esju^u^ £^^l c^l^^ 
Who was it that cut up (i.e., killed) a 
buffalo yesterday ? Tempat mem-bantei, 
^«j^<-^ uiJU Shambles ; a slaughter- 
house. Bantei dan slang, ^^ ^b -»*.) 

To cut up into joints, and to cut into 
small pieces, ^oie: The term Bantei, 
^^^ in colloquial Malay, is used in a 

slang sense to mean *to destroy,' *to 
spoil,' * to damage,' etc. Sudah jatoh 
benih habis bantei di-kem&rau, dJic^ aj^ 
jj;Li^j ^^L^ ^\^&^ As soon as the seed 
was planted, it was utterly destroyed by 
the drought. Bantei di-t6-po', •yyf^ ^^^ 
A gambler's slang expression signifying 
that he has lost money at the game 
called Te'po\ Di-bantei degan kayu, 
^^ ^^ s?^"^ ^^ ^^^* ^^^ ^ stick. 
Bant!, ^«aA^ To lie down, to rest, to repose. 

Banting, ^^m^ To throw away (of large 
things), to throw against, to dash 
against; to be thrown or dashed against 
anything. Seperti 6mbak mem-banting 
dlri, v^>i^ ^ ^>yji-ft»->* <5--^jl i^Lo Like waves 
dashing against themselves — Proverb. 
J&ngan di- banting s&ngat kain itu, ^ W 
4«^t ^l^ J^L« ^t»^J Do not beat that 

Bantun, ^yi^ 

linen very much (i.e., in washing it). 
Also Banting-kan, ^^j^A^^aj To fell, etc. 
Note: For other words for *To beat,' etc.,. 
see Note under Bahan, ^ To beat, etc. 

Banting, •^|t>x*^ To hold over the embera 

and roast slowly, as is done with salt 
fish or bananas. 

Banting, ^<>xa^ A species of boat having 

two masts carrying deep sails like those 
of Chinese junks. 

Bantu, yM To aid, to succour, to help, to 
abet, to go to the assistance of; aid, 
help, succour, assistance. Bantu prang, 
^yj yuJi To succour or aid in making 
war. Bantu kerja, gj-f ysj^ To help 
work. Bantu wang, £l^ ystj^ To help 
with money. Minta bantu, ysjj^ "Ixt^ To 
ask for assistance, aid, or help. Apa- 
lah updya k&kak handak men-{Qong 
bantu adek s'l^ku ini, ^\S v^U^I ^sLil 
^■1^1^ ^ j|^^ ^y^ ^^yj^ What meana 
have I, your brother, to assist you, 
mv sifter, if matters are as they are? 
Jikdlau tiada karana bantu-nya, ^L^ ^S^ 
^y^ ^^J^ Were it not for his aid. 
J&ngan mem-bantu &tau meny-erta-i 
drang me-14ku-kan s'b&rang ka-s&lah- 

^X^ £^W-« Do not aid or abet any one 
to commit any crime. K&pal pun tiba 
deri-Batawi handak mem-bantu t&nah 
Maiaka, jJu^ ^J^ j^ h-^ ^y Jjlf 
-£JA^ <UlJ j .v.>-{,»i^ A ship arrived from 
Batavia to assist Malacca. Karlbia b&n- 
yak 6rang mem-bantu peng-llma itu, 
uHll j^<^ y S'i'^j^ ^jj) ^\i ^^j\^ For many 
people assisted that warrior. (See also 
TAlong, ^y To help, aid, etc.) 

Bantun, ^^yu^ To pull up, to pull out, to 
pluck up, to pluck out, to pull off, to 
extricate. Mem-bantun b(du ketlak dan 
b^lu ari-ari, y^ ^b ^3^ y^ o^*'^-^*-* 
Yi^j] To pull out the hairs of the arm- 
pits and pubes. Mem-bantun deri-pftda 
t4nah, aJlJ jJ;J ^ y ^- i -^ To pluck from 
the ground. M&ri-lah klta mem-bantun- 
kan pohun ini sep&ya d&pat meng-&mbil 
btlah-bClah-an-nya, ^ytx^M^ im^ ^j^ 

^V&^y J^^ ^'^ v^lft--^ ^\ ^y Come, 
let us pull up the tree, in order that we 
may be able to get the fruit. Bantun 
deri-p&da kdda-nya, ^^\^^ JJ^^u ^yu^ To 


Bantun, ^^ 

pull from off his horse. (See also Ch&but, 
5^U. To pull up, to pull out, etc) 

Bantun, ^^y^ The name of a tree which 
yields a handsome yellow wood, from 
which walking-sticks are often made. 
In Perak it is usually called Sa* bantun, 

Bantut, 5^ Spoilt, imperfect, incomplete, 
unfinished; to be no longer inclined for 
anything; to be left behind by others in 
one's studies. Pftja-nya pun bantut-lah, 
dlJ^AAj ^y ^^W^y His incantations were 

incomplete. Roti bantut, &j»^ -Jjy 
Imperfectly baked bread. Ayam iang 
bantut, SjAi^ ^1 A sitting fowl which, 
having been disturbed, refuses to resume 
sitting, or which ceases to lay eggs. 
BAnga bantut, Syuj, l^^ A prematurely 

faded flower. Mem-bantut-kan pAja-nya, 
^Wj^ ^j<3 y , K g,»^ To render his rites in- 
complete; to interrupt them. 

Bantut, Syu4 To forge (as iron, etc.) A 
more common word is Tdkul, J^y 

Banu, AR.,yi| Offspring, progeny ; people, 
nations, tribes. (See Bani, ^Jlj). 

B&nung, ^^U or BMoh b&nung, ^yl^ &^y 

A large species of bamboo. (See BMoh, 
6^ji A bamboo, etc.) 

B&nyak, ^U Many; very; much; a good 
many, a great deal, a number, a store, a 
quantity; abundant, plentiful, numerous; 
the majority. Maka bfi,nyak-lah k^sah 
iang plek-plek di-cherita-kan Alih 6rang 
tfta itu, o^laA^^ VS^ ^ ^'^=^ ^^ ^^^ 
«^l 1^ ^j^\ aJjI Many extraordinary 
tales were related by the old man. 
B&nyak stogat, ^L> ^L^ Very many. 
B&nyak s&ngat ka-sAsah-an-nya, ^3jm 
^k,^j^ ^^ His troubles were very 
many. Amat banyak, ^l^ 2^\ Very 

many. Binyak &mat, i^l ^l^ Too many. 
Ber-&pa banyak, ^3ili <-3l^ How many ? 
Very many. banyak, <-il^ 
jjlj How many? Very many, exceed- 
ingly many. Deri-m&na d&tang-nya dan 
handak ka-m&na pergi-nya dan be-ber- 
apa b&nyak 6rang di-dSlam-nya, ^^^ 

^laa ^^^1 Whence comes she, and 

whither is she wending, and how many 
men are on board her? Dan ber-&pa 
b&nyak negri iang meng-hantar ufti ka- 

Banyak, ^l^ 

pMa baginda, ysj^^iu ^ i i^j!^ S^^ <-3l^ ^1 J 

jjJ^ jJLS" ^^\ And very many countries 

sent tribute to the monarch. Bagitu 
b&nyak, ^Ij jslJ^ So many; as many as. 

Wa-h6 anak-ku ftpa-lah d&ya dan upfi.ya 
kita diia ber-d.nak handak me-l&wan stru 
iang datang itu bagitu banyak, j^) ^\^ 
^Jo.^ ^1^ I^J uu^ ^gUy ^lj ^^b dbl 

^^U ytA uw' ^'^ ^>^-- e)-^^ ^ 
my son, what means and power have 
we to resist enemies which come so 
many at a time? Bd^nyak siisah, ^U 
d^yA Very difficult; very hard. Tidak 
ber-fi-pa banyak Atang-nya, <-3lji ^5^^ 
^j' fS^ His debts are not very many ; 
his debts do not amount to very much. 
Ada s'6rang pen-jftrit l&gi tfta b&nyak 
t&hu elemu-nya deri-p&da hamba t{ia itu» 
^^y^U ^li »^ ^J h^y^ Ijy^ a» 
Jil ly s-^*^ *^j^ There is an older fight- 
ing-man who knows a great deal more 
of sciences than does your old servant 
there. J&ngan-lah b&nyak s&ngat ber- 
tAtor, ^Jiji i£>\^ ^3ili dL^lft. Do no talk 

so much ; do not talk a great deal. Biial- 
nya b&nyak, ^l* ^'y He boasted a 
great deal. M&ka di-d&lam b&nyak- 
b&nyak itu tampak-lah s'bdah k&pal ter- 
l&lu besar-nya, dlJUUJ u^il YSl\i ^'^^ <-**-» 
^j^ ^iji ^y^ fi|><-^ Among the number 
he saw one very large ship. M&ka 
s*6rang mem-bli besi s'ribu pikul b&nyak- 

nya* S^ y^J-^ %^ s?*^^ t^y^^ *aV_^ 
^Ij One man bought some iron, the 
quantity thereof being one thousand 
p^kul (133,333^ lbs.). P&di t&hun ini 
b&nyak s&ngat, a£>U ^g ^1 ^U ^^^Li 

The rice crop this year is very abundant. 
H6 tAan-hamba tngat-ingat kar&na 6rang 
iang meng-&mok itu ter-l&lu b&nyak, ^ 

y Sy u.^1 ^U.Ui ^^» ^^l^ t>aAil c.,.-^ ^ly 

^l^ Have a care, my master, for those 
who are making the attack are very 
numerous. Hidup pun sMah ti&da l&gi 
seperti untong drang iang b&nyak, (^ J^ 

^Ui £^y ^jSi sylo ^s ji^ 6j^^ ^y 

Even if I live, my lot will no longer be 
like unto that of the majority of mankind. 
B&nyak-nya, ^Ij The number thereof; 
the quantity thereof. Tdjoh likor b&nyak- 
nya, ^l^ j^ d&.yf The number thereof 
is twenty-seven. B&nyak-nya ti&da-lah 
d&pat di-k&ta-kan, ^U^^ iib ^Jbgr JJ^Lj 
The number thereof was such that I am 


Banyak, ^l^ 

unable to state it ! B&nyak-nya tidak 
lagi ter-pri, ^y/ ^S j^ ^L^ The 

quantity thereof was untold; the number 
thereof cannot be told. Banyak sedikit, 
^^^^^ v5i^ Plenty ; a good deal ; a fair 
amount. ChAba bS,wa banyak sedikit, 
a-^j^ ^^ *|>^ *^>^ Bring a good deal. 
Ter-lalu banyak, ^l^ ^ V Exceedingly 
many. Banyak deri-pMa, J^^^ ^l^ More 
than. lang bS.nyak s'kali, ^^^ <54Mi 
The most. S'b&nyak, ^3jW-o As many as ; 
so much as; as much as. S' banyak iang 
ada, ^\iki ^1<k^ As many as there are. 
Maka rS.ja pun ber-tttah ka-p&da segala 
inang peng-8.soh-nya meny-Aroh siap- 
kan perksikas s' banyak iang di-ka-handak 
<!dih tAkang itu, Jsi^ da-J^ ^y gl^ <.^\ — • 

ufc^l ^y ^J^) ^juL^jJ^ ^W--« The king 

gave orders to all his attendants and 
nurses, telling them to prepare all the 
things and as many of them as the work- 
men should require. Sedikit s' banyak, 
^L^ 2^j^ A little ; more or less ; a 

certain amount. Ada jiiga pe-tAa-nya 
sedikit s'banyak, 3^j^^ ^|^ ^^ ^1 

^L-^ He knows a little of the teachings 

of the men of old. M&ka ber-m(Qa aku 
bel-cljar ka-pada-nya sedikit s'banyak, 
^l^ S^j^ ^)j^ ^li /I J^^ cSAw 

First of all I learned a certain amount 
from him. Banyak-banyak, v^^^ Very 
many, a great many, a great deal. Note : 
In colloquial Malay Banyak-banyak, Y^^^ 
is pronounced Be-banyak, ^3^1-.^ (See Note 
under Bac^). Ka-banyak, ^W^ and Ka- 
banyak-kan, ^j^W^ The majority, the 

common run, the ordinary run ; common, 
ordinary. Note : This is an exception 
to what by the ordinary rule of suffixes 
would be Ka-bdnyalc-an. Ka-bfi-nyak 
bagitu lah, <jJy^ c54^ ^^^^ majority are 
like that. Jangan-lah kira-nya t<ian-ku 
sangka-kan di-ddlam hati bahwa patek 
ini seperti srigdla ka-btlnyak-kan, Jui^i^ 

J^lfJ J^^r--* &^^A-^ ^\ Do not by 
any chance think in thy heart, king, 
that thy servants are like unto the 
ordinary run of wolves. Ada tAan-ku 
kris 6rang tdo, patek kris ka-banyak- 
kan &pa gAna-nya di-lihat, y^'y ^' 
^U/ c^l ^l^ ^y c^^U ly Ij^\ ^/ 

Banyun, ^^\i 

3^^ I have, king, a dagger which 
belonged to my ancestors, but it is an 
ordinary dagger not worth looking at. 
Orang banyak, ^34^^ £^^1 and Orang-ka- 

banyak, ^W^ ^jj\ The common people, 
the people. Maka tete-kala itu maka 
Sri Betara sedang rS,mai di-adap-i Alih 
6rang banyak, ^j^ <^U «i^l Jl<aJ tsA-^ 

<54^ Aa^I <J^' c^^'^ ^b ^^ j^ At that 
time Sri Betara was holding a crowded 
audience, the common people sitting 
facing him. Di-per-b&nyak, ^l^y^ To 
make much of, to prolong, to draw out, 
to multiply. Maka pada bechara patek 
apa-tah di-per-banyak bechara, JJ t^-^ 

J^ di^y^ '^' "^^^ J^ I^ ^^J ser- 
vant's opinion, what does it profit us to 
prolong this discussion? Note: The word 
Banyak, ^b can be used in an adverbial 
sense as an intensitive to qualify an ad- 
jective: thus — Banyak jahat, isbU. ^Lj 

Very wicked, etc. When used in this 
way, Bflnyak, ^^^ always precedes the 

adjective it qualifies. The frequent use 
of Banyak, ^^i in this manner is to be 
avoided, the use of the terms Sangat, 
a^U Imat, ^1 Ter-lalu, ^Jly Ter-lang- 
song, ^>-J^y Ter-lampau, ^-J/ etc., 
being more idiomatic. Thus it is better 
to say, Baik sllngat, 56 U ^''l^ Very 

good, than Banyak baik, ^*lj ^l^ , and 

Ter-lalu gegak gempita, U JL#- ? ^^ ^^ji 

than Banyak gegak gempita, ^^ ^L^ 
\aJlS Very loud and clamorous. 

Banyak, Jav., ^L^ A goose. Note: In 
the Malay Peninsula Angsa, L^l is the 
only word for a goose which is used 
or understood. 

Bllnyar, j-jl^ A squall of wind; a sudden 
tempest of wind and rain. 

Btnyu, yLj The fermented water of the 
coconut into which a piece of iron is 
put, in order to give it a reddish or 
purple colour. 

Banyul, J^Li A clown, a buffoon, a jester. 

(See Alan-alan, j*^! Pran, ^y Jenaka, 
-sJUfiK etc.) 

Banyun, ^^ A preparation used for 
blackening the teeth, and made from the 
soot obtained by burning coconut shells, 
the leaves of the lime tree, and other 
vegetable matter. Note: The redupli- 


Bapa, <-^lj 

rated form Bftnyun-banynn, Y^^\i which 
in colloquial Malay is pronounced Be- 
b&nyun, is also met with. (See B&ja, gb 
Grang, ^^ etc.) 

Bapa, ^^U A father; an uncle. Note: 
Although this word is always spelt Bd,pa, 
«-* l^ in the written language, it is always 
pronounced Bapa' in colloquial Malay, 
the sound of the final a being abrupt 
and similar to what it would be if it was 
followed by an amzah » In colloquial 
Malay, Bapa, v-jl^ is frequently con- 
tracted into Pa' ''U and in that form is 
used as a friendly and familiar vocative 
by juniors addressing an aged man. This 
contracted form is also attached to a 
proper name : thus, Pa' Anjang, AJl *U 
Father Anjang, etc. In the latter cases 
it is for the most part only used by 
persons related by some ties of blood to 
the man addressed. Jika bWih di-hidup- 
kan bdpa-nya man'- lah ia nikah dengan 
dia, d<J ^] dJ/U ^Uli ^wV-jbj ^J^ cal^ 

^^u j^^ If he could bring her father 

back to life, she would wed with him. 
Maka tiba-tlba datang-lah bapa-nya 
meng-etok pintu, ^^Ul| aJjJij f^-r-^J <^^ 
yn^ ^^x^ Presently his father came 
and knocked at the door. Ampun tAan- 
ku ini - lah bdloh bangsi per - main - an 
patek apa drang di-dsLlam hAtan di-per- 
b(iat tHih b&pa patek ka~pada anak-nya 
s'orang satu, -e-J^ &^j^ J^' ^V O-^' 

yU ^jjSL^ ^t J^ csAjfU c-jb <0y Pardon, 
King, this is thy servant's flute, which 
is a plaything in use among all us jungle- 
dwellers ; it was made by thy servant's 
father, who gave one to each of his 
children. Pergi-lah karau pangp^al l^her 
b4pa-mu Si Jebat, j^ J^ ^IS" dLwSyj 

^L^tr^^ Ulj Go wring the neck of thy 

father Si Jebat. Ibu bapa, «-jLj ^--^1 

Father and mother ; parents ; relatives. 
Maka ia handak kembali ka-pada ibu 
bapa-nya handak-lah dengan ka-retha- 
an 6rang iang tempat dftdok-nya itu, 

Mu4l ^^^^ SSusJ^ ^j^] ^-^Ubi/ ^u If he 

wishes to return to his father and mother, 
he can only do so with the consent of 
those with whom he has been living. 
Remak-lah b^ta mem-bdang diri ka- 
d&lam hiitan enggan men-j&di ^nak yatim 

BS^pa, «3l^ 

&nak piatu tid,da ber-ibu bapa, u^.^ d)JU^ 
^1 ^^\^^ ^\ Jyt> ^1^ ^ji3 ^)j.^ 

^^ >l'^ ^UJ yW* ^' (^k It were 
better for me to cast myself away in the 
forests than to become an orphan, one 
who hath no parents. JikS,lau sAnggoh 
lagi S,ku sama s'ibu dan s'bfi,pa dengan 
Raja Besar itu b3.rang di-sampei-kan 
Allah Taala kira-nya anak sud^ra-ku 
itu ka-mftri, (.U* /I ^2J dS:£>^^ ^ ^ 

^gpU^ dil If verily I am of the same 
parents as Raja Besar, may the Most 
High God grant that my nephew may 
come hither unto me ! Bapa sud§,ra, t^ \\ 
^1 j^ An uncle ; a male second or third 
cousin. Maka pada suatu hari Raja 
D6nan pun meny-Aroh bapa sudara-nya 
me-laboh-kan sauh handak ber- 
senang - senang hclti dan ber-senang- 
senang tMang karS,na angin pun tifida, 

^UJ ^y ^1 o^i^ ^y r^^ ^b ^lib 

Upon a certain day R&ja D6nan bade his 
uncle cast anchor, because he wished to 
amuse himself and rest his limbs, as there 
was no wind. Handak patek sembah- 
kan mati ibu dan tiada patek sembah- 
kan mati bapa, ^U ^f. ;,.».. ^ <-^li o^^**^ 

Should thy slave tell thee this thing, it 
were like unto the death of his mother; 
yet not to tell thee, were as the loss 
of his father Bapa tiri, y^y^ c-jL^ A 
stepfather. — One who has married either 
a widow or a divorcee is called Bapa tiri, 
K^y^ <-3lj by his wife's children by the 
former marriage. Lihat-lah pen-angan 
bapa tiri-mu, y^ i^y^ %^\\ ^\iS A »(. ..^.1 

Behold the handiwork of your step- 
father ! Note: Among Malays it is a 
gross insult to call yourself a man's 
stepfather, since it implies a degree of 
intimacy with his mother to which you 
ought not to pretend. Bapa angkat, 
ufc->C£>l %^\4 An adopted father. Jika 
tiS-da ia mati mfl^ka pe-kerja-an-nya 
s'bhagi di-bayar Mih Mpa 8,ngkat-nya, 

,^i^\ 4->li dJ^I ^b^ If the child does not 

die, half the value of its labour must be 
paid by its adopted father. Adek ber- 


adek s'ma' s'Mpa, t^l^^ *U^ v5^^'^ ^Si^' 
Brothers by the same father and mother. 
Bapa men-tiia, l^»ju» c^l^ A father-in-law. 

BakaMpa-nya, ^^Uli -sJl^ The heir to his 
lather; the hereditary rank, qualities, 
etc., inherited from his father. Note: 
In colloquial Malay, Bapa, c-jlj is fre- 
quently applied to any full-grown man, 
beast, fowl, or fish. Bapa orang, <-3U 
$;^1 A full-grown man — i.e., a father of 

men. Bapa kambing, A«-^ <-3 b A large 

billy-goat. Bapa fi.yam, ^1 <-3lj A big 

cock. Bapa belida, jj^ <-3Lj A large 
fish of the kind called belida by the 

Bara, ^Lj Embers ; live or burning coals, ; 
glowing cinders. Ikan bembam di-btlra, 
j\i6 ^^^ ^\ Fish cooked in the ashes. 

Bara jlpi, <V'^^ The embers of the fire. 
Genggam D^ra, j\i ^♦S^ To seize live 

embers with the hand — Prov. Telan bS,ra, 
^li ^ To swallow red-hot embers — Pro- 
verbial expression. P&nas bllra, ^li ^\^ 

Passionate. — When pddi is laid out to 
dry and there is no sun, the children who 
are watching it say, to induce the sun to 
come out, *B&ra, bara api,' ^WjU with 

a long accent on the first syllable of 
Bara. Any wicked person who is passing, 
and wants to tease them, completes the 
couplet by saying, *Anak dara na' ber- 
laki,' ^2J^ 'U l;b ^1 ' The virgin wants 

a husband.' — Men-61ak-kan b&ra, ^^f^y^ 
^Ij To throw out the burning coals in 
order to prepare the ashes for cooking 
purposes. Jijakb&ra,^li ^5^<^ A punish- 
ment which consists of hanging a victim 
up by the wrists or thumbs in such a 
manner that the tips of the toes alone 
touch the ground. This expression is 
also used when crossing a river on foot, 
to signify that every now and then the 
feet touch the bottom. 

Baraah, Ar., 6*1^ or Baraat, &*l^ A letter, 
an epistle, a diploma. 

Bllrah, tjU Cancer; tumour; swelling; 
malignant swelling or tumour. Note : 
The Malays give the following names to 
tumours of different kinds on different 
parts of the body. B&rah batu,yli &j\^ 
A hard tumour. B3.rah bir, ^ 6>li A 

kind of piles. Barah ampang, ^JUI &j\i 
A tumour in the breast. Barah sisek, 

Barang, ^j\i 

^  -, »> o &j\i A tumour which causes the 

skin to fall off in scales. Barah sisip, 
t^ i f:,,^ ^ &j[^ A tumour on the ribs. 
Barah tiarap, ^^j^ &j\i BS^rah (Qar, &j\i 
^)\ An oblong swelling in the loins. 
Barah klawar, ^^K &^\\ An abscess under 
the armpit. Biinga barah, es^l^ 16^ An 
encysted tumour; the name of a large 
kind of ganglion. Kena sakit barah, 
6^lj a-s^L> \iS To be afflicted with cancer 
or an abscess. B8,rah di-prut, ^)^^ eyl^ 

A tumour in the abdomen. Lalu di- 
hisap-nya barah itu, uhi) eylj ^^.^ ^ ^ Jl 
She then sucked the tumour, 

Birai, ^g;li The name of a salt-water fish. 

Btran, ^^Lj Marshy forest land in which 
dry and swampy land alternate. Babi 
b&ran, ^^^i ^o?^ Pigs which inhabit these 
marshy foreTts. 

B^ran-baran, \^^\a The name of a kind 
of shell-fish. Note : In colloquial Malay 
this word is pronounced Be-b&ran, ^l^ 
(See Note under Ba, c^). 

Barang, ^^^ A thing, an article; things, 
articles. Peti ber-isi b&rang, ^o^l^ ^^ 
^j\i A box full of things. B&rang jdal- 
an, ^^y^ ^j^ Merchandise; articles for 
sale. Dan apa-kah bcirang mdat-an- 
i^ya, ^'>-^ ^jU ^^^ e>'^ And what 
are the things which form her cargo ? 
Barang iang ka-liiar, ^'^^ ^jU Ex- 
ports. Barang iang masok, ^UAi ijU 
Imports. Note : The reduplicated form 
Bfl^rang-barang, Y^^ which in the collo- 
quial dialects is often pronounced Be- 
b&rang, ^j^ is very commonly used 
to express * things,' * articles,* etc. H6 
btldak kechil gila angkau sudah 
angkau bflnoh £lbang £lku maka angkau 
mari ka-pada aku minta seg^a barang- 
barang makan-an, c-il ^ J^ j^6y ^ 

^U Yl^^ JC* "U^/l j.i^ little child, 

what madness is thine 1 Having killed 
my brother, thou comest unto me and 
askest for all manner of things to eat ! 
Serta ia handak p6nggah barang-b&rang 
di-dalam kapal itu, <S^y <3^>^J^ s?' ^j-^ 
uw' J>1^ ^'^^ V^j^ And he desired to 
unload all the things which were in 
the ship. Maka batang ptllei itu pun 
ter-bdka sendiri-nya maka di-masok- 


Barang, ^^Ij 

kan segala bglrang-bfi-rang-nya ka-dalam 
batang pAlei maka ter-tfttup balek s'mAla, 

^^ sgJy ^^ r^'^ vjS)^^>>^ J*^ ^^jO^Uj 
J^^4--o ^5ftJb «^-aJyy The trunk of .the tree 

opened itself, and he put all his things 
into it, whereupon it closed up again. 
Barang-barang amas dan p^rak, V^jU 
i3j^ ^lu ^j.^1 Gold and silver orna- 
ments ; gold and silver ware. Barang- 
barang per-main-an, ^J»^^y V^j^ Toys, 
playthings ; things connected with any 
sport or game. JBarang-barang pichah- 
an, ^j^ Vh^' ^^ Barang-barang iang 
rapak ^5>'^ ^ ^^J^* Fragile articles (such 
as glass or crockery ware). 

Barang, &p l^ Any ; anything ; each, every ; 
all, everything ; about ; even ; soever ; 
whatever, whatsoever, whichever. Baik- 
lah per-hamba me-lawan dia pada barang 
tempat dan pada b&rang per-main-an- 
nya, ^ii^J 4;l^ JJ v^^ OJ'^ h - -^^ ^^''U 
^^AjjUy fi;lj J^ ^b It is well I thy ser- 
vant will compete with him in any place 
and at any game of skill. Me-lain- 
kan sAkor ia bri t&hu tdan-nya seperti 
tempat-nya jauh dan barang s'bagai-nya, 

^U-« ^j^ ^^'»^ ^^^ Unless it is difficult 
for him to let the slave's master know, 
by reason of his dwelling-place being 
far distant, or anything of that kind. 
Barang pun jadi, v^^L©. ^y ^jU Any- 
thing will do. Dan lemah lembut barang 
per-k8.ta-an-nya mem-bri sdka hati iang 
men-dengar, J'^^j^ ^^U &j^ <uJ ^lu 
jfi>ja-Jki ^Lsb ±J^ s?>^^ His every word 
was soft and sweet, causing pleasure to 
all who heard him. Barang-ku paksa 
ika per-Alih birang-ku chita men-jadi, 
^P*^l^ Uftft. is\£>j\i ^j\ji yi LJJi ts^^L? 

All that is necessary for me I obtain, 
and all that I desire comes to pass. 
Maka TAan Petri itu pun sudah ber- 
^eh barang ka-Mku-an-nya dan santap 
pun sudah kftrang, ^^y^^i' i^ysj ^'y <-^^ 
ajwa ^y UiAK^ ^b J\/^ ^j\^. <Ql^ &sy^ 
$y^ The Princess had changed all 

her behaviour, and her appetite had 
decreased. Maka di-krah-kan prahu 
barang dda rfttus, ^j\i yly ^^/^ v^t^ 
^j^^j 1^^ He ordered together about 
two hundred boats. Barang dfta pMoh 

Barang, ^;l^ 

chfLkup-lah, ^Jii^^ ^J^ Ij^ ^^L^ About 
twenty will be sufficient. Barang kftta 
Laksam&na itu pun kftta Bendah&ra jAga, 

Whatever the Laksamana said, that also 
said the Bendahfi-ra. Maka Baginda pun 
ber-titah meny-Aroh ber-bflat barang 
iang di-ka-handak-i Mih ahlun-nujum 
tda itu, &\jiji &j^f^ &sLf?j^ ^y jjl^ cA — ^ 

UL^\ ly ^I^JIIibl djy ^JuL^jJki ^^Lj The 

monarch gave orders that whatsoever the 
old astronomer desired should be done. 
Barang-mana, ^^\^J^ aiid Barang-apa, 
c-4 li>; Ij Any ; whatever ; whatsoever ; 

whichsoever. B&rang ka-mana, ^U^ p^l? 

Whithersoever. H6 sudara-ku ka-am- 
pat kita ini lima sudcLra dapat-kah me- 
layar-kan s'bAah prahu ladang sepaya 
kita pergi me-rantau barang ka-mana 
men-chari makan, «t^ ^ii^^l^y^U^ ^ 

^j2J ^ly &\y^ s^ji^ ^^^1^ ^'^^ fJ vji' 
^L. ^g;^^ ^U^ ^^l^ y^j^ ^^y iLS ^U^ 

my four cousins, could we five rela- 
tions sail a boat and wander whither- 
soever we list, in order to earn our 
living? B&rang di-m£lna, ^L^^ ^^Li 
Wheresoever, wherever. Barang sAatu, 
Sl^ ^jU Whichever ; any one (of two 
or more things). Pileh-lah tAan barang 
iang ber-kenan p^da hati, 4^lj ^ly <3i^J^ 
^Lsb jj ^j^ Select whichever you 

fancy, master mine. Barang sedikit, 
ut.w^j^*« £;U Even a little; at all. 

BClngkus itu tiada ber-Abah bftrang 
sedikit per-bAat-an ia dahAlu jftga, 
^l^y ajsi^v-^ £^li dijl^ *^L^ ut-^l ,^r-^> 
%^y^ Jyb^ v^l The [appearance of the] 
bundle was not changed at all (even a 
little) from its former foldings. Barang- 
si-apa, <-3Lj---^^U Any one, whoever, 

whosoever. Maka barang-si-apa datang 
pada Baginda masing-masing pada layak- 
nya di-bri Mih Baginda, c-4L^ £^lj tsAw. 

Whosoever visited the monarch was 
given a present by him, to each as was 
most fitting. Bdrang-si-Apa iang handak, 
^jjL^ t^\fg^jLi Any one who desires 

it. Barang-si-apa iang men-aroh elemu 
iang sempema, y^ &j\j^ ^ c^L-^^U 
^y,4^.J^j[ Any one who possesses a 

thorough knowledge, Bftrang-b^rang, 
V^j ^ Common, ordinary. Note : B&rang- 


Barang, ^j\i 

bfi,rang, V^jU is usually employed nega- 
tively, thus : — 

Anak ikan si-p&rang-parang 
Anak ketam di-ddlam pddi 
Anak bdkan s'barang-barang 
Anak Adam p6hak-nya Nabi. 




cr-^l ^' 

A young fish of the kind called parang- 
parang ; a little crab in the grain ; I 
am not the son of an ordinary indivi- 
dual — I am the offspring of Adam and 
of the following of the Prophet- Di- 
dalam lima 6rang itu s'drang ber-nama 
Hang Tftah bAkan-nya barang-barang 
6rang laku-nya, ^jysjj^ ut^t ^^^1 ^ J I ^ J 
^/S £;^l Yl)\\ ^y fily ^ pb^ Among 

the five there was one whose name was 
Hang TAah, whose conduct was not that 
of an ordinary individual. Maka dia 
b&kan barang-barang 6rang dan pen- 
jGrit laki-laki barang iang tiada dapat 
ada ka-pada-nya, J'^^b ^^ ^^^ tiCw 

^IjJ^ He is not an ordinary man, and 
in manly arts and exercises he surpasses 
other men. Note : The form S' barang, 
^jlj-^ is also met with in the same sense 
as Barang-barang, f ^^b and is used in the 

same way. Pada pikir-an patek bMak 
itu b(lkan-nya &nak s'barang 6rang, «>— ^ 
^^y l^\^ ^1 ^^ Bi\ jj^ csVU ^/^ 

In thy servant's opinion, that child is not 
the offspring of an ordinary individual. 
B&rang-k&li, JK^^L^ Perhaps; very 

likely. Jikalau dftli tftan-ku bAat aniaya 
atas kanak-kS,nak itu barang-kali hampir- 
hampir-lah kita benasa ini-lah pandang- 
an patek hamba t<ia, ^'j-J -J^ ^ — ^ 

^YyJu^ J\^^U h\ r^^ u^i s^ifit &»> 

\y2 i^,.^j^ <^li O^-J^ <J^' O^^ «^ If 

Your Majesty oppresses that child, per- 
haps we shall go near to being destroyed 
— that is the view taken by me your old 

Barang, S;U An optative; an idiomatic 

expression used in the sense * May such 
and such an event come to pass.' Barang 
di-sampei-kan Allah Subahanahu Wa- 
Taala, ^^^ ^dU,^ dUI ^^^Ju^^j\} May 

Barat^ &j\^ 

the Most High God cause it to arrive, or 
be accomplished. B&rang di-kekal-kan 
ka-r&ja-an-nya apa-lah jAa kira-nya, pjU 
^y 1^ Aj] ^-1^1/ ^^^6 May Tiis 

reign be perpetuated, we pray. Barang 
maalum ka-pclda ttian-ku, ji^ r^*^ t^^* 
^ly May it be made known to Your 

Highness. Note : The use of this word 
is for the most part confined to the 
written language. 

Barllngan, ^'^ Orpiment; yellow sul- 

phuret of arsenic. Bar&ngan pAteh, 
<uJy ^]ji White oxide of arsenic. The 
common form is Warang, ^j\j 

Barang-Upa, t^\£>jU Any, anything. (See 
Barang, S;l^ Any, etc.) 

Bkrang'bkrsing, Y^jU A little, a small 
quantity ; trifling, trivial. (See B&rang, 
^;li Any, etc.) 

B&rang- barang, V^U Things, articles, 
baggage, impedimenta. (See Barang, ^^l^ 
A thing, etc.) 

Barang-kali, ^^^j^ Perhaps, probably, 
possibly. (See Barang, ^j\i Any, etc.) 

Barang-si-apa, <-3L.^^li Whoever, whom- 
soever, whosoever, any one. (See 
Barang, ^j\i Any, etc.) 

Baras, Ar., j^^ Leprosy. (See KAsta, 
wu-*-^^ Leprosy.) 

BUrat, SjU The west. Barat laut, 5^S &j\} 
North-west. B&rat d&ya, ^gl^ S^ii South- 
west. Barat tepat, 3iS &j[i Due west. 
Note : The following are the other prin- 
cipal points of the compass as known to 
the Malays. Utara,^ljy North. Timor 
laut, &j2l j^ North-east. Timor, jj^4-J 

Bast. Timor daya, ^^1^^^^ South-east, 
and Selfiltan, ^A^ South. Angin barat, 
&;l) ^^) The west wind. M&ka kfi,kap- 
nya di-tAju meng-adap ka-barat, ^.sXl^ 
&j[J i^^\k^ ^yj ^l^ He directed his 
barque's course towards the west. Maka 
di-pinta tentu-kan ka-dMok-kan negri 
itu di-s'blah barat fi.tau di-s'blah ttmor 
atau di-s'blah utara fi,tau selAtan negri 

itu, ui^t spj>^ ^^Jj^J^ C5^>^ \sLiJ*^ iSX^^ 

^] j\Sj] iL^6 yl jy^ dL^^^a jJI £^1^ aLe^u 

i^] ^yO Jfiuo He asked her to make 

certain which was the direction of that 
country — whether to the west or east, 
or north or south. M&ka di-pandang 


Bftrat-b&rat, vh^ 

p{ila ka-s'blah barat tepat antara dengan 
b&ratlaut *U &j\i iL^^ Jy ^juJJ l^ — • 

a^S &jU cT^*^ ^^' He gazed to the 
west-north-west {lit., between due west 
and north-west). la meng-ambil selAar 
pedendang b&rat pfisak ber-p6song sen- 
diri-nya, ^5.-^ &j\i ^JiJJ j\^ J^^ s^* 
^jiJgu* Ay^ji He took his trousers 

made of taffeta brought from the west, 
the seams of which were joined of their 
own accord. Orang barat, &jU £a^' The 

men of the west, the people from the 
west. Note: It is worthy of remark that 
among the inhabitants of the Malay 
Peninsula the term Orang bftrat, &jj\ 

Sj\^ — i.e., men of the west, is applied to 
the natives of Trengganu, Kelantan, 
Petani, etc., although these States lie to 
the east or north-east of the other States 
in the Peninsula. Thus, in Pahang the 
people of Trengg&nu, etc., are always 
spoken of as ' Orang b&rat,' &jU ^j^^ the 
term never being applied to the natives 
of the States which really lie to the west 
of Pahang. 

Bllrat-birat, vh^ The name of a salt- 
water fish. 

Barau-barau, t^Jt/U The name of a bird 
which in size and plumage somewhat 
resembles a thrush, to which family it 
belongs ; it is often domesticated by 
the Malays, and excels the Mina (Tiong, 
^^) in its skill in imitating the human 

voice and other sounds. Note : The 
Malays believe that this bird when in 
captivity is often killed by magic art, 
because it otherwise would inform its 
master of the advent of a Polong, ^^y 

or Pehity 3»Ji » or other evil spirit. 
Note : In colloquial Malay this term 
is pronounced Be-barau, jjpl^ (See Notn 
under Ba, c^). 

Barhal, Ab., JJi| A mule. 

Bdrhi, Ab., ^U A tyrant, a rebel, a 

Bar I, Pbbs. ^^jU A title applied to the 
Deity, or to a prince. 

B&ri-bari, Vi^jU The eye-fly; a minute 
black fly which during the daytime 
causes annoyance by flying round and 
attempting to settle upon the eyeball. 
Note : The term K6rok-k6rok, Y^j^ is 

B&ris, ^j^j\i 

also commonly met with in the Malay 
Peninsula. Note : Favre translates this 
word ' Ghauve'SottriSf^ but we believe 
that it never bears this interpretation. 
(See also Bri-bri, f^?^). 

Barid, Ab., j^^ A messenger ; an envoy. 

Barik, ^^l^ To split; to cut in two. Note: 
This word is not in use among the 
Malays of the Peninsula. 

Barik-b£lrik, VS^j^ Veined with some 
colour other than that which forms the 
ground or main colour; veined with 
colours ; marbled. Kain barik-b&rik, 
YSij^. o^^ Cloth which is veined with 
some colour different from that which 
forms its ground. B3,rik-b4rik telor 
merbah, 43^ j^ VS^>^ Veined with 
colour like the egg of the m&rhah. (See 
also L<irik, ^^y). Note : In the collo- 
quial dialects this word is usually pro- 
nounced Be-barik, ^3ipWi (See Note under 
Ba, c^). 

Bering, ^^U To lie down, to recline, to 
repose, to rest, to lie stretched out at 
full length. Maka di-letak-nya prfuk 
itu di-bawah s'pohun kayu lain baring- 
lah ia di-situ, 6jbj 4il ^^y J^^^ tsd. 
ys^ir^^ i^\ <3^;b ^J ji^ vj**^y^ He set 
down the rice-pot beneath a tree, and 
lay down there. M&ka ia pun bS^ring 
di-atas pentas ka-amas-an itu serta me- 
nyS,nyi-lah ia bagai-bagai ragam, tsX—* 
l^ ui^l ^jjM-^*l^ ^j^^A^ ^1^ ^^b ^y i^l 
^1^ t'^^^ v^' ^^ He lay down upon 
the golden sleeping-platform, and sang 
all manner of songs. Sirih di-mfl.kan 
s'ambil ber-b&ring, J<w-fc--« ^^^ ^jif^ 

Mj^ji He chewed betel-quids as he lay 
reclining. Tiian tengah b&ring l^gi, ^ly 

Ji ^j\i 6iS The master is still lying 

down, is still reposing. Sila-lah bS,ring 
dahfdu, Jy^ ^j\i ^Jifi-u) Be pleased to 

lie down for a while. Baring-kan, ^^MJ ^ 
To lay down, to place in a horizontal 
position. Tiang iang ter-panchang itu 
di-ch&but serta di-baring-kan ka-tSnah, 

They pulled out the posts, which had 
been fixed in an upright position, and 
laid them down upon the ground. 

18, ^j^ A line, a row, a rank, a file, 
a parade for drill; the Arabic vowel- 


Bdris, ^^l^ 

marks placed over and under the letters 
to indicate their values. B&ris me- 
lentang, ^^uU ^jU A rank, a row. 

Baris bdjor, ^^ o^j^ A column (as of 
men). Bflris di-atas, ^1^ u^J^ The 
upper vowel-marks. BS^ris di-bS,wah, 
^^^"^ u^j^ The lower vowel-marks. 
Baris di-depan, ^*^^ o^^^ or Baris di- 
hadap-an ^jji^U>^ o^j^ The front vowel- 
marks. S'baris, ^^l--^ Aline. Note: 
S' baris, ^j^ is occasionally used as a 
numeral coefficient with letters. Siirat 
s' baris, ^j^j^ h^-^ A letter {lit., a 
line of writing). Harap-lah anak-fi,nda 
akan ayahanda men-aroh sMi mem- 
balas siirat anak-anda ini dengan tanda 
hayat barang s'baris, Jo^l ^^\ JuJJil dii>l^ 

^j^j^ 6j\i ^\s> Thy son hopes that 

thou, his father, wilt be pleased to 
answer this thy son*s letter with one 
line of writing, as a sign that thou art 
still in life. Ber-baris, .j^j^ji Lined; 
in line ; marked with lines ; to drill, to 
parade. Sdrat ber-baris, ^j^ji hj-^ 
Writings in which the vowel-marks are 
used in the ordinary Arabic manner, 
usually understood by Malays to apply 
to the Kurdn or other Muhammadan 
Scriptures, or Arabic commentaries on 
the Scriptures. Sflrat ta' ber-baris, &j^ 

^j^ji *lJ Writings which have no 
vowel-marks — i.e., the ordinary Malay 
character in which no vowel- marks are 
used. Orang mata-mata dddok ber-baris 
di-tengah padang, ^j^ji ^^^^ V^^ ^JJ^ 
6jU a&JJ The police were drilling in the 
middle of the parade ground. Note : 
The word Kawat, &^l^ is also used by 
the Malays to mean drill, parade, etc. 

BAris, ^jU 07* trtang b&ris, ^^jU ^^' 
A debt ; an obligation ; a bond or tie 
consequent upon money being owed. 
Tiada-lah suatu apa <itang b^ris-nya, 
tfHl>^ ^y <-*! Sl^ dJblftJ He is under no 
money obligations ; he owes no money. 

Baris-baris, Vo^jU The name of a small 
fly. Note : This term, which is not in 
use in the Peninsula, is probably applied 
to the eye-fly, as is the term B&ri-bari, 

BarkandUn, Febs., ^Ij<^^ The feast which 
precedes the Fast of Bamth&n. 

BarAchi, ^jj^ 

Barkong, ^^^ The name of a kind of 

Barkong, ^j^ The name of a forest tree. 

Note : There is also said to be a fish of 
this name. 

BsLroh, &jijU The river bank, the water's 
edge, the land at the side of a stream ; 
the side of a plot of land which is 
nearest to the river bank; the seashore. 
— Note : Pijnappel renders this word 
* Drooge grond aan deu voet van een herg^ 
but in the Malay Peninsula it does not 
bear this interpretation, and we have 
not succeeded in finding it used among 
foreign Malays in this connection. Aku 
handak ka-baroh, &)j^ <3^^*'*^ ^ I ^^ 
going down to the river — i.e., I am going 
to bathe — lit^ I am going to the river 

Bllrong, £jj;Li A hut, a shed (such as are 

built in rice-fields upon high posts) ; a 
stall, a booth, a small shop. Note : The 
reduplicated form Barong-barong, Y^x>^ 
is also met with. Pasar barong-barong, 
^tP^ J^*^ -^ bazaar of small shops. 
Note : In the colloquial dialects, Barong- 
barong, t*^jyli is usually pronounced Be- 
barong. (See Note under Ba c^). For 
other words for a hut, eto., see Note 
under Bftgan, ^b A hut, etc. 

Barong, ^)^U With, together with, at the 
same time. 

Barong, Dutch, ^^j\j, A baron, a chief, 

a lord. Barong laksam&na, ^U-JiJ fijyl^ 
The lord admiral. 

Baru,;^^Lj The name of a tree the bark 
of which is used for making twine 
for caulking, and for other purposes : 
Hibiscus tiliaceus. B&ru laut, d^S jj^L^ A 
closely allied tree : Thespesia populnea. 
Note : The forms Amb&ru, jj^L^I and 
Bembaru, jyW^ are also met with. 
Baru china, ^^yfj>. jjU An Artemisia. 
B&ru gAnong, ^^ ^jU A Paritium. landak, ^^ jjU AbelmoscJms 
mutahilis. Btlnga baru, }^\\ l^ji or Daun 

baru, ji^li ^^^1^ The name of a salt-water 

Biruchi, ^^^^ ^^<i Kain bardchi, ^If 
^)j^ The name of a fabric of silk and 


Barftna, Hind., ^jy, ' 

cotton, usually of a striped pattern, im- 
ported from the Gulf of Cambay. (See 
Berdchi, ^jy)> 

B&runa, Hind., ^^^ Varuna, the deity of 

the Hindu mythology who presides over 
the ocean, and, according to the Malays, 
also controls the rains. 

Barus, ,j^j^ The name of a valuable 
species of camphor, also called Kapor 
barus, ^j\i y^ Maka t{lkang bongkok 
bongsu bangsawan me-mohun-kan chen- 
dana janggi dan kemnyan barus dan 
chendana gharu dan dian s'batang pan- 
jang satu hasta jari manis, ^y csX-.* 

s/^ o'"^ J^^r-^ o^^-^ ^> s^y 

^L* i^j^ Ix-^ yL-M* ^^ ^^ The 
hunchbacked workman, who was of 
noble birth and the youngest of his 
family, prayed the king to give him 
some magic sandal- wood, gum benzoin, 
camphor, and agila wood, and a candle 
the length of which was one cubit mea- 
suring from the tip of the fourth finger. 
Maka di-bakar pdntong chendana gharu 
dan kemnyan barus, ^y ^^^ csA.-^ 

j^J^ cj9^ o'*^ V^ c)'^^ He burned 
pieces of sandal-wood, agila-wood, gum 
benzoin, and camphor. I^ote : The above 
precious woods, etc., play a prominent 
part in all Malay mystical ceremonies. 
— Barus, ^j^. is much prized by the 
Chinese. This camphor is produced 
from a tree which is entirely different 
from the laurel tribe which yields the 
Japanese camphor. It is said to have 
derived its name from a place on the 
western coast of Sumatra, north latitude 
r 59' 35'', and east longitude 98° 23' 30'', 
whence at one time large quantities were 

Barut, SjjU To swaddle, to wrap in 
swaddling clothes, to gird, to bind round, 
to wrap round. Maka telah sudah di- 
mandi-kan dan di-krat pAsat-nya serta 
di-barut lalu di-bedong langsong di- 
WLwa' Alih bidan itu ka-dalam prS,hu 
kddong peng-«Lyuh sempak di-tAdong 
dengan s'bidang kajang bArok, d!j t^\^ 

.^^^ A^^ Then they bathed him and 

Basah, d^\i 

severed the umbilical cord, and wrapped 
him in swaddling-clothes and swathed 
him about, and then the midwife bore 
him to an unsea worthy boat with broken 
paddles, and covered him over with a 
worn-out covering made of the leaves of 
the Pachyrhizus angulahis. Maka Hang 
Jebat pun segra meng-ftmbil kain iang 
ber-p8,kan amas itu lfi,lu di-barut-nya 
pada mata liika-nya, ^y if*^ A^ <.2A_^ 

^j^^ii ^y s si\ ^ j^j^ ^i^ j^i^ \jK^ 

^ISy 6U jj Then Hang Jebat speedily 
seized the cloth which was interwoven 
with gold, and bound it round the orifice 
of his wound. Maka raja meny-Aroh 
meng-ambil kain tiijoh kayu lalu di- 
angraha-kan ka-pada Laksamana maka 
kain itu di-blit Laksamana pada 
tftboh-nya deri kepala datang ka- 
kS<ki-nya s'telah sudah tAboh-nya ter- 
bfl^rut itu mS,ka di-§,mbil Mih Laksamana 
taii, y Jl ji\^ ac^y ^l^ J^UU &j^ gl; viU 

2^6 «^i ^i^ csu ^u^ jjij" ^uyob 

^U The king ordered seven rolls of 

cloth to be fetched, and gave it to 
the Admiral, who twisted it about 
his body from his head to his feet, 
and when his body was completely 
swathed he took hold of the rope. 
Kain b&rut-an, ^jij\i ^\^ or Kain pem- 

b&rut, SyLui ^l^ Swaddling-clothes; a 

bandage. Barut gantong, ^y^ &x>^, A 
bib; a child's breast-piece; a garment 
which only covers the breast. Ber- 
barut, &x)^,y and Mem- barut, ^^^L?-*-* To 
swaddle, etc., are also met with. Ter- 
barut, Syl^y Swaddled, swathed, etc. 
Kepala barut, Sjyb J*^ A slang term 
used to express the first act of sexual 
connection after the forty days of purifi- 
cation after childbirth. 

, iUoL^ Wet, damp, moist. Habis 
basah, iUol^ ^U> Wet through; drenched. 
Pipit tMi m&kan di-hdjan tidak di-halau 
padi habis handak di-halau kain blisah, 
^^Li yifi^J jj^ ^y^j ^L- ^y ai^ 

<Juolj ^l^y Ufe^ <3^^^*^ ^l^ A deaf sparrow 
is eating in the rain ; if it is not driven 
away the grain will be all eaten ; if one 
goes out to drive it away, one's clothes 
will be soaked — Prov.y meaning, in a 
choice of evils take the lesser. Kaia 


Basah, ^u«Lj 

Msah, ^l^ A^Lj A bathing-cloth, a 
bathing costume, a garment worn while 
bathing, a wet cloth or garment. Kain 
bftsah-an, ^^j-^-^b ^^l^ A garment or piece 
of stuff of no value, for common wear. 
Maka Laksamana pun ber-kain b&sah-an 
lain tiirun ka-dalam sAngei itu, csA « 

h^ The Admiral, being clad in his 
bathing garment, went down into the 
stream. Maka ia pun naik ka-prahu itu 
lalu ber-salin kain basah-an mSsok segala 
pel-bS,gai pfi.kai-an iang endah-endah^ 

ffijJl ^ ^U ^Uii JSIO ^L. ^y^\^, ^\S 

He came on board the ship and changed 
his common clothes and put on all manner 
of beautiful garments. Sanggul basah- 
b&sah di-drei-kan, ^j)^^ )t^^^ J^^^^-*^ 
Dressed hair, having become wet, is let 
down. Kain b^ta kirim tifida dengan 
seperti-nya bftlih-lah sehabat beta mem- 
bAatkain bS.sah-an, ^^ jl^J |»^ut^ ^l^ 

The garment which I send my friend 
is not a sufficiently good one, but my 
friend can use it for common wear. 
Note : The above is a common conven- 
tional phrase, used in depreciation of any 
garment given as a present. Kena b&sah, 
iUol^ L^ To get wet. ChClba prah-kan 
kain iang basah kena hfljan t^di, <^y^ 
^^\S ^ys Lf iUolj ^ ^l^ o^'->^ Wring 
out the clothes which were wetted by 
the recent rain. . Md,ka kata kra kechil, 
* T<ian-ku ka-bdwah dMi iang mah&- 
miilia di-bftnoh m&ti di-gantong tinggi 
di-rendam b^sah di-bS,kar hangus di-krat 
p<itus di-chinchang lAmat di-jClal jauh 
n&ma patek ber-balek ka-hAtan harap 
di-ampun tAan-ku', Jt^ \^ u^\^ tsA-^ 
^ytjS^ ^L. aJ^J LX. IpJki ^J fi^l^yily 
^y &^6 j^\st> ^\^^ d^\^ |.JJ)J s^^ 

yOly ^y-lj i^j^ J^iS The little 

ape said, *0 King, Most Illustrious 
Majesty, may I be killed dead, hung up 
on high, immersed until I am drenched, 
burned till I am scorched, cut in two, 
minced fine, or sold- afar off, but by 
your grace I will not return to the 
jungles, king ! ' — The word Bfi,sah, A^l^ 
is also used with a special meaning 
when fighting :— one inflicts a wound 

Basitah, Ab., dk^^^ 

and cries out, " Basah !" iUob , meaning,. 
" You have got it now," " You are wet 
(with blood)." It corresponds almost to 
the Latin Hahet I — Bfisah-kan, ^^^^^ 
To make wet. Note: The above form 
is very rarely used. (See Basoh, &^\i 
To wash, etc.) 

B^sai, ^U A yellow swelling of the body, 

which becomes fatal when the legs are 
affected. (Compare Basal, J-u>lj Dropsy, 

Bllsal, ^y^U Dropsy; dropsical swellings. 
Kena sftkit basal, J^l^ i^U L^ To be 
afflicted with dropsy. 

Basar, A.B., ^^ The organ of sight. 

Bisau, ^^U Hard and crisp to bite upon, 
not soft or mealy (e.^., as a cucumber or 
a raw potato). 

Bisau, ^ij Anaamic ; pale from want of 
blood, not as regards the face only, but 
the whole body. 

Basi, ^^^U Sour, musty, turned ; spoiled 

by long keeping. Habis basi seg&la 
bekal-ku, y^-Kj yi^ ^\^ o^^ All my 
provisions have gone sour. Nasi iang 
basi, <V*U^ *Q**^ Musty rice. Pftchat- 
p Achat basi, ^Ij t*%y Pale as mould ; 
pale like a thing which has spoiled from 
long keeping (applied to things, not to 
people). Note: When speaking of milk 
or the expressed juice of the coconut 
Basi, ^U should not be used, the term 
Bakir, ^b being a more correct ex- 
pression in this connection. (See KAlat, 
a)/ Mould, etc.) 

BUsi, ^q— oU Surplus, discount, abatement, 
reduction; payment received for work 
out of hours, overtime, extra work, work 
out of hours. Note : This term is not in 
use among the natives of the Peninsula. 

Basi, Jav., ^fl-**U A soup-plate, a deep 
plate. Note : This word is not in use 
among the natives of the Peninsula. 

Basinah, Ar., djL^L^ or ^Sj^\^ A large 
coarse sack or bag. 

Basir, Ar., ^-o^ Good (of the sight). 

Basit, Ab., i-s*--i Simple, elementary. 

Basttah, Ab., d K y,..j or ^-W^ Element; 
superficies, surface. 


Basoh, &j — »U 

•Basoh, &y^U To wash, to bathe, to rinse, 
to scour, to wash out, to cleanse with 
water. Basoh tangan, ^\S &^U To 
wash the hands. Ada-pun arang jiksLlau 
di-basoh dengan ayer m&war s'kali-pun 
tiSda akan pflteh, es^l^ J ^^ ^j\^ O-A'^' 
Ajy ^\ jU oy^^^^->^-H' J"^ Char- 
coal, even if it is washed with rose-water, 
will not become white. Note : The com- 
pound forms Mem-b&soh, 6^1^-*^ Mem- 
basoh-kan, ^j<ft>^L«-» and Basoh-kan, 
^^j^^b are also used. Maka ia pun me- 

iompat naik ka-atas tangga lalu mem- 
basoh kaki, csA^'U Hl.^ ^y ^\ csA — . 

^\^ &^l^^i *.ja>U ^^\^ He leaped 

up the steps and washed his feet. Mftka 
aadat-nja pada tiap-tiap hari maka apa- 
bila sudah ia mem-basoh kain m&ka di- 
miiat-nya ka-atas kaldei itu, ^^l£> <-sA^ 

«^l ^jJ^ ^"^ J^^^ <^^ JL^ It was 
his daily habit when he had washed the 
clothes to load them upon his ass. Telah 
sudah ber-Mta-kata maka ia pun mem- 
basoh mdka l&lu meng-ambil serok 
tempat g6bek-nya, ^^1 t-sA^ V^^j^ ^^^^ ^ 

J^jl^ When he had finished speaking 

he washed his face, and then took the bag 
which contained the betel-nut crusher. 
Siang-kan ikan serta mem-basoh-kan- 

^7^9 cr^>^^ ^r^ o^' c)^^^ Cut open 
the fish and wash them. Basoh-kan 
p&kai-an, ^^U ^^^^\i To wash clothes. 
Ber-b&fioh tftngan, ^iJ 6^b^ To wash 
the hands. Pem- basoh, a^Lj-^ That 
which cleanses; the water or other 
fluid used for washing. Ayer pem-basoh 
mdka, -sJ^ &y^\^ ji\ Water for wash- 
ing the face. Maka di-Anjok-kan ayer 
pem-b^oh kaki, &j^\^ ji\ ^^^SlW^b iiX^ 

^l^ She handed him water to wash his 
feet. M&ka tdrun-lah hdjan panas pun 
sedang 61ok pem-basah baju, ^^^ *^^ 
j^\^ d^l^ ^^il ^j^ dU^y ^y ^U A 

slight rain fell, in just sufficient quan- 
tities to damp one's coat. Pem-bslsoh 
b&lai, ^^b &yAfj^ ovj more rarely ^ Pem- 

bftsoh mSja, ^ ^s^L.*i The costs of a 
law suit. 

Basong, ^^Ij The hard coating of sea- 
soned wood. Mem-b&song, ^^L^^ To 

become seasoned (of wood). Kayutengah 

Batak, ^L^ 

mem-basong, fi^lj.*^ 6^ ^\i Wood which 
is seasoning; wood which is gradually 
becoming seasoned (also called Lemah 
liat, iJ aJ). 

Basong, ^^L^ The roots of a very light 
tender wood which grows in low or 
marshy land, used for making handles 
for certain tools, floats for nets or fish- 
ing lines, etc. 

Basong, ^>-*U Trivial, frivolous, inconse- 
quent. BAal basong, £>-«lj Jl^ Chatter, 

twaddle. Mcm-bAal basong, ^y^^^ Jl^-s-^ 
To chatter, to talk twaddle. 

Basong, ^^U A sort of large cylinder 
made of leaves, into which raw sago is 
put. Note : In P6rak and Selangor this 
is called Batat, «-Jlj 

Basong, ^^U Four and twenty; a score 
and four. Note : This term is not in use 
in the Malay Peninsula. 

Basuta, Hind., -t>^ The name of a kind 
of silk stuff imported from Surati. 

BUta, Sb Brick ; bricks ; a tile ; a block 
or cake. Rftmah bat a, ufc>lj <uy A brick 
house. Bftat bata, t^ilj &\y^ To make 
bricks. Bakar bata, «Ailj ^b To burn 
bricks. Tempat mem -bakar b&ta, BiuS 
5^^/l.^4^ A brick-kiln. Bata lilin, &\\ 

^jAf^ A cake of wax. Atap bata, &\i «-4Jl 
A tiled roof. 

BSta-bata, y^U Hesitating; in doubt 
whether to do a thing or not. (See 
Bimbang, ^^--4-5^). 

BUtak, ^Ij The name of a district in the 
northern part of the island of Sumatra, 
the inhabitants of which are much looked 
down upon by the Malays. The B&tak 
people speak the same language, with 
only a few dialectic variations, through- 
out the whole of this district. They 
have not adopted the Muhammadan reli- 
gion, although surrounded by Muham- 
madan peoples; until lately they prac- 
tised cannibalism, eating their foes and 
an occasional slave. In spite of this 
practice, which would seem to argue a 
very low state of civilization, the Batak 
people not only possess the knowledge 
of forging metals, but have developed an 
alphabet and a literature of their own. 
See Crawford's Descriptive Dictionary 
of the Indian Islandsy pages 41 to 43, 


B&tak, ^Ij 

Logan's Journal of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, Vols. iii. and ix., and Marsden's 
Histoid of Sumatra y page 290. 

Batak, ^^\y or Mem-Mtak, ^W^ To rob, 
to plunder. Note: This term is not used 
in the Malay Peninsula. 

Batak, ^Ij The name of a kind of millet. 
Note : The term Menjelei, cJ^«!^^ is also 
applied to this grain. 

Batal, Ar., Jil^ To cancel, to annul, to 
make null and void, to revoke; idle, 
inactive, useless. Also Batal-kan, ^^^^M^lj 
Mem-batal, JtL,-*^ and Mem-batal-kan, 
^jjO^Lu-/* To cancel, to make null and 
void. Batal-kan hukum, ^%X&. ^j^ltlj To 
cancel an order, to quash a sentence or 
decision. Batal-kan sembahiang, ^j^ltli 
Afr^-!-*-u> To render a prayer null and void 

(as by reason of defilement, etc.) Per- 
janji-an iang telah di-batal, <3i^ ^^^^^^^^y 
JLljj An agreement which has been 
annulled. Titah sehaja iang dapat mem- 
batal-kan titah, ^j^OIdL*- iiljJ^ gl^ ds^ 

dxJf Only a royal command can cancel 
a former royal proclamation. Ter-batal, 
Jtl?y Cancelled, annulled, revoked, ren- 
dered null and void. Maka di-parang-kan 
chap-nya slkan aalamat sftrat ter-batal, 

He defaced his seal, as a sign that tho 
document had been revoked. 

Bataiah, Ar., dJLtg or BatfiLlat, a)Lkj 
Inaction, idleness. (See Batal, Jtlj). 

Batan, Ar., ^^ The belly ; the interior 
or inside of anything. 

Batang, AS\^ A stem, a stock, a stump ; 
a trunk of a tree, a tree, a log; the 
handle of a fishing-rod, spear, or any 
other long instrument ; a river. Batang 
kemunchup, <-a^^ ^k The stem of the 

love-grass. Batang lalang, ^H ^-^^ 
The stem of the coarse rank grass called 
lalang by the Malays {Imperata arun- 

Anak sawa s'besar lengan 
Handak men-iti bfttang padi 
Handak ter-tawa tidak ber-teman 
\ Sennyum sedikit di-dalam hati, 

cr^^ <3^ liV c3^^ 

Batang, ^l^ 

A young boa constrictor, as large as 
one's arm, wished to use a rice-stem as 
a bridge ; I wish to laugh, but have no 
one to laugh with me, so I only smile 
a little to myself. Batang kayu, jjtlS" ^Ij 
A log of wood ; the trunk of a tree. 
Maka segdla 6rang di-dalam negri itu 
pun mSsok-lah ka-dalam hAtan men- 
chari kayu lalu di - dapat - i - nya - lah 
s'b&tang kayu bdlat m&ka di-bAboh-nya 
baji di-blah, ^^ ^bj ^;^l JiL« ^ • 

jJJI yl? ss;^ J^ f^'^ dliLoL. ^^1 

isAjJ All the people in the town went 
forth to the forests to look for timber, 
and they found a log of round wood, 
and put in their wedges and split it. 

Tetak semantun larek-kan kilang 
Batang chempedak mari di-rfi,pat 
Mohun-lah ampun patek 'nak pMang 
Barang ka-handak sudah-lah dapat, 

^y ^ c^jU^yL.1 dLiy 

Cut up the semantun tree to turn the 
sugar mil], and place a log of chempMak 
wood near to it; thy slave asks per- 
mission to return to his dwelling, all 
his desires being now satisfied. Mfiat-^ 
an prahu hamba ini b&tang kabu-kS,bu 
ada s'krat dfta, ^\i ^1 c^-^^^y^ly ^Ij— 

I^J &^Lo ^\ Yy.^ The cargo of my ship 
consists of one or two lengths of the 
trunks of cotton trees. Baik-lah aku 
tinggal-kan segala pel-bagai pakai-an 
aku ini di-dalam batang pftlei * * * * 
Maka batang p ft lei itu pun ter-bAka 
sendiri-nya maka di-m&sok-kan segala 
barang - barang - nya ka-dalam bd.tang 
pMei maka ter-tAtup balek s'mftla, <sJ^*li 

O-^' J^ ^^ ^^^ * * * * Jy^ t^^ 

^y^ ^\^ ^yy c^ j^ ^li yij^ 

I had better leave all my clothes inside 
the trunk of this ahtonia sp. * * * * 
Then the trunk of the alstonia opened 
of its own accord, and he put all his 
things into it, and it then closed up 
again. B&tang ddri-an, jLjj*^ ^U A 
durian tree. Batang chengal, JA^ ^U 
A chSngol tree. Batang tdboh, d^y ^\^ 


The body ; the person ; a man's proper 
name as opposed to his title. Apa 
b&tang - tdboh - nya, ^^ ^\\ ^^ «-il 

What is his name, as opposed to his 
title? Batang htdong, ^J^ ^L^ The 

bridge of the nose. Batang lengan, 
^ A5U The forearm. Batang zakar, 
^^ ^\\ The stem of the penis. Batang 
kalam, ^ ^Lj A pen-holder. Batang 
jAran, ^j>^ ^^ A fishing-rod. B&tang 
peng-aynh, es^Ui ^l^ The handle of a 

paddle. Maka di-p&rang-kan-nya lalu 
pfltus segala batang t6mbak itn, csA — * 
k\ o^^ ^^ y^ u^y P ,s^^j\^^ He 
slashed at them with his sword, and cut 
all the handles of the spears in twain. 
Batang Pahang, ^ ^U The Pahang 
river. B8,tang-hd.ri Plus, ^^ ^g;^^lj 
The Plus river. Note : Both the terms 
Batang, ^k and Batang-hari, k^^\s^ ^U 
are used to mean a river, etc., the latter 
being, perhaps, the more common of 
the two. Batang-an, ^\\ A bar at the 
mouth of a river. (See also Alang-an, 
^\ A bar, etc.) Meng-aji batang, ^^M^ 
^b To learn the sounds expressed by 

the Arabic characters, and which form 
Arabic words, by repeating them after 
the teacher word by word. Ber-batang, 
AJli^ Having a stem, stalk, stump, trunk 
or handle. Pohun kS,yu iang ber-batang 
pdteh, 6^y ^Ij^yl? ^y Trees which 

have white trunks; trees with white 
trunks. TiS,da-lah dapat hilir sAngei itu 
ber-teMltap karfena alor-nya ber-batang 
s&ngat, .JarJj^ a^l ^^ ^^Jujb ailj d)ljl^ 

aft^Lo AJlj^ ^jj^ J ^^y6 It is not practicable 

to raft down that river, as the channel is 
much obstructed by logs of timber. Mata 
lembing ta' ber-bfttang, ^\^j^ 'U ^^^J &L. 
A spear-head without a handle. Mem- 
b&tang, ^K*^ To form a stem (of plants, 

etc.) Permfttang, ^^/ A hog's back 
hill; a low ridge; a ridge of ground 
running from one hill to another. Note : 
This word is irregularly derived from 
Batang, ^L^ The original form was 
probably Pem - bfi^tang, ^W^ , which 
would be the regular formation, but is 
never met with, the corrupted form 
having been adopted for the sake of 
euphony. Note : A stump of wood, etc., 
under or projecting from water and 
standing at an angle is called Chang- 

Batang, ^l; 

gong, ^>^^ and not Batang, ^b ; when 
standing straight up, such a snag is 
called Tftnggul, J^^y BS^tang mai, 
^ ^-JLj Property which has no heir 

to claim it, and which therefore be- 
comes the property of the raja. Batang 
bArok, jjji^ ^Ij The name of a sweet- 
meat which consists of a cake made of 
oleaginous rice (PMut, S^y) flattened 
out and boiled in water, and into the 
middle of which grated coconut cooked 
with molasses is introduced. The whole 
is wrapped in leaves after having been 
sprinkled with rice-flour and damped 
with the expressed juice of the .coconut 
(P^ti santan, ^jx;l-o ^jU). After this the 

whole is steamed over the fire and thus 
cooked for the last time. Note: This 
sweetmeat is also called Tepong bftngkus, 
,j-X^^ &jiS and Tepong simpan, ^jiS 

^jJUft-^ The cakes by themselves, without 
the dressing, are called Petri mandi, 
^^juL^ ^^jxj The grated coconut cooked 
in molasses is termed Rinti, ^j Batang 
bftrok, ^j^ ^U The name of a small 
and very venomous snake which is of a 
grayish-red colour. 

BUtang, ^U A numeral coefficient used 
with long things. Pohun kayu s'batang, 
^Lj— ^ ^l? ^y One tree. DAri-an 
s'bS^tang, ^y^s^ cji^^^ One dv/rian tree. 
TAjoh batang galaJi, <i3l? AJl^ desy Seven 

poles. M&ka ia men-d{lkong sa-rangkap 
t6mbak iang lapan batang banyak-nya, 

^\\ He carried a bundle of spears on 
his back, which were eight in number. 
Maka di-ambil-nya s'batang dian maka 
di-sMoh-nya peti itu, AJL-*^ ^^^^ cs^— 

«-^' ^ ^^j^"^ <^^ v:)l^ He took up a 
candle, and threw a light upon the box. 
Tongkat s'pMoh batang, ^Ij d3yLo 8<£>^ 

Ten walking-sticks ; ten staves. Kalam 
tiga batang, ^Ij i.Ji3 ^ Three pens 

{i.e. J with holders attached). Lima batang 
serampang, ^\j^ ^Ij ^ Five fish- 
spears. Note: Although Batang, AJlj is 
used as the numeral coefficient with 
walking-sticks, the word Kaki, ^\^ 

should be used as the numeral coefficient 
for an umbrella. 

Bitang, ^U Subject-matter ; quotation. 
Note : A person meets with a passage. 



B&tang, ^\i 

a proverb, a quotation he cannot under- 
stand. He asks advice, and the one 
consulted says, ^ Apa bS,tang-nya/ 4-J I 
^li * What was the wording ? ' 

Batang, ^b A corpse, a dead body. Note: 
This word is not very frequently met 
with bearing this sense. See Mayat, ^ 
and Bangkei, ^^i^, A corpse, a dead 
body, etc. 

Blitar, yb A piece of narrow planking 
fastened just behind the skirting-board- 
ing of a house : the rafters to which the 
dtap is tied lie upon it. 

B&tara, Hind., I;L:^ A title given to div- 
inities, and also borne by the ruler of 
Manjapahit. (See Betara, ^j^)» 

B&tilri, i^j^ The name of a plant. Sor- 
ghum saccharatum. (See Betfi.ri, ^^^Ly). 

Batas, ^j^\\ The small banks or dams in 
an irrigated rice-field which divide the 
area into small sections or form boun- 
daries of adjoining fields. B&tas sawah, 
is^Lo ^l) The banks in a rice-swamp. 

Ada-pun bdah peria itu kfi,lau di-tanam 
di-atas bS,tas sagu dan di-baja-kan dengan I 
§.yer madu lagi di-siram dengan manis- 
an serta di-letak-kan di-atas tebu apa- i 
bila masak pun pahit j Aga, t\y, ^^^ 1 J I . 
^b/L^ ^Lj ^Ij ^Uj ^l^ ui^l Ij^ 

<5^^ J<«^'>^ ij-^'^ o^^^ ^^j^ cr"<^^ 
c-T^ ^U ^y If the fruit of the pSna 

(Mormodica sp.) is planted on a bank of 
sago, and manured with honey, watered 
with molasses, and placed upon sugar- 
cane, when it is ripe it will still be bitter 
— Prov.y meaning, * Can the Ethiopian 
change his skin, or the leopard his 
spots?' BAat batas, ^l^ S\^ w Tam- 
bun bfttas, ^jJfb ^^^^ To make a bank in 
an irrigated rice-field. Ber-batas, ^\^j^ 
Having banks or dams (as an irrigated 
rice-field.) Aku dS,tang deri-pada ben- 
dang iang tiada ber-batas deri-pada ayer 
iang tiada ber-ikan, ^Jjlj jJ;J Alflj ^\ 

^]jl Jljjx^ ^1 JJ^J ^Ij^ ^lft«^ I come 
from rice-fields which have no dividing 
banks, from waters which hold no fish. 

Batek, ^\i 07' Kain b^tek, ^k ^l? The 
name given to the sarong and other 
cloths. of silk or calico which are painted 
or stamped by hand with all manner 

of patterns in various vegetable dyes. 
Tengkolok kain bfttek, ^l^ ^\^ S/^ 
A head-kerchief of this kind of cloth. 
Sarong batek, ^l^ ^jy*-* ^ waist- 
cloth of stamped silk or calico. Kain 
batek siitra, \ys^^ ^Ij ^l^ Stamped 
silk of this kind. Kain bfttek Er6pa, 
i-3^^1 ^3-Jlj ^IS Imitation cloth of this 
kind manufactured in Europe. Kain 
batek chap, *-a^ ^l^ ^l^ Imitation 
cloth of this kind, the painting on which 
is done by machinery. Note : These 
cloths are manufactured in Java. For 
description of the mode of manufacture, 
etc., see Raffles' Histoii/ of Java^ Vol. i., 
pages 168 to 170. 

B&t§ka, <^A^ The name of a plant, 
Cito'ullus edulis. 

BUtll, JftJl^ A basin, a bowl, a pan ; a small 

round vessel, usually made of silver or 
other metal, used to ladle water out of 
jars or bowls for the purpose of drinking 
or pouring it over the fingers to cleanse 
them, either before or after meals. Batil 
dan chSpir, yLe. ^Ij J^l^ A bowl and a 

salver. B^til tanah, ^H J^Jlj A bowl 

made of earthenware. Maka dengan 
s'bentar itu jAga limau ber-Akup dan 
bedak ber-stanggi sudah ter-siap di- 
dalam batil amas m£lat d£la chiipak, c^L^ 

e>\y ^j^^-^l iW^ /Jl«^^ »— t y>>ojJ 5«X«4 ^g?Iibt.u)^ 

S^y^ I^J Then in a moment lime-juice 
made fragrant by incense and swei^t- 
smelling cosmetics were made ready in 
a golden basin which held two quarts. 
Maka dengan takdir Allah Taala maka 
batil itu ter-lepas deri tangan-nya lalu 
jatoh ka- tanah, ^Uj dUI ^JJ5J J>^ ctU. 

By Grod's will, the bowl slipped from his 
hand and fell to the ground. 

B&tll, J-ilj The name of a kind of boat; a 

sailing-boat. Maka di-lihat batil Singa- 
pAra ka-lfiar tftjoh bAah, ^\\ If^^^ i^X^ 

&\^ dfe.y j\^ jiyl^tt-* He saw seven 
Singapore sailing boats come forth. 
Md.ka ia pun segra naik ka-&tas b&til itu 
serta men-d&pat-kan nakh6da-nya, <^^ 

^\^^ ^j5<ailjju* He quickly went on board 
the boat and sought out her captain. 


Batii, j^ii 

Bitil, JftJl^ The name of a kind of mango, 
Mangifera fostida . 

Batin, ^\i A title usually given by 
Malays to a Malay who is a headman in 
charge of the aboriginal tribes, or to 
Sakai chiefs. Note : Among those Sdkai 
tribes which have come much into 
contact with the Malays, this title is 
given to the Sdkai chief of a tribe, the 
term J^nang^ ^^e^ , which by Malays is 

usually applied to a Malay headman in 
charge of 8dka% being applied by the 
aborigines to the subordinate headmen 
who assist the Batin, ^b Maka raja 

pun mem-bri angraha per-salin-an &kan 
adipS^ti dan b8.tin, v^>t-^ ^^J^ g;'^ ^ — * 

^^ o'^ J^^^ cr^' ^W ^J^' The 
king gave presents of garments to the 
chiefs, and to the headmen of the abor- 
igines. M&ka k&ta b&tin Singap{kra, ^ HS 
seg&la s&kai segra-lah d&pat-kan prahu 

l&dang itu,' J^ -^^ylC* ^^. ^^ ^^^ 
uu^t 4jJ) ^ly ^jj^l^ dJiyLo ^J^ Then 

the Singapore chief cried out, * ye 
tribesmen, speedily make for that sailing- 
boat ! ' 

BStin, A.R., ^U Secret, hidden, occult, 

esoteric. Rahsia iang batin, ^tJ^ W^ 
Hidden secrets. 


Batir-bHtir, VjtfU The golden band used 
to fasten the hris scabbard to the belt. 
Note : This band, which is stiff and 
shaped like a hoop, is attached to the 
scabbard, and is really more for orna- 
ment than for use. In the Malay 
Peninsula the term TMi-tMi, y^^ is 

Bato' yl^ or B4tok, ^^^ A cough; to 

cough. Kena s&kit b&tok iang amat 
trek, ^y i^Ui ^l| ^Uo L^ To be 

afflicted with a grievous cough. B^to' 
kring, ^jS y li A hacking cough ; con- 
sumption. tTbat bfttok, ^l^ ^^i A cough- 
mixture. Ber-b&tok-b&tok ta' ber-henti, 
eg**^^ *^ Vi^^j^ To cough continuously. 

Batok, ^U A cough; to cough. (See 
B&to* yli). 

Bttok, Jav., ^U The husk of a coconut. 
Note : This word is not in use in the 
Peninsula, the word Sd^but, S^Lo alone 
being employed in this connection. 


Blltok, Jav., ^Lj The forehead ; the cra- 
nium ; the crown or upper part of the 
head. Titah tAan-ku patek, junjong di- 
atas batok kepala patek, <-2AjjU y3ly a»^ 
<^"U A&^ ^\i ^b ^^9^^ Your servant 

receives Your Highness' s commands 
upon his head (i.e., submits to them). 
Note : Among Malays the term B&tu 
kepala, A&^yb is used in the expression 
above exemplified. See Batu, yU A 
stone, etc. Note: The word Batok, ^l^ 
is not in use among the natives of the 
Peninsula. See Dahi, ^b The fore- 
head ; triu, y^l The head, the top of the 
head ; and Kepala, Afi^ The head. 

Batong, ^^\i 09- T&li batong, ^yli ^U A 

belt of silk interwoven with gold and 
silver thread made in the BAgis coun- 
try (the Celebes) and used to hold the 
sheath of the kris. The Tali tMi-tAli, 
f^gJy s?'^' ^ flexible cord (usually of 
silver) which depends from the Kepala 
tMi-tftli, t^^y J li^ or Batir-batir, t^Jb 
is fastened to this belt. 

Batong - batong, V^^^ The name of a 
fresh-water shell-fish. Note: In collo- 
quial Malay this term is pronounced Be- 
batong, ^yL^ (See Note under Ba, c^). 

BUtor, jSU A passage, a corridor. Di- 
dalam di-ator-kan bator behina, Jl^J 
c^ J^^ cT^y'"^ Inside passages are 
arranged in every direction. 

BMor, Jav., yb Employes; servants on 
board a ship ; a steward. Note : This 
term is not in use among the natives of 
the Peninsula. 

Batrik, Ar., ^^ A patriarch; patriarchal. 

Blitu, yb A stone, a rock, a pebble, a 
boulder; of stone, of rock; a mile, a 
European measure of distance marked 
by a milestone. Lempar b&tu, yl^ yUJ 

To throw a stone. Ber-bAnyi bS^tu ber- 
bAnyi-lah ia, ^^1 ^^j^j^ yli ^^y. When 
a stone speaks, he too will speak — Pro- 
verbial expression, used of one who is 
obstinately silent. Jiklllau ada untong 
sabut timbul jikaiau ada untong bfttu 
tenggalam, ^<^ s}r^ ^J^^ ^' ^' ^^ 
^JXXi yli ^1 ^1 If I have the luck of the 

coconut husk, I shall float ; if the luck 
of a stone, I shall sink — Prov. Di-chari- 


nya pada segS,la telok dan pantei batu 
dan Mrang, ^^^ ^b ^^ JC* jj ^^U. J 

fijlS" ^^1 J yb He searched for her in every 

bay and on every beach and among all 
the boulders and rocks. L&lu di-tambun- 
kan prigi itu dengan bfttu-batu dan 

k&yu, ^iJ tylj o^^ ^' ^y ^^jyjl 

yl? Then they heaped in the well with 
stones and wood: Meriam katak pAru 
dan ketam batu dan chendei laut dan 
161a tembaga dan sampar peng-h&bis, 

h^ s?-j^ o'^ /^ (^ o'^ -yy v5^^ (^J^ 

^l^ yU-MD ^1j JJU-J Jft) ^l«3 Cannon 

shaped like toads and like rock-crabs, 
and the guns called chevdei laut (so 
named by the Achinese), brass swivel- 
gims, and those named sampar p^ng- 
hdbis. {Note : Any fatal epidemic is called 
sampar p^ng-habis : hence, because of its 
destructive properties, it is thought a 
good name for a cannon.) Pagar batu, 
yl^ yU A stone wall, a wall made of 
stone. Maka ber-temu-lah ia dengan 
16rong batu kiri ktean tiada-lah dapat 
orang ber-jalan, ^j^ ^«3 ^^1 ^^y. <-s^ 
JWji ^^y ^'^ ^'viU ^\^ ^^ yl^ He 
came upon a path which had rocks on 
either hand, so that no one could pass. 
Bedil-kanb&tu,yb ^JJ To blast rocks. 

Ayer batu, yl? ^' Ice. (See Note under 
Ayer, ^1 Water). Kepala batu, yb l&S 
An obstinate fellow, a pig-headed fellow. 
JAru-batu, y b ^^^ A pilot; a leadsman; 
the man whose duty it is to heave the 
lead and take soundings. Dan si-S,pa 
nama jAru-batu dan jftru-mMi-nya dan 
si-apa nama tAkang p6tak malim angin- 

nya, ^^y» ^jy^ ^b yl^ ^jj^ f.\s «-*L^ ^b 

^1 ^U ^^x^ ^y ^1} ^L^ ^U What 

is the name of the pilot, and the steers- 
man, and what is the name of the super- 
cargo, and the officer in charge of the 
navigation of the vessel. Batu fi,mbar, 
j^\ yLj Amber. Bfi^tu anting-anting, 

t* Aj^l y b A plumb - line. Note : Batu 
anting-anting, l'^<>a3l ylj may also mean 

a precious stone with which to set an 
ear-ring. A plumb-line is also called 
Batu sipat, a4«^ yLj Batu ftrang, yLj 

^^1 Coal. Batu bftta, &\i yl) Bricks; a 

brick. Batu besi, ^^ yl? Granite, and 
other hard rocks. Batu nengsan, yU 

^jj.JL3 A gravestone. B&tu blanda, yU 

jjdj and Batu yaakut, ia«i yLj Crystal; 

Batu, y l| 

white sapphires. Batu brani, ^^'^ y^ A 

load-stone. Batu bdyong, £^^ yl^ Coins 

which are placed in a bowl full of water 
and herbs, over which a magic incan- 
tation has been recited, and which are 
then believed to possess certain healing 
and magic properties. The coin usually 
used is a Wang^ ^1^ worth rather over 
3^ cents of a dollar. Batu bClkit, ^y y Ij 

Granite. Batu ohanei, ^^ ^^ or Batu 
peng-asah, <uoUi yl; A whetstone. Batu 
Mas, ^^1 yL^ A polishing - stone for 
doing the first rough work. Batu cher- 
min, ^;)*^^y^ Mica. Batu daching,ylj 
jfe^lj and Batu timbang-an, ^^ji-H^yU 

Weights. Batu gtling, ^JuS^li A curry- 
stone. Batu halilintar, j»j^ yLj A 
thunderbolt. Note : This term, which in 
colloquial Malay is usually contracted 
into Batu lintar, yui yb is applied by 
Malays to the stone implements which 
are found in great numbers in many parts 
of the Peninsula and which are believed 
by them to be the thunderbolts hurled 
from the heavens by the angels in their 
warfare with the spirits of evil. Batu 
hampar, yUJtylj and Batu pejal, J«i yb 

Bed-rock ; the stratum of rock which 
the Malays believe to be the foundation 
on which the soil of the earth rests; a 
flat rock. Anak raja itu laki-iaki tambah- 
an pftla ter-iaiu besar tClah-nya men-rus 
sampei ka-iangit iang tCljoh lapis dan 
ter-sendam ka-bawah sampei ka-batu 
hampar tftah-nya, ^^^ ^^^^ ^' cb ^' 

2Lfi>K ^^u^ o^iy^ ^!y ^ y V Jy 

yl^ ^Ju^ fi^Lf^ l^j^^^y ^b ^j^'i ^^ 

^ly yUfc The royal infant will prove 
to be a boy, and moreover his good 
fortune will be exceedingly great, ex- 
tending even unto the seventh region of 
the heavens, and downwards even xmto 
the bed-rock. Maka Raja Ambong sultan 
sakti pun me-16mpat tiga-kaii ka-atas 
sampei meng-aras awan Angu ttlrun ka- 
bawah sampei ka-batu hampar, gl^ cM-* 
^l^ kJ^ 2i^j^ ^y ^^^aiU ^^VbL^ ^^ 

^^^ O^y -A?' c>'->' ^^^ s?^"*^ ^"^^ 
yUjb y L^ ^ A^wwo Raja Ambong, the Magic 

Sultan, leaped upwards thrice, even unto 
the altitude of the azure clouds, and 
downwards until he reached the bed- 
rock. Batu jaia, JW. yU The chain 
weights attached to the end of a casting- 


net. B&tu kail, Jil^ y l| aifid Batu ladong, 
i^jj yli Weights attached to a fishing- 
line. Batu kS.rang, ^^l^yli Rocks; the 
rocks on a sea-shore. Batukawi, v^^lS'yl^ 

Manganese. B&tukeMkir,^^^ei^yli Coarse 

sand; shingle. B&tukepala, A&^yli The 
head, the skull. Note: This term is 
often used by inferiors in writing to or 
addressing a Chief, when it is applied to 
the person addressed. It is also occa- 
sionally met with in romances, as being 
used by a lover addressing his mistress. 
Kar&na tiian-lah batu kepala hamba, 
s^..4Jb Xft^ jjb d)3ly ^;l^ For thou art my 

Chief. Maka ia pun tftndok mgny-embah 
kata-nya, * Tftan Petri 6tak batu kepala 

patek,' ^ly ^i^ d,.^ j^y ^y ^^i ^^u 

c^li Ai^ylj ^^1 ^yii He bowed down 

his head and made obeisance, saying, 
*Thou, Princess, art my liege lady.' 
Ampun tftan - ku be - ribu - ribu ampun 
harap-lah di-arapun-kan kira-nya scmbah 
p&tek &da-pun titah tdan-ku batu kepala 
p&tek meny-flroh p&tek pergi mem-reksa 
pr&hu itu sudah-lah patek preksa seke- 
lian-nya, dii^U» ^^\ f^^ yily ^^^ 

^ e)y'^' ^^^ ^^■*-*^ ^^^ o^y^'^ 

^y 4^U e^j^^ ^&\^U Ai^ yl^ yily 

^A»l<..^ L^y <-^U dUju^ ^l^l j^\ji Lj^j^ 

Pardon, Your Majesty! thousands of par- 
dons! We thy slaves trust that thou 
wilt be pleased to pardon wh^-t we are 
about to say. With regard to the com- 
mands issued by thee, our Chief, order- 
ing us to examine that ship, we have 
enquired into everything concerning her. 
Batu kepala amas temp&wan, ^j^^\ ii^y l^ 

^^^ULJ My head of finest gold {i.e., my 
love). Batu kisar-an, ^j^^ ^^ A mill- 
stone; a grindstone. Batu lichin, jJl^ 
^^fg^ A pebble; a smooth or slippery 
stone. Batu ddga, «— TjJ ylj or Batu pen- 
dAga, ^>)uLijJli or Batu pe-l(lga,jJli 
kS^ a sounding-lead, a weight used 
for sounding. B&tu marmar, Yj^ y ^ «^ 
Bdtu pualam, ^lyyl^ Marble. Batuper- 
m&ta, &Uy jJlj A gem. Batu delima, 
^J yli A ruby. B&tu mata kdching, 
A->fty^t*>L.yU Acat*s-eye. Bft-tuntlam, 
p^ y Ij A sapphire. Note : The above 
names of gems, in common with most 
others, may be used with or without 
the accompanying term B&tu, ^l^ A 

stone, etc. B&tu p&sir, ^^t^U yl; Sand- 

B&tu, yJ\i 

stone. Batu pelir, jfXi yl^ The testicles. 
B&tu p6rak, ^^ >JLj Stone in which 
silver-ore is found. Bd^tu r6boh, ayjy y l^ 
Decomposed rock; stone -dust. B&tu 
ber-sarang, ^j^j^ >iLj Honeycombed 
rock; perforated rock; a stone full of 
holes. B&tu sauh, ^s^Loyl^ An anchor. 
Ia pun bangun pergi meng-fingkat 
batu sauh itu brat-tiga bhara, ^y ^^1 

^l^^<^5^aiU^L-yli as^Uu -sy ^i, 

He arose and went and weighed the 
anchor, which was 400 lbs. in weight. 
Batu lok, ^y yli Hard ridges of rock 
rising to and above the surface of a 
river-bed. Biitu tel6rang, ^^jJl^ A 

lode ; a reef containing mineral ore. 
Batu tClngku, j^y yl^ The dogs in a 
Malay fireplace on which the cooking- 
pots are placed. Batu timbul, J>^^y^l 
Pumice-stone. Batu Alar, yy yl^ A 

stone which is laid on a snake-bite, and 
which is supposed to extract the venom. 
Batu Aji, ^^\ yli A touchstone. Akar 

batu, ylj jS\ A black vegetable fibre 
used by the Sakai tribes for making 
the waist-cloth worn by their women. 
Malays wear it mounted in gold as a 
bracelet. Batu tagar, JS\S jJ\i A stone 

said to make a rumbling noise, to be 
heard at immense distances, with vary- 
ing portents according to the state of 
the time and weather when heard. Batu 
geliga, i^Jif^S jj\} The bezoar stone of 

animals. Batu peti, ^^ ylj Any coin or 

sum of money, small or great, set aside 
by the owner as a nest-egg never to be 
parted with. In the same way, a block 
or piece of 'tin will be hoarded and pre- 
served under the name of Bdtu rdmah, 
A^jij yl^ , and the owner cannot be in- 
duced to part with it, for he thinks it 
is the " luck of the house." Note : The 
word Batu, ylj is occasionally used as a 
numeral coefficient, as in the following 
example : Gigi s*bS.tu, ^L--« ^J^ One. 

tooth. Note : The numeral coefficients 
BAtir, ^y or Biji, ^^^ and Bdah, fily 

are all used with Batu, ylj A stone, the 
two former being employed when speak- 
ing of small stones, and the latter when 
referring to large stones, rocks, or 
boulders. Chari-lah batu kechil b&rang 
dAa tiga bdtir, t^a ^^l^ ^ ^l^ aIa^I^ 
jfSji i^S^ Try and find two or three little 


stones. Lalu di-bawa'-nya-lah terbang 
naik ka-atas s'bdah batu iang amat besar, 
^U &^j^^ ^'^ ^'li ^y dijM^ljjpjl 
j^ A^Ua Then he took him up and flew 
with him on to a very large rock. Telan 
b&tu, y Ij ^ To swallow stones. Note : 
This expression is an idiom which means 
to hold one's tongue about anything. 
Batu hitam ta' ber-sanding, ^iJ^^x^yl^ 

^Joud^ A black stone without projec- 
tions — Prov.y said of anything which it 
is diflBoult to injure in any way. Jauh- 
nya tengah dda batu, ylj I^J aAJ ^^Uk 

It is distant a mile and a half. Tiada 
sampei dfta batu, ylj I^J cs^^**^ "^^ ■"■* ^^ 
not as much as two miles. Note : This 
use of the word Batu, yi^ A stone, to 

denote a mile, or any distance marked 
by a milestone, is now well understood 
by Malays, who make frequent use of it 
when speaking of distances to Europeans. 
Practically, however, the term conveys 
little idea of distance to the ordinary 
Malay, and, except in very civilized parts 
of the country, it is ^not used by the 
native^s among themselves, the only man- 
ner of reckoning distance employed by 
them being statements of the time which 
is occupied in covering the distance in 
question, the number of turns in a river, 
and other methods equally vague and 
unreliable. Kayu batu,yli jjtl? The hard 

wood of the Bhiinea lacei'a. Men-jadi 
batu, yl^ v^^l^ju* To turn into stone; to 

become petrified. Mem-batu, yU-^ To 
be as hard as stone. Mem-batu r6boh, 
^y>y y W^ To celebrate several feasts 
or ceremonies at one and the same time, 
as, for instance, to give one feast in 
honour of a marriage and a circumcision. 
Ber-batu, yb^ Stony; covered with 

stones. Tinggal batu-batu-nya sehaja, 
glf^ ^lyb J5^ This idiomatic expres- 
sion is used to describe the state of an 
orchard when the season of some par- 
ticular fruit, say the durian, is passing 
and there are only left a few fruits 
hanging here and there on the trees. 
Champak batu, jJ\i ^^iU^ To take a 
final farewell of any place ; to shake 
the dust of a place ofF one's feet. 
Note : This expression arises from the 
custom, sometimes resorted to by Malays, 
of casting a stone into a stream which 
they are leaving, and saying, * Timbul 

Bau', yU 

batu aku balek!' ^k >^iyli J>^ ' Not 
until that stone floats will I return ! ' 

Bau',yU A scent, a perfume, an aroma, 
an odour, a smell, a stench, a savour, 
a pleasant or an unpleasant odour. Bau' 
iang harum, aj l^ yU A sweet scent. 
Bau' iang wfi^ngi, ^q^'yi f^ A fragrant 
perfume. Bau' bftsok, ^3--«y yU An 
evil smell. Bau' apak, ^' yb a7id Bau' 
hanching, ^^c^^ y^ A rank, fetid, or 
villainous odour. Bau' hannyir, ^UyL^ 

A strong smell, as of fish — not applied 
to the smell of decayed animal or vege- 
table matter. Bau' hamis, ,j..^<^Uyli The 
rank smell of goats, tigers, musang^ and 
such beasts. Bau' hangit, ^Lj^l^yl^ The 
smell of anything scorching or burning. 
Dan be-ber-apa bAnga-btLaga iang amat 
harum bau'- nya, i^Uj Y^ji <-*'J-^i ^'^ 
^^y^ (>j^ And great quantities of floral 
decorations, the perfumes of which were 
fragrant. Si-apa iang mem-bAat ampat 
perkara ini maka s'k^li-kali tiada ia 
men-chium bau' shurga, &l^^-*-» ^ c-i L5-** 

%^yu> y\i Whoever does any of these 

four things shall by no means be per- 
mitted to smell the perfumes of heaven. 
Bau' ayer wangi, ^q^'^ j4' yU The 
odour of scent. Ber-Abah bau'- nya, 
^y\> ^^\y. The smell of it has changed. 

Bau'- bau'- an, ^^yU yU or ^^Yy^ Per- 
fumes, scent. Ayer bau'- bau'- an, y\^ ^1 

^^y\i Scent ; liquid perfumes. Maka r§,ja 
pun ber-siram ber-langir pS.da pasu amas 
itu sudah mandi ia mem-akai bau'- bau'- 

an* u-^' y^^ ^ jt^j^ ^jc^ji c)-^ sb "^"^ 
^^y^. y^ ^^^ s^' v^J^j^ fi j^^ ufcA^I The 
prince bathed and washed himself with 
vegetable juices which were in a golden 
vase, and when he had bathed he 
anointed himself with perfumes. Maka 
di-b(lboh iilih raja bau'- bau'- an deri- 
pada nardstu dan kelam ter-l&lu harum 
bau'- nya, ^ylj y\^ gl; dJ^I dj^J ^ — • 
^y^ p;l^ yjly ^ ^|j ju^y jjrjj And 

the kmg, with perfumes of spikenard 
and aloes, the scent of which was 
exceedingly fragrant. Ber-bau,' y\iji 

Having a scent; fragrant of; smell- 
ing of ; reeking with. Ber-bau' minyak 
tfi-nah, dSlJ ^59ft^ y\ij^ Smelling of kero- 
sine oil. Ber-bau' bAsok, <5-*«y y\ij^ 


Bauh, &^\^ 

Emitting a foul stench. S ' bau*- an 
^ylj-^d Of one and the same scent; 

friendly; accustomed to one another; 
reconciled to one another. Belum s'bau*- 
an l&gi kerbau itu, ^^ ^21 ^^^'L,-^ j*^ 

«w) Those buffaloes are not yet accus- 
tomed to one another. Note : The follow- 
ing fictitious example, partly borrowed 
from Marsden, is a curious instance of 
the number of words in Malay which 
closely resemble one another, and will 
give the student an idea of the import- 
ance of correct pronunciation. Bahwa 
ia mem-bawa' bekf^s bau'- bau'- an ter- 
ptkul di-atas bahu-nya Mlu ka-bawah 
tali bawar, ^yb y\i ^j^ "i>W s^' |><^ 

jb^ J^ ^J^j>^ ^y^^ crJ'^ J^y Now 
he bore a case of perfumes upon his 
shoulder, and passed underneath the 
cord which denotes a place where custom 
is payable. 

Bauh, &jU To split the thickness of a 
bamboo (which has already been split 
longitudinally and flattened out) in such 
a manner as to separate the inner and 
outer layers or surfaces. Note : This 
word is for the most part used by the 
natives of Kelantan. In other parts of 
the Peninsula the word Sepat,. 3Ju» is 
usually employed. 

Bauh, Hind., &jU The shoulder. (See 

Bauk, jj^li Whiskers; hair on the face, 

as opposed to hair on the chin ; feathers 
under the beak and on the neck of a 
fowl. Note : The more common word 
for whiskers is Jambang, ^^--^ The 

word J6bing, ^>^ is also met with. 

The word Bauk, jj^lj is much used by 

the natives of Kedah. 

Baulu, Jj-i A kind of pastry. In Perak 
they say Bdah Mu, ^yb &\j^ 

Baung, 6^b The name of a fresh -water 

fish, it has no scales, and has sharp 
armed points to its fins which sting as 
well as wound. Note : The Malays dis- 
tinguish between the following species 

of Baung, 4^1^ Baung 8.kar, ^\ ^^U 

Baung kAnyit, ^^ i^l^ Baung gantang, 

MjS &fU Baung pisang, ^^^ ijU omd 

Baung pAntong, ^y 4^U Note : The 

following fresh -water fish are of the 

BAwa', M^li 

same family. P&tin, ^\h Lawang, £^> 
and Ikan dAri, ^g^^j ^^1 The Patin, 
^jjftJli is the largest variety, and the 
Baung, ^^U intermediate between the 
Lawang, ^^31 and the Ikan dAri, ^^^1 

Baur,^^Li To mix, to stir up together, to 
blend. Lalu di-baur-kan tepong dengan 
santan itu, uu^l ^^fu^ ^j £yiJ ^/^^b^yil 
Then he mixed the flour with the ex- 
pressed juice of the coconut. Champor 
baur,^^li ^^fl^ Irregularly mixed; con- 
fused, incoherent. Champor baur bangkei 
mandsia dan ben&tang, ^-<Aj ^^Lj ^L^^ 
^Uj ^)j ^^^mJL. The carcases of men 
and animals were huddled together, 
were inextricably mixed. Per-kata-an 
champor baur ta' ber-Ajong ta' ber- 
pangkal, "U ^^1^ *LJ j^\^ yu^ o"^>-* 
JJC^^ Confused words without com- 
mencement or ending. (See also Adun, 
^)^\ Champor, ^L^ and Gaul, J^l^ To 
mix, etc.) 

Baur, ^)^ Irregularly bent ; some one way 
and some another; warped (as planks). 

Baur.^^lj The handle of a fishing-rod or 
fishing-net. Baur kail, Ji IS" p^b A fishing- 
rod. Baur taut, &^l3^^lrf The rod which 
is set by itself, with line, hook and bait, 
and visited from time to time by the 
owner. Baur sa' sau', yU-^ Ji^^ A land- 
ing-net. Baur jerat, lys^ j)\^ The handle 
of a snare or gin shaped like a fishing-rod. 

Baur, ^^Ij The name of a short weapon 

which in P^rak is a token of rank used 
by the Raja MAda, who in that State is 
the heir apparent. 

Bliwa', A)\^ To bring, to take, to fetch, to 
carry, to bear, to convey, to escort; to 
take along with one. Also Mem-bawa', 
M^lj-*-* To bring, etc. Bawa' nasi, 'l^lj 

^^ Bring food {lit, rice). Maka (Qih 

Hang TAah di - bechara - kan iang di- 
bawa' - nya itu maka sekelian di - per- 
sembah-kan pada Adipetra, <s)^) csL^ 

\yiil^\ JJ ^jj5C^-H-*yj Then Hang TAah 

spoke of that which he had brought, and 
made known everything to Adipetra. 
Meng-&pa gerelngan m&ka ti&da angkau 
mem-b&wa' bddak itu ka-mari, 4-jUu« 


stones. Lalu di-bawa'-nya-lah terbang 
naik ka-atas s'bftah batu iang amat besar, 
^U fii>:^ ^'\^ ^^li ^y ^^]^\i^yii 
j^ i^Ui Then he took him up and flew 
with him on to a very large rock. Telan 
b&tu, y li ^ To swallow stones. Note : 
This expression is an idiom which means 
to hold one's tongue about anything. 
Batu hitam ta' ber-sanding, *lJ ^x-Jbyl^ 

^Joud^ A black stone without projec- 
tions — Prov.f said of anything which it 
is diflBcult to injure in any way. Jauh- 
nya tengah dAa batu, ylj I^J dtf ^^Uk 

It is distant a mile and a half. TiS.da 
sampei dAa batu, yflj I^J ^JU^ ^LJ It is 

not as much as two miles. Note : This 
use of the word Batu, yl^ A stone, to 

denote a mile, or any distance marked 
by a milestone, is now well understood 
by Malays, who make frequent use of it 
when speaking of distances to Europeans. 
Practically, however, the term conveys 
little idea of distance to the ordinary 
Malay, and, except in very civilized parts 
of the country, it is -not used by the 
natives among themselves, the only man- 
ner of reckoning distance employed by 
them being statements of the time which 
is occupied in covering the distance in 
question, the number of turns in a river, 
and other methods equally vague and 
unreliable. Kayu batu,yli jjtl^ The hard 

wood of the Blumea lacera. Men-jS,di 
batu, yl^ v^^U^«-» To turn into stone; to 
become petrified. Mem-batu, y W-i-» To 
be as hard as stone. Mem-batu r6boh, 
^^A? yW-^ To celebrate several feasts 
or ceremonies at one and the same time, 
as, for instance, to give one feast in 
honour of a marriage and a circumcision. 
Ber-bS,tu, yl^^ Stony; covered with 

stones. Tinggal batu-batu-nya sehaja, 
glf^ ^tylj J5^ This idiomatic expres- 
sion is used to describe the state of an 
orchard when the season of some par- 
ticular fruit, say the durian, is passing 
and there are only left a few fruits 
hanging here and there on the trees. 
Champak bfi.tu, jJlj c5^ To take a 
final farewell of any place ; to shake 
the dust of a place ofF one's feet. 
Note : This expression arises from the 
custom, sometimes resorted to by Malays, 
of casting a stone into a stream which 
they are leaving, and saying, * Timbul 

Bau', yU 

batu aku baiek!' ^Ij ^\ ^k J>^ ' Not 
until that stone floats will I return ! ' 

Bau', yL) A scent, a perfume, an aroma, 
an odour, a smell, a stench, a savour, 
a pleasant or an unpleasant odour. Bau' 
iang harum, f^j^^ yU A sweet scent. 
Bau' iang wangi, ^^^j^ y^ A fragrant 
perfume. Bau' bdsok, ^5—0^ yU An 
evil smell. Bau' apak, ^1 y\i mid Bau' 
hanching, Ats^f^ y^, A rank, fetid, or 
villainous odour. Bau' hannyir, ^UbyL^ 

A strong smell, as of fish — not applied 
to the smell of decayed animal or vege- 
table matter. Bau' hamis, ,j.--s.^Uyli The 
rank smell of goats, tigers, musang^ and 
such beasts. Bau' hangit, ^Ift^l^^'l^ The 
smell of anything scorching or burning. 
Dan bc-ber-apa Mnga-biinga iang amat 
harum bau'- nya, i^Uj Y\£>y, «-ilj^ ^\^ 
^y^ l»^U And great quantities of floral 

decorations, the perfumes of which were 
fragrant. Si-apa iang mem-bftat ampat 
perkara ini maka s'kali - kali tiada ia 
men-chium bau' shurga, &|^--*-» A-i *^ Lj--o 

^y^ y^ Whoever does any of these 
four things shall by no means be per- 
mitted to smell the perfumes of heaven. 
Bau' ayer wangi, ^^) j-i' y^ The 
odour of scent. Ber-Abah bau'- nya, 
^^y^. ^}^y. The smell of it has changed. 
Bau'- bau'- an, ^yU yU or ^y\\ Per- 
fumes, scent. Ayer bau'- bau'- an, y\^ ji\ 

^y\\ Scent ; liquid perfumes. M&ka r&ja 
pun ber-siram ber-langir p&da p&su amas 
itu sudah mandi ia mem-akai bau'- bau'- 
an, ^j^\ ^U jj ^^ ^jtr^j^ e)y sb "^^ 

prince bathed and washed himself with 
vegetable juices which were in a golden 
vase, and when he had bathed he 
anointed himself with perfumes. Maka 
di-bAboh Alih rslja bau'- bau'- an deri- 
pfiLda narAstu dan kelam ter-lalu harum 
bau'- nya, ^y\^ y\^ gl; d)^l dj^J csA — • 

^y^ r^*^ 5V r^ o'^ ^^^ ^-^^ ^^d 

the king, with perfumes of spikenard 
and aloes, the scent of which was 
exceedingly fragrant. Ber-bau,' y\^j^ 

Having a scent; fragrant of; smell- 
ing of ; reeking with. Ber-bau' minyak 
tanah, dSlJ ^^^^ y\^jk Smelling of kero- 

sine oil. Ber-bau' bftsok, <5-*«^ y\^j^ 


Emitting a foul stench. S * bau'- an 
^^•Ls-^ Of one and the same scent; 

friendly; accustomed to one another; 
reconciled to one another. Belum s'bau'- 
an lagi kerbau itu, ^^ ^i ^^y^ r^ 
%x^\ Those buffaloes are not yet accus- 
tomed to one another. Note : The follow- 
ing fictitious example, partly borrowed 
from Marsden, is a curious instance of 
the number of words in Malay which 
closely resemble one another, and will 
give the student an idea of the import- 
ance of correct pronunciation. Bahwa 
ia mem-bawa' bekas bau'- bau'- an ter- 
pikul di-atas bahu-nya lalu ka-bawah 
tali bawar, ^^ylj ^^^l^ ,j^ H^W v^' |>H 
j\y\^ ^U 5^L^y:i ^ybli ^Ij y^^ Now 

he bore a case of perfumes upon his 
shoulder, and passed underneath the 
cord which denotes a place where custom 
is payable. 

Bauh, 5^Lj To split the thickness of a 
bamboo (which has already been split 
longitudinally and flattened out) in such 
a manner as to separate the inner and 
outer layers or surfaces. Note : This 
word is for the most part used by the 
natives of Kelantan. In other parts of 
the Peninsula the word Sepat,. Hl^ is 
usually employed. 

Bauh, Hind., a^U The shoulder. (See 

Bauk, jj^li Whiskers; hair on the face, 

as opposed to hair on the chin ; feathers 
under the beak and on the neck of a 
fowl. Note : The more common word 
for whiskers is Jambang, ^^--^ The 
word J6bing, ^y^ is also met with. 
The word Bauk, ^^l) is much used by 
the natives of Kedah. 

Baulu, Jj-i A kind of pastry. In Perak 
they say Bdah Mu, ^yb ^sl^ 

Baung, S^li The name of a fresh -water 

fish, it has no scales, and has sharp 
armed points to its fins which sting as 
well as wound. Note : The Malays dis- 
tinguish between the following species 

of Baung, 4^1^ Baung 8.kar, ^\ i^Lj 

Baung kAnyit, ^^ $^lj Baung gantang, 

^»A? ^^Li Baung pisang, ^^^ fi^Lj and 

Baung piintong, ^y 6^U Note : The 

following fresh -water fish are of the 

B&wa', -l^li 

same family. PS,tin, ^\h Lawang, fi^2l 
and Ikan dAri, ^j^^ ^^\ The Patin, 
^jj-JU is the largest variety, and the 
Baung, ^^Lj intermediate between the 
Lawang, ^^3 and the Ikan dAri, ^^^1 

Baur, j)\4 To mix, to stir up together, to 
blend. Lalu di-baur-kan tepong dengan 
santan itu, u:^! ^^jsjuo ^j ^yj ^^)^^ ^"^ 
Then he mixed the flour with the ex- 
pressed juice of the coconut. Champor 
baur,^^G yUfe. Irregularly mixed; con- 
fused, incoherent. Champor baur bangkei 
manClsia dan benatang, Sj^ ^^Lj ^L^^ 

^Uj ^i»3 s?^^ ^^^ carcases of men 
and animals were huddled together, 
were inextricably mixed. Per-kata-an 
champor baur ta' ber-Ajong ta' ber- 
pangkal, 'U ^^1^ "U j^\\ ^ui^ e)"^>-* 
JJC^^ Confused words without com- 
mencement or ending. (See also Adun, 
^^Jl Champor, ^ui^ and Gaul, J^l^ To 
mix, etc.) 

Baur, ji^lj Irregularly bent ; some one way 
and some another ; warped (as planks). 

Baur,^^lj The handle of a fishing-rod or 
fishing-net. Baur kail, Ji^p^lj A fishing- 
rod. Baur taut, ^^^ j)^ The rod which 
is set by itself, with line, hook and bait, 
and visited from time to time by the 
owner. Baur sa' sau', ^*U-a ji^l^ A land- 
ing-net. Baur jerat, Sys^ j^\^ The handle 
of a snare or gin shaped like a fishing-rod. 

Baur, jy\^ The name of a short weapon 
which in P^rak is a token of rank used 
by the RS,ja MMa, who in that State is 
the heir apparent. 

BHwa', A)^ To bring, to take, to fetch, to 
carry, to bear, to convey, to escort ; to 
take along with one. Also Mem-bawa', 
•I^L-«-* To bring, etc. Bawa' nasi, 'l^lj 

^^ Bring food Qity rice). Maka ftlih 

Hang TAah di - bechara - kan iang di- 
bawa' - nya itu mslka sekelian di - per- 
sembah-kan pfi^da Adipetra, <s)^) ctL^ 

\yiil^\ jj ^jj5C^.H-»yj Then Hang Tdah 

spoke of that which he had brought, and 
made known everything to Adipetra. 
Meng-apa ger&ngan maka tiada angkau 
mem-b8.wa' bAdak itu ka-mari, 4-jUu« 


stones. Lalu di-bawa'-nya-lah terbang 
naik ka-atas s'bAah batu iang amat besar, 
^g &\j^^ ^•l^ ^-U ^y dljH^bjp]! 

^ i^Ui Then he took him up and flew 
with him on to a very large rock. Telan 
bfi^tu, y Ij ^ To swallow stones. Note : 
This expression is an idiom which means 
to hold one's tongue about anything. 
Batu hitam ta' ber-sanding, *lJ ^^sl^ y l^ 

^Joud^ A black stone without projec- 
tions — Prov.y said of anything which it 
is diflBoult to injure in any way. Jauh- 
nya tengah dAa bd,tu, ylj I^J dW ^j^ 

It is distant a mile and a half. Tiada 
sampei dAa b&tu, ^flj 1^^ s?^^**^ ^'^ ■""* ^^ 
not as much as two miles. Note : This 
use of the word Batu, yl^ A stone, to 

denote a mile, or any distance marked 
by a milestone, is now well understood 
by Malays, who make frequent use of it 
when speaking of distances to Europeans. 
Practically, however, the term conveys 
little idea of distance to the ordinary 
Malay, and, except in very civilized parts 
of the country, it is -not used by the 
native^s among themselves, the only man- 
ner of reckoning distance employed by 
them being statements of the time which 
is occupied in covering the distance in 
question, the number of turns in a river, 
and other methods equally vague and 
unreliable. Kayu batu,yl3 ji^ The hard 

wood of the Blumea lacera, Men-jadi 
batu, yl^ ^^jUs^l^ To turn into stone; to 

become petrified. Mem-batu, yL.^ To 
be as hard as stone. Mem-batu r6boh, 
6^jjp ylH-* To celebrate several feasts 
or ceremonies at one and the same time, 
as, for instance, to give one feast in 
honour of a marriage and a circumcision. 
Ber-batu, ylj^ Stony; covered with 

stones. Tinggal batu-batu-nya seh8,ja, 
C^-^ ^ty^ y^ This idiomatic expres- 
sion is used to describe the state of an 
orchard when the season of some par- 
ticular fruit, say the durian, is passing 
and there are only left a few fruits 
hanging here and there on the trees. 
Champak batu, jJl^ ^^ To take a 
final farewell of any place ; to shake 
the diist of a place ofF one's feet. 
Note : This expression arises from the 
custom, sometimes resorted to by Malays, 
of casting a stone into a stream which 
they are leaving, and saying, * Timbul 

Bau', yU 

batu aku balek!' ^b ^lylj J^ ' Not 
until that stone floats will I return ! ' 

Bau', yU A scent, a perfume, an aroma, 
an odour, a smell, a stench, a savour, 
a pleasant or an unpleasant odour. Bau' 
iang harum, fj^ y^ A sweet scent. 
Bau' iang wangi, ^^^ y^ A fragrant 
perfume. Bau' bAsok, S^J^ ^^ -^ 
evil smell. Bau' apak, ^1 y\^ and Bau' 
hanching, ^^c^»^ yk A rank, fetid, or 
villainous odour. Bau' hannyir, j^^yU 
A strong smell, as of fish — not applied 
to the smell of decayed animal or vege- 
table matter. Bau' hWis, ,j.--M»lJb^»li The 
rank smell of goats, tigers, musang, and 
such beasts. Bau' hangit, 2^\^y\i The 
smell of anything scorching or burning. 
Dan Mnga-btLDga iang amat 
harum bau'-nya, ^Ui y^j^ <-*lJ-^i ^'^ 
^y\} ^j\^ And great quantities of floral 

decorations, the perfumes of which were 
fragrant. Si-apa iang mem-bftat ampat 
perkara ini maka s'k^li-Mli tiada ia 
men-chium bau' shurga, Sl^^-*^ ^ c-i L--« 

•— ^^ y^ Whoever does any of these 
four things shall by no means be per- 
mitted to smell the perfumes of heaven. 
Bau' ayer wangi, ^^j j-i' yU The 
odour of scent. Ber-Abah bau'-nya, 
^y^' ^-?'^ The smell of it has changed. 
Bau'- bau'- an, ^yU yU or ^^\'y\i Per- 
fumes, scent. Ayer bau'- bau'- an, y\i ji) 

^y\i Scent ; liquid perfumes. Maka rS^ja 
pun ber-siram ber-langir pMa pS,su amas 
itu sudah mandi ia mem-akai bau'- bau'- 
an, ^j^l ^U jj ^^ CJtf^j^ oy Sb "^"^ 
^^y^, y^. i^^ s?' ^"^"^ ^*^-^ ^'^' The 
prince bathed and washed himself with 
vegetable juices which were in a golden 
vase, and when he had bathed he 
anointed himself with perfumes. Maka 
di-b(lboh Alih raja bau'- bau'- an deri- 
pMa nardstu dan kelam ter-lalu harum 
bau'-nya, ^ylj y\i gj; d)^l dj^J i^ — • 

^yb (V^ 5V r^ o'^ ^^^ ^J^ ^^d 
the kmg, with perfumes of spikenard 
and aloes, the scent of which was 
exceedingly fragrant. Ber-bau,* y\iji 

Having a scent; fragrant of; smell- 
ing of ; reeking with. Ber-bau' minyak 
tanah, dSlJ ^^^t*-* y^j^ Smelling of kero- 
sine oil. Ber-bau' bftsok, ^3-^y ylj^ 


Emitting a foul stench. S * bau'- an 
^^yU-^ Of one and the same scent; 
friendly; accustomed to one another; 
reconciled to one another. Belum s'bau*- 
an lagi kerbau itu, ^^ ^i ^^y^ r^ 
«u*il Those buffaloes are not yet accus- 
tomed to one another. Note : The follow- 
ing fictitious example, partly borrowed 
from Marsden, is a curious instance of 
the number of words in Malay which 
closely resemble one another, and will 
give the student an idea of the import- 
ance of correct pronunciation. Bahwa 
ia mem-bawa' bekns bau'- bau'- an ter- 
pikul di-fttas bahu-nya IWu ka-bawah 
tali bawar, ^yl^ y\\ ,j^ ^b^^-*-- v^» |>^ 
j\)k J^ 5^l<^y3J ^y^b ^Ij J<^y Now 
he bore a case of perfumes upon his 
shoulder, and passed underneath the 
cord which denotes a place where custom 
is payable. 

Bauhi es^Lj To split the thickness of a 
bamboo (which has already been split 
longitudinally and flattened out) in such 
a manner as to separate the inner and 
outer layers or surfaces. Note : This 
word is for the most part used by the 
natives of Kelantan. In other parts of 
the Peninsula the word Sepat,. ^ii-^ is 
usually employed. 

Bauh, Hind., &•^A The shoulder. (See 

Bauk, ^^\\ Whiskers; hair on the face, 
as opposed to hair on the chin; feathers 
under the beak and on the neck of a 
fowl. Note : The more common word 
for whiskers is Jambang, ^^--^ The 
word J6bing, ^y^ is also met with. 
The word Bank, ^^l^ is much used by 
the natives of Kedah. 

Baulu, Jj-J A kind of pastry. In Perak 
they say Bdah Mu, ^yb &]j^ 

Baung, fi^lj The name of a fresh -water 

fish, it has no scales, and has sharp 
armed points to its fins which sting as 
well as wound. Note : The Malays dis- 
tinguish between the following species 
of Baung, ^^b Baung &kar, ^\ ^^b 
Baung kAnyit, 2^^ ^^Ij Baung gantang, 
^ajS ^jU Baung pisang, ^^^ ^^U and 
Baung piintong, ^y ^^U Note : The 
following fresh -water fish are of the 

Bawa', M^lj 

same family. Patin, ^U Lawang, iji 
and Ikan dAri, ^g;^J ^^\ The Patin, 
^U is the largest variety, and the 
Baung, £^L^ intermediate between the 
LS-wang, ^^31 and the Ikan dtlri, ^^\ 

Baur,^^Lj To mix, to stir up together, to 
blend. Lalu di-baur-kan tepong dengan 
santan itu, u:^! ^^ix^ ^^i>j ^jiS ^^j^\i^ ^i 
Then he mixed the flour with the ex- 
pressed juice of the coconut. Champor 
hsLiir, J )\i jLu^ Irregularly mixed; con- 
fused, incoherent. Champor baur bangkei 
manAsia dan ben&tang, ^S^ jj\^ j^-^^ 
^Uj ^b cg-^^ The carcases of men 
and animals were huddled together, 
were inextricably mixed. Per-k^ta-an 
champor baur ta' ber-Ajong ta* ber- 
pangkal, 'U ^j\y. *LJ jj\y ji^ o"^>-* 
JJC^^ Confused words without ^com- 
mencement or ending. (See also Adun, 
^^Jl Champor, jLu^ and Gaul, J^l^ To 
mix, etc.) 

Baur, ^^Ij Irregularly bent ; some one way 
and some another ; warped (as planks). 

Baur, j^b The handle of a fishing-rod or 
fishing-net. Baur kail, J^l^p^l^ A fishing- 
rod. Baur taut, &^^ jj^ The rod which 
is set by itself, with line, hook and bait, 
and visited from time to time by the 
owner. Baur sa' sau', ^*U--o j^lj A land- 
ing-net. Baur jerat, Sje^ j^\i The handle 
of a snare or gin shaped like a fishing-rod. 

Baur, j^\i The name of a short weapon 

which in PSrak is a token of rank used 
by the Raja MMa, who in that State is 
the heir apparent. 

B&wa', M^b To bring, to take, to fetch, to 
carry, to bear, to convey, to escort ; to 
take along with one. Also Mem-b^wa', 
^\jLj^ To bring, etc. Bawa* nasi, M^li 
^^ Bring food {lit.^ rice). Maka Alih 

Hang Ttlah di - bechara - kan iang di- 
bawa* - nya itu maka sekelian di - per- 
sembah - kan pdda Adipetra, d)^1 csL^ 

l^jt jj ^jj5C^-u^yj Then Hang Tdah 

spoke of that which he had brought, and 
made known everything to Adipetra. 
Meng-d,pa ger^ngan maka ti&da angkau 
mem-b&wa' bMak itu ka-mari, f-iUu. 


How comes it that thou hast not brought 
the child hither? Ada -pun iang Mta 
harap mem-b^wa' anak kita ka-d£a itu, 

And we trust that he will bring our two 
children. Maka ter-sebut-lah per-kata- 
an Raja Ch&mar Laut di-d^lam k&pal 
baidAri mem-bftwa' ftngkat-an prilhu 
ktlrang s^tu s'ratus h^luan, d)J^.^^y cU^* 

It is related that Raja Chamar Laut 
was in the large war -ship, and had 
brought with him a fleet of one hundred 
ships less one. Apa khabar di-bawa' 
6rang hilir ini? jj^ ^^j\ H^ljJ ^^ «-il 
ji) What is the news brought by the 
people who have come down stream? 
Note : This sentence would equally well 
mean, " What is the news brought by 
these down-river people?" Bawa' ka- 
rAmah, ^^^ ^^jU Take it to the house. 
Jikalau ada kasih-an tiian-hamba bawa'- 
lah hamba meng-adap raja, jiy<_o. 

thou hast pity upon thy servant, 
master mine, take thy servant into 
the presence of the king. Bawa* ka- 
liiar,^!^ 'I^lj To carry outside; take it 

outside. Maka di-^ngkat peti di-b&wa'- 
nya ka-l(!lar s'telah sudah maka di- 
sambut-nya Mih pen-jArit tAjoh itu maka 
peti itu pun di-b4wa'-nya s'6rang s'buah 
laiu ber.jalan,^iy^ ^M^bJ ^ 2^\^ csJL. 

^1 de^yi dljjsf^;^ d)^1 ^^.fj^^k^ cSA^ es«X^ dlbUo 
yj 6l^-^ ^JyS^ ^^^b^ ^ji^\ ^ *aU 

^^^Ji He lifted up the boxes and carried 
them out, and when the seven warriors 
had received them, each carried one and 
they started upon their way. Bawa* 
m^sok, ^3-eU H^li To bring in, to carry 
in ; bring inside. Aku minta rftup kam- 
pong-kan sem^ngat-nya bawa' mftsok ka- 
dnlam bflloh bangsi ini, f^j\j 1»a^ jS\ 

s?-^ ^y^ f^'^ i^^ ^b^ ^i4-» o^y^ 

^1 I pray that thou wilt seize upon and 
gather up her soul, and wilt bring it 
into this reed-pipe. Lalu di-sambut 
bingkis-an itu dan di-b^wa'-nya masok 
ka - anjong ast^na baginda, 5^^.*^ J jJ ) 

*xJ^ Then he received the presents, and 
took them into the private apartments 

Bawa', -I^li 

of the monarch, which were within the 
palace. Bawa* naik, csAji'U •1^1; To carry 

up, to bring up. Bawa' naik ka-r(lmah, 
<Ly^ csAji'lJ •l^lj To carry into the house 

{lit.f up to the house). Maka titah 
baginda bildak itu tiada bMih di-bawa' 
naik ka-rClmah di-siiroh bawa' ka-tepi 

sAngei hanyut-kan di-ayer, Aa-eJ <*A >> 

<uj^ csAji'lJ H^l^j d)^ jV "-^' ^3^^ *^^ 

monarch ordered that the child should 
not be brought into the house, and com- 
manded that it should be carried to the 
river bank and set adrift upon the waters. 
Bawa' ttlrun, ^jiy M^b To carry down, 

to bring down, to take down. Bawa' 
barang-barang tArun ka-prahu, Y^j^ 'b^ 
j^\jiS ^j^ Take the thpgs down to the 
boat. Di-bawa' tArun ka-sClngei, M^liJ 
C5^^^ o-^y ^® carried it down to the 
river. Bawa' nasib, s-*^ *'^^ Bawa' 
untong, ^j) H^l^ or Mem-bawa' nasib, 
H-.-yo3 *\^La^ To seek one's fortune; to 

trust to Inck ; to experience good or bad 
fortune. tTlih karana mem-bawa' untong 
nasib iang tiada baik, ^^1 H^L-*^ ^^\^ ^j\ 

csAji'l^ ^W^ s^-ff^ Because I experience 
evil fortune and destiny. Bawa' agong, 
^^1 M^li and Mem-bawa' agong, H^l«-^ 

4^1 To be full-grown, to be grown up, 
to have reached man's estate. Deri-pada 
kechil sampei besar mem-bawa' agong 
belum pernah patek lihat ka-iaku-an 
s'macham pagi ini, j^ ^J^^^^ J«^ *^^^ 

^u^ o'>^^^ *^^ ^y r^ t^ ''^^ 

^1 ^U From the time that thou wert 

an infant even until thou hadst grown 
up and hadst reached the age of matu- 
rity, never has thy servant seen thy 
conduct such as it is this morning. Ter- 
bawa' »l^ljy Carried, borne, fetched. 

Ta' ter-bawa' karana brat-nya, "l^lj^ ^^ 
Jiji ^j\^ Unable to be carried on account 

of its weight. Pem - bawa'- an, ^^^^W-^ 
That which is carried; all that is carried 
by anyone. Maka ini-lah hamba sebut- 
kan aadat tebus segaia hamba drang iang 
lari itu jikaiau di-daiam kdta hengga 
aamarat negri dAa kApang dan t^a 
jadi rampas-an segaia pem-bawa'- an- 

^7^9 o^r? ^^^ ^y^ •-r-^ ^' CftX_^ 
^^^W ^W o'"^ ^^ '-^^ ^-^ ^J*^ i-J!^ 


Bawab, Ab., c^I^ 

^•|^l^ J^ cT^^b ■'■ li^reby state the 
custom concerning the redemption-money 
to be paid for runaway slaves : if they 
are [caught] inside the royal domain, 
or within the boundaries of the capital, 
the redemption money is two Mpang 
(66| cents), and the property which they 
carry with them may not be seized. 

Bawab, Ab., c^l^ A door-keeper. Note : 
The pure Malay term Pen-Anggu pintu, 
yuJ j^y^ is of more common occur- 

Biwah, &y\A Under, underneath, below, 
beneath. Ka-b&wah, 5^1^ Down, below, 
underneath, downwards. MS.ka R&ja 
Ambong sultan sakti pun me-16mpat 
tiga kali ka-fttas sampei meng-&ras 8.wan 
Angu tArun ka-bawah sampei ka-batu 

hampar, ^y s?*^ e)^*^ t>^^ ^^ "^^ 

jlusi^lfS ^gi-*-* *^U^ ^^y Raja Ambong, 
the Magic Sultan, leaped up thrice even 
imto the altitude of the azure clouds, then 
descended until he reached the bed-rock. 
Anak r&ja itu laki-laki tambah-an pMa 
ter-lalu besar tAah-nya men-rus sampei 
ka-langit iang ka-tAjoh lapis dan ter- 
sendam ka-b&wah sampei ka-b&tu ham- 
par tAah-nya, Jy ^^^ v^i a^l gl; ^1 

des^y:^ a<>£>K ^Ju^ tj^^J^ ^V y^. ^ V 

jk^ yL^ ^^u^ 6^1-^ l»ja-*^y ^|j ^j^^ 

^ly The royal infant will prove to be 

a boy, and moreover his good fortune 
will be exceedingly great, extending 
upwards unto the seventh region of the 
heavens, and downwards even unto the 
bed-rock. Ka-bawah dMi, ^J &^\S 
Underneath your foot; your majesty. 
Ka-b&wah kaus, ^)\s a^C^ Your high- 
ness. Note : These terms are used both 
in written and in colloquial Malay, the 
latter being used in addressing Rdjas 
who bear the rank of tTngku, ^^1 , and 

the former being only applied to a rul- 
ing Bdjuy his consort and immediate 
offspring holding one of the oflBces of 
Raja Milda or Rd,ja Bendahd^ra. Ta 
til£^-ku shah aalam p&tek mohun-kan 
ampim be-nbu-rtbu ampun dan kemia 
ka-b&wah dCdi shah aalam, ^^Uo^|yt U 

^|j ^^1 t>ji^ ^^I ^jj^i^jK ^^1^ ^^ 
^\s> &\t> ^J ^s^L^ y^ king of all the 
universe, we thy slaves crave pardon, 
thousands of pardons, and grace be- 

Bawah, &j\i 

neath thy feet, ruler of the world ! 
Hal paddka anak-S,nda itu lebeh-lebeh 
maalum ka-b8.wah dftli iang piahfi, mulia, 

^^ The matter of thy son is fully 
known to thy majesty. Di-bfi,wah, &y^^ 
Under, below, underneath, beneath. 
Maka petra-nya itu ka-lAar deri-p&da 
kandong-an bonda-nya lain jatoh ka- 
t8.nah sampei ka-bsltu hampar s*ketlka 
lennyap di-dalam tanah itu m&ka ka- 
lAar balek di mAntah-kan Alih bAmi ter- 
letak di-bawah pe-lembah-an astS,na, 

^\a^\ ^j(^5uii «i^li J ^y ^y The royal 

infant emerged from his mother's womb 
and fell to the ground, even unto the bed- 
rock, and for a moment disappeared in 
the earth ; he came forth again, being vo- 
mited out by the earth, and was placed 
beneath the flooring of the palace. Ada 
iang blah pagar md^sok ka-kampong ada 
iang ber-sembAnyi di-bawah kedei ada 
iang lari naik ka-kedei, ^\^ ^U dL^ j| 

<^j^ csA|[*lS Some split the fences and 
entered the compounds, some hid under- 
neath the shops, and some ran into the 
shops. Md.ka tiga drang naik ka-atas 
jentang dan ampat 6rang tinggal di- 
b&wah fi,kan sambut gilir-an handak ber- 

tebang itu, ^"l^ ^'U ^j^\ <Ji; ^ — • 

^1 ^y^ ^*y->^ ^^jt)^ Three men went up 
into the scaffolding, and four remained 
below, awaiting their turn of work at 
felling the tree. 

Bdah rembfiga di-bawah dAlang 
Rama-r&ma terbang ka- Jawa 
Adek mem-bfiga abang mem-bAlang 
Sama-sama mem-bdang nyawa. 

hk V 


BSrnhega fruits undpr a tray ; the butter- 
flies fly to Java; the younger brother 
holds the cock and the elder fastens the 
spurs, and together we risk our lives. 
Di-b&wah &ngin, ^^tA^ &jU^ Leeward. 


(See Note under Angin, ^^eA^ Air, etc.) 
Deri-b&wali, &^\^ j*^ From under, from 

below, from underneath. M&ka inang 
tdvL itu pun ka-lftar^ah deri-bd.wah p&su 
iang ter-b&lek itu, ^y^l |>-^ ^t <^^ — ^ 
«»-^' ^^>«^ >^^ *^^ ^*^ a);iy^ The aid 
nurse emerged from under the jar which 
had been turned upside down. 

B&wal, J^ij The name of a salt-water fish: 
the pomfret, Stromatens sp. 

B&wan, ^^L^ A comrade, a playfellow. 

Note : In theltfalay Peninsula the terms 
K&wan, ^^l^, R&kan, ^\j, BMong, ^ajy. 
Sain, ^L» a/nd Teman, ^ are used. 

Bftwang, i^lj An onion. B&wang mSrah, 
^-^^ t^^ ^ Bawang ftbang, ^l ^^l^ The 
common red onion. B&wang piiteh, ^^l; 
d^y Garlic. B&wang piiteh sa-Mas, £^lj 
^yU dftJy A clove of garlic. B&wang 
Bengg&la, Jl^ ^^l; , B&wang besar, ^^l; 
j^ , or Btlwang Bumbei, ^^^ £)U A 

large round white onion. B&wang 
temb&ga, iJ!^\^ &fU The * brass onion,' 

another name for the B&kong, i^\i or 
TjUj, Ormum asiaiicum. B&wang p^rei, 
spy ^^^ Loose onions (viz., not in a 
rope). B&wang ber-jambak, ^5t-*<^^ ^^^ A 
rope of onions. B&wang sebdngkul, 4^1^ 
J<^j.8-^ and B&wang harAbi, ^^j^ A>^ 
The name given to a massive gold dagger 
hilt, which, according to the ancient 
Malay custom, only a ruling prince was 
permitted to wear. 

B&war^j^U A custom-house; a place where 
duties are paid and taxes collected ; a 
barrier at which boats, etc., stop in order 
to pay taxes and custom dues on the 
goods which they contain. T&li b&war, 
^^Ij ^Ij A cord which it is the custom 
among Malay Chiefs to suspend across 
rivers at certain points as a sign that 
duty must be paid before proceeding 
further. According to Malay custom, 
any one disregarding this signal and 
passing under the cord without having 
previously paid the dues, is punishable 
with confiscation of his boat and all the 
property which it may contain. 

Bfiwar, jj\^ The name of a salt-water fish. 

Bawftair, Ab., jn^^y Piles, hsamorrhoids. 
Note: This word is sometimes con- 

B&yan, ^\i 

tracted into W&sir, jif^\ji by the Malays 

in the coUoquial language, and usuaUy 
in writing also. 

Bawat, SjU To beiid, to incline, to hang 
down, to hang over. T&li b&wat, ^ll 

&^\^ The braces; ropes attached to the 
extremities of the yards. B&wat deri- 
&tas, ^l j^ i)l^ To hang downwards. 

B&ya, ^^U Size, appearance, aspect ; age. 
B&ya m&na kerbau bh&ru, j^ji ^C* ^ l^ 

jji^ Of what size is the new buffalo? 

Lebeh kdrang b&ya itu, ««^t ^^ij ^j^ d^J 

More or less of that size or appearance. 

BMak itu b&ya &nak &ku, ^^ij 4it ^^> 

^1 ^i That child is about the size (or 

age) of my son. S'b&ya, ^gW** Of tiie 

same size ; the same age ; similar in 
size or appearance. Maka di-lihat Mih 
nakh6da bCldak-bMak lima drang s'b&ya 

ka-ltma-nya, V^^ji ^^ 4>l ^^ cs^_^ 

^\j^ ^?C-* ^^^' ^ The master of the 

vessel saw five children who were idl 
of the same size. Note : This term is 
usually employed only when comparing 
one person or thing with another. 

BSya, Hmn., ^^L^ Danger, peril, injury, 
evil, mischief; the occasion of fear. (See 
Bahia, ^ Danger, etc.) 

B&yam, ^l^ and S&yor b&yam, ^b j^iL* The 

name of a culinary vegetable, Ama/r* 
a/nthus viridis. B&yam ber-dAri, ^l^ 

say^^ A thorny species of this vege- 
table. Amaranth/us spinosiLS. M&ka R&ja 
Laksam&na pun ber-stap-lah m&sak n&si 
dan gAlei s&yor b&yam iang di-kdtip di- 
tengah p&dang itu, ^^^ ^U*-^ gt? <^A — • 

uk^l ^jii diaj <JU/jJ^ The Prince who 

held the post of Laksam&na made ready 
to cook the rice and a curry of hdyam 
which he had gathered in that meadow. 
M&ka di-&mbil Mih kra kechil Idiah 

b&yam itu, &\^ J<^ 1/ dS^l y^\^ ^ — • 

<jHiI ^Ij The little ape took the sauce 

which was made from the bdyam. 

Bayan, ^j^^i A parrakeet, Paloeomis Java- 
nicus. Chertta bArong b&yan, ^j^y \s^ji^ 
^jjilj The Tale of the Parridlteet : a Malay 
romance in which the parrakeet, and 
the pied robin (Miirei, i^j^) appear 


B&yan, ^\^ 

as the attendants^ of a fabulous bird 
called the Biirong Agut, &^) ^^ 

Bdyan, ^k A female attendant. Note: 
This term is not in use in the Malay 
Peninsula. See Dftjang-d&jang, Y^\^ 
A female attendant. 

Bftyan, Jay., ^\^ A servant, a messenger, 
a village carrier. (See £abd.yan, ^WO* 
Note : This word is not used in the 
Malay Peninsula. 

Bayan, Ab., ^y or ^\^ Explanation, depo- 
sition, declaration. 

Bftyan-b&yan, t"^^ The name of a fish 
found both in fresh and salt water. 

Bftyang, ^ij A shadow, a reflection, a 
shade. Ber-bftyang, ^Ij^ Having a 

shadow, casting a shadow, throwing a 
reflection. Bihitar b&yang, ^\\ y^^ , 

B&ntar b&yang-b&yang, t"^^ y^^ cmd 
Biintar mem-bayang, ^if^ jsiy The 
, hour when the shadows are circular: i.e., 
mid-dav. Dan Che' Hang drang Linggi 
ber-j&lan d&rat meng-ena-kan per- 
langkah-an sedang budi-man waktu 
tengah hari biintar mem-b&yang &nak 
lang meny-6ngsong ftngin &nak Mar blit 

di-kftki, ^Ic^^ ^ $^y ^1 -^ ^1a 

^l^j B^ y^l Che Alang, the native of 

Linggi, travelled by land, and he set ofE 
at the hour and in the way which is 
held to be propitious according to the 
manner of reading omens, which is 
termed sSdang huMman (viz., duly pru- 
dent), at mid-day, when the shadows 
are circular, when the young kite soars 
against the wind, and the little snake 
lies curled at one's feet. (See Note under 
Ambun, ^^y^^ Dew. Also see Langkah, 
a5CA) A step^ etc.) M^a ka-lihat-an-lah 
b&yang - bayang - nya ada s'6kor singa 
mem-egang tangan plandok, Axj^J^ <^0 

He saw the reflection of a lion holding 
the foreleg of a mouse -deer. M&ka 
LaksamsLna pun ber - j&lan - lah p&da 
h&ri sabtu p&da diia-blas td^pak bdyang- 
bftyang, ^g;U) jj liUl^^ ^^y ^U^ ^^X^ 

Y^^ i5^^ cT^ l>a JJ^^a^-* The Laksamftna 
started to walk on a Saturday, at the 
hour when the shadows are twelve paces 


long. Tiimit seperti telor biirong santap 
sirih ber-k&cha-k&cha {Iyer minum ber- 
b&yang-btlyang, tJLu^ ^^y^ jj^ l^ l^f^jf 

YMkj^ f^x^ jl\ rs^^ ^jit^ Her heels were 
like unto the eggs of a bird; when she 
ate betel-nut, her face shone like glass; 
when she drank water, it could be 
seen through her transparent cheeks. 
Lalu di-tikam-nya riisok Megat Panji 
Aalam s'blah k&nan trus Ka-s'blah 
Idri ber-b&yang, ILiL^ ij^jj ^-^^^ y^ ^ 

^^^ s?^ ^^-t^ ^ij^ ^^ ^^ f>^ ,^ 
He stabbed Megat Panji Aalam in the 
ribs on the right side and through 
to the left side, so that the point of the 
weapon could be discerned [under the 
skin]. Kain bayang-b4yang, f^l^ ^If 

A semi-transparent garment. Ter- 
blLyang di-d&lam pikir-an, ^ba ^^jJ 

^yC^i Seen in one's thoughts. Mem- 

b&yang-kan, ^^^i^:.^ To cast a shadow 

upon anything. Pantang sftngat mem- 
b&yang-kan n&si 6rang tengah mftkan, 

It is wrong to oast a shadow upon the 
food of any one who is eating. 

B&yang, ^Ij The name of a fish. 

B&yar, ^l^ To pay. B&yar hAtang, ^j^ ^l* 
To pay a debt. Bftyar denda, JJ*i >il^ 
To pay a fine. B&yar diat, ^^ >Lli To 
pay an indemnity for murder committed 
or wound inflicted. BAyar &ngsor-an, 
^^^^1 ji\^ To pay by instalments. B4yar 

chengkeram, f^J^ j-i^ To pay an ad- 
vance ; to pay earnest - money. B&yar 
tftnei, ^J^ yi^ To pay ready money. 
Bd^yar h&jat, &^U ^ij , B&yar kaul, yi\^ 
Jy and Bayar niat, ^ yi\^ To fulfil 
a vow. Kena b&yar, ^Ij U-^ To have 
to pay; to become liable for a pay- 
ment. Stlroh bayar, jib 5;^ To order 
to pay. Jikalau kata-nya biyar bMih- 
lah hamba bayar-nya, d^y yi\\ ^Uf Jld^ 
^ji^ H--^ If they say I am to pay, I can 
do so. M&ka meny-ileh 6rang iang 
ampflnya llnak A.ngkat s'tengah herga- 
nya jika ia m&ti jika ti&da ia m&ti m&ka 
pe-kerja-an-nya s'bh&gi di- bayar Mih 
bapa £ngkat-nya itu, ^j|>1 A»^ 



isy> ikt^ is^s ^s ^y^^ 

jiijo j:.i^ j'Wj^ ***-^^ s?» •iW **V 

M^t ^a<^1 «-*(; 4)j1 If the child dies, its 


B&yas, ^li 

adopted father must pay half its value 
to its owner ; if it does not die, he must 
pay half the value of its labour. B&yar- 
kan, ^ji\^ , Mem-b&yar, jiU^ and. Mem- 
b&yar-kan, ^j^>l W To pay. Maka AUh 
sud^gar itu di - jAal-kan - nya rAmah 
tangga-nya dan herta-benda-nya lain di- 
bdyar-kan-nya-lah ka-pllda sud&gar itu, 

4i) /b^ jJ^ aL^^lj J yj ^^)j^ &j^ The 

merchant sold his house property and 
his possessions, and paid the money over 
to the other merchant. M&ka Alih raja 
di-hukum-kan-nya S,kan dia mem-bayar 
s'rlbu draham, ^^/l ,^jjX»<fe.j g); d)^l tiA^ 

A^^ y^j^ ^W**^ s?*^ The king ordered 
him to pay one thousand draham. Note : 
The draham is a thin gold coin current 
in Turkey. S'bhfi,gi istri-nya mem- 

bayar-kan, ^jiX^m^ t^^*— *' s?^"^"^ "^^^ 
wife paid one portion [of the money]. 
Bayar-an, ^^>l^ A payment. DMt bayar- 

an, ^j)^^ 4i^^ A money payment ; the 
cash for the payment. Pem- bayar-an 
^^L*i and Pem-bayar, jil-^ Payment ; 
mode of payment. DAit pem-b^yar herga 
kain, ^^\^ «-jr^fe ^W^ ^^ Money in pay- 
ment for the clothes. Note : The term 
Pem-bayar, j-aW is also occasionally 
applied to the payee in a transaction. 

Biyas, ^l) The name of a wild palm 
which in general appearance somewhat 
resembles the Nibong {^^) palm, 
Oncospei^rna horrida. Note : The term 
Ibul, J^l is also applied to this family 
of palms. The leaves are irritating to 
the skin. tTmbut bfi^yas, ^l^ S^j^ The 
edible shoot of the Oncosperma horrida, 

Bayat, i^l^ To sow rice for transplanting 
into wet rice-fields. Musim mem-bayat, 
4ltLu^ f^i,^^ The season for transplanting. 
Pem-bayat benih, d^ 4lU^ A seed plot; 
a seed nursery. Note : This term is not 
in general use in the Malay Peninsula. 
(See Semai, ^p*--*)- 

Bayong, iji^ A scarecrow. Also Bayong- 
bayong, Y^jl^ 

Bayong, £^1^ To throw. 

Bliyong, iji\i The name of a kind of 
chopper. Note : This chopper is termed 
Pisau wi\li-an, ^|^ ^>^ by the natives 
of Rio. 

Be, ^ 

Bftyor, j(^li The name of a tree the timber 
of which is used for ship-building, 
Pterospermum jacTdanv/m. Bay or jantan, 
cT^"?* jj^li Pterospermum diversifolium. 
B&yor laut, S^i jji\i Heritiera littoralis. 
Bayorbetina,^jj-^ jj^l^ Sterculia rubiginosa. 
Note : The terms Bayor pAteh, Vy jjl^. 
and Bayor lang, ^jj^l^ are occasionally 
used by Malays in referring to two of 
the above species. 

Bayu, HiND.,^lj A blast of wind, a gust 
of wind, a puff of wind ; Vayu, the deity 
of the Hindu mythology who presides 
over the winds. PAput b&yu h4bis ter- 
bantun, ^^>5j^y u-J^ >i^ ^y H a puff 
of wind blows, they are all plucked out. 
Bayu m^na gerangan tClan iang d&tang 

ber-pAput ini, ^)J^ ^ly ^)/ ^^U >ili 
^] ^y^ Prithee, sir, what wind was 
that which has lately been blowing? 
BS,yu n6bak, ^^-^ j^l^ The name of a 

u, ^l^ Changed in flavour but not 
spoiled (of food). Note : In Perak they 
say Lftsu, ^J Ka-bdyu-an, ^^ji^ 
Evil humours ; noxious gases. 

u, j^\^ The name of a tree which 
resembles the Gerdnggang, ^^}^ 

Bayu, yi\^ A stranger, a foreigner, an 

Bayuh, es^lj Polygamy ; to have more than 
one wife. 

B6- A An inseparable verbal prefix which 
is attached to certain radicals to give 
them a verbal form. The verbs thus 
formed may be used in the present, im- 
perfect, or perfect tenses. There is no 
change in the termination or other alter- 
ation in the different persons of Malay 
verbs, the personal pronouns being suffi- 
cient to convey the sense. Note : The 
prefix 5(?., ^ is a shortened form of the 
prefix BSr^ ^ , and is for the most part 
used in forming verbs from radicals 
which begin with an initial r (^), or 

which contain the letter r (^) in the 

first syllable. Examples : Rebut, &jij 

(To struggle for, etc.) Be-rebut, i^^ 
Kerja, gj:^ (Work, etc.) Be-kerja, g^ 

(To work, etc.) As a general rule, it 
may be laid down that it is wrong to 


use the verbal prefix Bg-^ ^ except with 
radicals such as are mentioned above, 
but this prefix is occasionally met with 
in connection with radicals which begin 
with an initial I (J). Thus, Be-l^yar, 
jl^^ is met with for Ber-layar, ji^j^ Its 

use with such radicals is, however, to 
be avoided. (SeeJ5^-,^ An inseparable 
verbal prefix, etc.) 

Bea, ^ Impost, custom, duty, toll. Meng- 
&mbil bea miiat-an pr^hu iang d^tang 
me-niaga di-dalam s pMoh satu, J--^l^L^ 
a)yL-» ^ba *^^^,*^ ^Ijj^ jSo]j^ J)y ^ 

jJLo To levy an impost of ten per cent 
on the cargoes of all merchant ships. 
Jangan dagang-an ini kena chiikei dan 
l>«a, ^ ^b ^j^ U^ ^\ JSU ^\c^ Let 

not these goods be subject to tax or 
duty. Bea kerbau, j^ji ^ A custom 

duty levied on bufEaloes. Note : This 
word, though in use among the natives 
of Sumatra, is not used or understood 
by the Malays of the Peninsula, where 
the term ChAkei, ^Jj^ is usually em- 
ployed. (See also Chabut, 2^\i^ and 
. Hasil, y\^). 

Bda, ^ Shells ; cowrie shells ; snails. 
Bda-b6a, y^ The name of a kind of bean. 

Bdbal, J^ Ignorant, stupid; slow or weak 

of understanding ; unlearned, unversed; 
thoughtless, inadvertent, foolish, frivo- 
lous ; ignorance, stupidity, folly. Akan 
tet&pi antara merika-itu &da-lah 6rang 
iang btjak-sana dan 6rang iang bebal, 

J^ ^ ^jj^l ^1^ But among them there 

were men who were Reamed and men 
who were ignorant. Ada-pun anak raja 
itu ter-sSngat dAngu lagi dengan bebal- 

jLti ^^*^ The princes were very stupid 

and ignorant. 8embah patek ini sembah 
6rang iang bebal, d.^^ ^1 c^U d.,.*.^ 

J-^ ^ ijy) The words of thy servant 

are the words of an ignorant man. 
8' ber-mMa Ada 6rang bebal itu &pa-bila 

ia mftsok ka-d&lam t&man itu, ^t J>v^-^ 
«wJ ^U ^)j^ ^U ^] J^l ii\ ^ &j^\ 

First of all when the stupid fellow had 
entered the garden. M&ka benchi-lah 
seg&la seh&bat handei-nya £lkan dia sebab 
bebal dan alpa-nya, ^ L^ JC^ ^^^it^ 

Beban, ^ 

^liJl ^b ^ 4,..,^ ^^ ^] ^JuLfc All his 

friends and acquaintances disliked him, 
on account of the weakness of his in- 
tellect. Bebal s&ngat 6rang-nya, J--i 

^j^) ^Lo He is a person of exceedingly 
weak understanding. £!ntah-kan ^nak- 
ku m&ti dan entah-kan ayah^nda md,ti 
j&ngan-lah men-S,roh bebal, cs^fijl ^^^^1 

I know not whether thou, my son, wilt 
die, nor whether I, thy father, will 
perish, but let us not be thoughtless. 
Bahwa ny^ta-lah tAan-hamba ini bebal, 
J^ ^] «-,.^)y alJlj \^ Now verily thou 

art foolish,. my master. Jangan-lah 
kira-nya sehabat kita men-aroh perchaya 
&kan peng-adu-an iang bebal di-bdat 
6rang di-^tas kita, ^ ^k^^ <^'^ dL£>UK 

&t^ ^)^ Do not, friend, attach cre- 
dence to the frivolous charges which 
people make against us. 

T{Lan ampun-kan d6sa ayahanda 
Minj.<Jh bt^g.U^ bi,gslwan mftd. 
Khilaf bebal di-dalam dada 
Suatu pikir-an haram tiada 
Khilaf bebal mana iang Ma 
Jangan-lah tAan ber-jauh b6da. 

Forgive the crime of thy father who 
ordered thy exile, noble youth, for- 
give his errors and folly, for there was 
no evil thought in his heart ; whatever 
his mistakes and folly, do not let them 
make any difference to you. Pada b£lrang 
s&lah bebal-nya handak-lah tflan ajar-i, 
s?>^' o'/ ^"^^^ J^ d)L^ £^li J^ .What- 
ever may be his faults and folly, you 
must correct them. 

86 ban, ^ A burden, a load> a pack, a 

bundle ; to carry slung over the should- 
ers, to carry as a burden. Ti^da beban 
batu di-galas, ^l?J yl^ ^ jL-J Not 
having a load, to carry a stone — Prov., 
applied to one who gives himself need- 
less trouble. Tiada beban men-chari 
beban, ^. sg;^ ^ ^^ Having no 


Bpbang, ^ 

burden, to seek one — Prav.^ used of one 
who makes work. Orang ber-beban, 
c5^^ ^JL>' Bearers, carriers ; men carry- 
ing burdens. Chiiba-lah beban-kan, 
^^x^ ^^ Try carrying it slung over 

tbe shoulders. Sekelian gendong-nya 
di-beban-kan Mu ber-jftlan, ^ <L>^ 
^^ji jj J ^jjXfc^a a^>^ They slung 
their bundles over their shoulders and 
set off walking. Note : Beban, ^ is 
occasionally used in a figurative sense 
to mean a serious, weighty or diflficult 
matter. Kar&na perk&ra ini b{lkan-nya 
perk&ra kechil me-lain-kan beban benar 
&da-nya, ^j^^ ^> ^^ j^j-^ ^j^ 
^»^» y4 ^ ,^^ For this is no trivial 
matter, but a realty weighty business. 
Note : For other words for * To carry,' 
etc., see Note under Angkut, S^^\ 

B6bang, ^ cmd E[a-bebang, ^^ A 

stoppage of the womb in childbirth, 
or of the anus in voiding. Gcljah handak 
bSrak besar kanchil pun handak b6rak 
besar 6sok ka-bebang, jj^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

The elephant passes huge excrement, 
the mouse - deer wishes to do likewise : 
in the end there will be a stoppage of 
the anus — Prov. The meaning is the 
same as that in the fable of the frog 
who wished to be as big as the bull. 
Orang per-ampA-an mati ka-bebang, 
^^ JfL« ^^|>i^y ^j|>l Women die from 
a stoppage of the womb in childbirth. 
Ka-bebang-an, Jiit^ or Anak ka-bebang- 
-an, ^Jii^ ^5il A still-born child; a child 

whose birth has been attended by great 

.B6bap, Ui^ or K&tak bebap, ^JL^ ^l^ 
A kind of toad. 

B6bar, ^ Bewildered, confused; confused 
in its movements, as a bat. Bebar-an, 
^^ Confusion, confused (as a tumult, 
etc.); uncertain (of the weather). Hari 
bebar-an ti&da tentu glap dan trang, 
^jJ ^b UiiS yul aLjf ^^ ^g;U The 

weather was uncertain : it was neither 
distinctly overcast nor bright. 

B6-bftran, ^^Uj A species of shell-fish. 
(See B&ran-baran, f^^^^)- 

Bdbaa, ^j'-^ Free, imrestrained ; license ; 
to be free of; to possess the entree. 
B6bas-kan, ^jjd^^ To make free of any 

Bechak, ^ 

privilege. Orang iang b^bas 
r^ja, eb ^:>^1^ ,j-«< ^ ^A>' One who 
is free of the king's palace; one who 
possesses the entree to the royal pre- 
cincts. Tempat iang ka<>b6bas-an, ^UU 
^^'.^»iu^<ii A public place. 

B6bat, ^ To wrap round, to gird, to 
envelop; a girdle, a sash, a cloth 
wrapped round the waist; a band, a 
ligature, binding. Ter-bebat, 2^ J Girt. 
Ber-bebat-lah ia dengan kain lamping- 
lamping, r^«A^ ^^ ^^ s?' ^^^ She 
wrapped him in swaddling-clothes. Kain 
bebat autra, l^su* it4 ^^ A silken waist- 
cloth. Pem-bebat kris, ^^ 4«-fci The 

string binding often seen at the extremity 
of a dagger sheath, and which serves to 
hold securelv together the two pieces of 
wood of which the scabbards of Malay 
weapons are made. 

BSbat, Jav. a^ To clear ground for plant- 
ing. (See Tebas, ,j-*«J). Note : This word 
is not in use among the Malays of the 

Bdbek, Jav., ^5^ A duck, a wild duck. 
B6bek jantan, ^^&^ ^5^ A drake. Anak 

bfibek, ^5^ ^) A duckling. Note : This 
word is not in use among the Malays of 
the Peninsula. (See Itek, ^1 A duck.) 

BS-b6r&pa, «-3)^ How many; very many; 
how much; how very much. (See Ber&pa^ 
4^)ji How many, etc., of which this ia 
an emphatic and intensified form.) 

BS-bdrek, J)>t»^ The name of a bird, a 
species of flycatcher. Note : This word 
is more correctly written B6rek-b6rek,^ 
V^jni , and even in the colloquial dialects 
it is often pronounced in the same man- 
ner, with a strong accentuation on the 
first syllable of the second word. The 
present form, however, also frequently 
occurs in colloquial Malay. (See j36rek- 
b6rek, rj^). 

B6chak, ^^ Stagnant water; a stagnant 

pool or pond; a slough, a muddy place; 
slush, mud. Tidak hiijan pun l&gi bechak 
ini-kan pMa hiijan, ^3^ ^% ^^ ^y> ^^ 
^yb Jy ^^Ai\ Muddy when there is no 
rain, and now moreover it is raining — 
Pr&v.f to perform a diflEicult action under 
specially trying circumstances. Note : 
Compare LechcJi, d^ Mud, etc. 


Bftoh&ra, Hind., ^l^^ Business, matter^ 
•afiair; discourse, conference, converse, 
consultation, advice, counsel ; idea, opin- 
ion; plan, scheme, device^ stratagem; 
suit, cause, case, lavr-suit; a business; 
an interview; a business interview; to 
talk ; to argue ; to transact business ; 
to hear a case, cause, or law -suit. 
Bech&ra iang brat, &j^ j^ ^ weighty 
matter, an important business. Maka 
Kaja D6nan pun mu-pakat dengan 
a^eJa drang besar hech^ra handak meng- 
hidup-kan Baja Pikas iang sudah m&ti 

itu, yi^ ^^ aa*^ ^y ^^a gl; 4a\_^ 

^M^] ^U dJwJ^ lUlja D6nan consulted 

with all the chiefs as to the business of 
restoring B&ja Pikas, who was dead, to 

life again. Ada bech&ra sedikit handak 
di - maalum - kan, JJ^J^tJ^ a^ju^ ^l^ j| 

^^^jU^ J There is a small matter which 
I would wish to make known to thee. 
Jika bSr-betul-an p&da h&ti cldek per- 
tftma chinchin tlga bentok iang s'bentok 
tanda mem-inang dan s'bentok ber- 
<ekrar janji dan s'bentok tanda men-jSdi 

s'b&rang bech&ra, ^U J^ Jj^j^ *-s^ 

^ AH^'^ t§5U--^ ^b ^f-tt^ 

j\^ £>W^ i^jl^^Xii^ JuJ If it meets with 
thy approval, brother, first [thou 
shouldst send] three rings — one as a 
token of betrothal, and one to confirm 
the promise, and one as a sign that 
every matter shall be brought to a 
successful issue. Tiada-lah bagai-mana 
bech&ra hamba l&gi, j\^ c)^"'^ d)bl^ 
^J H -" * ^ I am no longer in any way 
concerned in the affair. Sila men-dengar 
bech&ra p&tek hamba t{la,^l^ ^jju* jC^ 
ly vy.u>» c^V^ Be pleased to listen to 
the advice of thy slave, who is an old 
servant of thine. M&ka sabda r&ja jik&lau 
damikian ter-l&lu-lah baik bech&ra 
mentri-ku, dJyjy ^^^^j^ gl; j^^ cM-^ 

%^jSLL^j\^ <-^'lj Then quoth the king, 

• If that be so, the advice of my minister 
is exceedingly good.' M&ka m&sing- 
m&sing pun meng-lflar-kan bechara-nya, 

^b^ Jj^^d>j^ ^6^^ ^^^ Each one 
proffered his advice. Jik&lu mau' tiian 
men-iirut bech&ra hamba &da-lah suatu 
aakal sep&ya Idta sekelian biilih sel&mat, 

Bech&ra, HiND.y^l^f 

wilt follow my counsel, there is a strata- 
gem by means of which we may all be 
saved. M&ka sembah-nya, ^ D61at tdan- 
ku p&da bech&ra p&tek Laksam&na ini 
s'drang iang bijak-s&na, ^^^ ^( ^ - ^ <-sA-^ 

^LJ^j He said to the king, * Your 

Majesty, in my opinion the Laksam&na is 
a wise man.' M&ka p&da bech&ra h&ti-ku 
sedang b&nyak &ngkau per-b{lat ka-bakti- 
an-mu dan j&sa-mu l&gi di-biinoh Mih 
r&3a,/a>) ^^li ^j.-^ ^sV^U^l^ jj iS\ — • 

eb ^y ^>^ ^j (^^ ^^'^ ^ ,af^ *'yy 

I was of opinion that if the king killed 
even you who had rendered him so many 
good offices and services {lU.t it was 
the opinion of my heart). M&ka k&ta 
ibu b&pa-nya, ^ Baik-lah becb&ra-mu ka- 
lima sud&ra itu,' dbC&'l^ ^^ j^^ &^ «^^ 
il) j]^^ (^ y» j^ Their parents said, 
* The plan concocted by you five children 
who are related one unto another is 
good. J&ngan - lah di - panjang - kan 
bech&ra, ^Ifj ^^ik^^ dL£>lc^ Do not pro- 
long the interview; do not delay the 
business. Sudah bech&ra-nya, ^|;^ ^^*y^ 
The interview is at an end; the case is 
settled; the business is concluded. K&lah 
di-d&lam bech&ra, j\^ ^1^^ d)i^ To lose 
a law -suit. J&ngan b&nyak bech&ra, 
J^ <3i^ O^W 1^0 not talk so much; do 
not make such a fuss. !£]sok h&ri handak 
bech&ra,^\^ JJ^j^sa>^<5^' To-morrow 
the business will be transacted; to-morrow 
the case will be decided. Pdtus bech&ra, 
j\^ u^y ^^ decide a case; to settle any 
business. M&ka sudah pCltus bech&ra- 
nya l&lu-lah di-stlroh-nya ber-l&yar, ^^^ 

ji^y^ ^Jr^^ ^y^ ^b^ irV ^^^ When 
the business had been concluded he 
ordered them to set sail. Tanggoh 
bech&ra, ^Ifj a^yCAJ To postpone a case; 

to postpone a discussion. Minta bech&ra, 
j\^ 'Ux-» To apply for a trial, for advice, 

counsel or arbitration. Minta bech&ra 
Mih muhk&mah, iuXa^ dJ^I ^l^ 'U*-* To 
apply for trial before a court of justice. 
Ber-bech&ra,^l^^ To discuss, to confer, 
to consult, to arrange ; to go to law. 
M&ka seg&la 6rang besar ber-bech&ra-lah 
pergi men-d&pat-kan Tdan Petri, «-ftA.-^ 

^y ^|j^ ^y Jb W -H tjj^ y^ 

v^^ All the chiefs consulted together 


Bechok, ^3^ 

about visiting the Princftss. Maka Raja 
Bendah&ra Mangku Biiiiii ber-bechara- 
lah dengan segala 6rang besar-nya, <.&^ 

^j^ Raja Bendahara Mangku BAmi 

conferred with his chiefs. Jikalau s'fikor 
bArong tiong dan s'6kor plandok pergi 
ber - bech&ra ka - pada s'lkor kAching, 

^/ j/Ls^ J^ j\^ji ^y If a mina 

and a mouse-deer go to law before a cat. 
Bech&ra-kan, ^^<|;l^ To settle or enquire 

into any matter; to give advice or 
counsel; to act as a judge or arbitrator; 
to decide, to deal with, to settle ; to 
relate, to tell. Seperti perkara itu 6sok 
bdlih-lah di-bechi,ra-kan tdih hakim, 

That matter can hereafter be decided 
by the judge. Sia-sia angkau ber-nfi-ma 
hulub&lang belum l&gi angkau ber-jumpa 
dengan mAsoh dan pe-r6mpak iang besar- 
besar bh&m ber-temu dengan s'drang 
bAdak kechil itu pim sudah tiada ter- 
bech&ra-kan, f^^ ^i-Ifi^ cl5^ ^\ rU--* 

c)-^' S^ c3^-H ^^^^ c)^^ ^^J^ Jji^ ^J-^ 
c/b^^y ^Li 6J^ It is useless that ye 
should be styled warriors: ye have not 
yet encountered great enemies and 
pirates, but have only met a single little 
child, and even with him ye are unable 
to deal. Benatang iang gagah ter-lebeh 
deri-pada tAan-ku tiada-lah ter-bech&ra- 
kan tdih tdan-ku, JJ^J d^Ji d?l^ ^Lj 
y^'y d)y ^^j^y Jbl^ySly An animal 
which is more powerful than Tour 
Majesty cannot be dealt with by you. 
Maka Mih Hang TAah di-bechara-kan 
iang di-bawa'- nya itu, &)^ ^ <J>I ciL^ 

*-wl ,^*b^^ o^b^^^ Then Hang TAah 
told of that which he had brought with 
him. Maka titah Baginda, * Sekfi,rang 
ini Mta ber-Mih ka-m£llu-an tielda di- 
bechara-kan, ^1 ^^ICa Jjl^ daJf cSA_^ 

the monarch, * We have been subjected 
to shame, and yet we take no steps in 
the matter.' Tempat bech&ra,^l^ iaJuS 

A court; a council chamber; a place 
of meeting or consultation. 

B6chok, ^59^ The name of an edible salt- 
water fish. 

Bedah, Hind., 6J^ 

Bdda, Ab., j^ Difference; different; other 
than ; to differ, to be different ; to be 
other than. (See BSza, or B6tha, J^). 

Wa-h6 chuchu-ku iang bljak sana 
J&ngan-lah ttlan ber-h&ti bSna 
Maaf-kan d6sa padiika ayahanda 
Khilaf bebal m4na iang ada 
Jangan-lah tAan ber-jauh b^da 
J^gan-lah shak di-dalam dada. 

j^l ^jU ^^j ^^^^^^ 
^ *^^^ i^b-^ <iL3L^ 

my wise grandson, take not this 
matter to heart ! Forgive thy father's 
sins and the errors and folly of which 
he has been guilty ; be not offended, 
and do not cherish unworthy suspicions 
in thy breast I 

B6daah, Ab, ds>^ or Bedaat, ^J^ Heresy, 
schism ; a lie, an untruth, a falsehood ; 
lying, untrue ; to lie. Note : Among 
Malays this word is little (if ever) used 
in its primary sense of heresy, etc. ' 
£!ntah-kah ya entah-kah bedaah, \i d^^\ 
ds>^ i^^\ I know not whether it is so, 
nor whether it is a lie. Ber-bedaah, 
do^y. To lie, to tell a lie. ChAba 
dengar pandei sfingat ia ber-bedaah, 
d^^j^ v^l ^Lo v^J^j^ ^^ <-p^ Hearken 
to him, how skilfully he lies! Pem- be- 
daah, d^J^-H-^ A liar. J&ngan di-den^ar 
kata dia drang pem-bedaah s&ngat, Jt>\e^ 
B&>\^ doj<--43 A^^l ^gj UL>1^ ^Jj Do not 

attend to what he says, he is a great 
liar. Note : In the colloquial dialects 
of Kelantan and Fet&ni, Bedaah, 6^^ 
is used, in a somewhat slang manner, as 
a strong intensitive : — thus^ Besar be- 
daah, dPJ^ y^ Enormously big. H6doh 

bedaah, <iPJ^ &^j^ Remarkably ugly. 

Note : This word is sometimes pronounced 
Bidaah, df>J^ 

B6dadiri, Hind., ^g;l^J^ A fairy; a 
celestial nymph; mythological beings 
answering to the H<iri, ^jy^ of the 
Muhammadan paradise. (See Bediad&ri, 

Bddah, Hind., 6^ Broken ; torn ; torn to 


Bedah, As., ^J^ 

Bddah, Ab., ^j^ A female proper name. 

Bfidak, ^yy^ A cosmetic of which the 
principal ingredient is rice-powder; a 
preparation used to anoint the body after 
bathing, in order to give a softness and 
a delicate perfume to the skin ; lime ; 
white-wash. M&ka Mih sudagar itu di-bri- 
kan-nya ka-p&da ftnak-nya bedak langir 
kftta-nya, ^ Pergi-lah angkau ber-s&ma 
mandi dengan sehclbat-ku/ dJ^l f^ ^ 

J\^ ji^ ^ ^) ^ ^ji^ u.-il /)a>- 
45Aailc.« ^a ^gJuu- (•Lo^ yCi>l dl<jSy The 

merchant gave cosmetics and vegetable 
juices to his son, saying, * Go and bathe 
with thy friend.' L&lu ber-titah mem- 
anggil seg&la inang peng-8LSoh meny- 
{Iroh limau dan bedak dan langir sLnak 
semang hiitan itu m&ka anak semang itu 
pun Mu di-limau dan bedak, 4)^^ jJ^ 

^4^ ^1 VSU MuHlJ J^ fZ^ ^) Jt^ ^U 

c3^ ^la ^a yj ^yjH» Then the king 
ordered all the nurses and attendants 
to be summoned, and ordered them to 
anoint the wild boy of the woods with 
. lime - juice, cosmetic ointments, and 
vegetable oils, and they straightway 
washed him in lime-juice and anointed 
him with cosmetics. Mclka Eaja D6nan 
pun minta biiat-kan bedak, ^^a q\j c&A^ 

<3^ c3^!y '^^'^ c)>* ^]^ D6nan asked 
her to make some cosmetics for him. 
M&ka Baginda meny-iiroh mandi -kan 
dan langir -i Laksamana itu dengan 
limau dan bedak -kan dengan pdpor, 

yy 1^*^ ^^ c)'^ W cJ^^ "^' The 
Monarch ordered them to wash and 
cleanse the Laksam&na with lime-juice, 
and to anoint him with cosmetics. 

Bddal, Jj^ To beat, to drub, to thrash. 
Kena bedal, Jj^ \jS To be beaten. Bedal 
dengan k&yu, ji^ ^^*^ Jj^ To beat with 
a stick. Note : For other words mean- 
ing To beat, etc., see Note under Bahan, 

Bddal, JJ^ To puU out, to pluck out; 
to be pulled up or out. Note : This 
term is not employed in the above sense 
in the Malay Peninsula. (See Bantun, 
^yLf4 , Ch&but, «^l^ , etc.) 

BSdan-bfidan, t'^Juj The name of a red 
rash ; nettle-rash. (See B&dam, i*^^). 

Be-debaa, ^J^ 

B6dira, j)j^ The name of a tree which 
produces a small round green fruit, 
which has a chemical taste, Zizyphua 
jujuba. Note : This species is also called 

Bed&ra China, ^^a^ j)j^ by the Malays. 

Bedllra laut, &yi j\^ A small tree the 

fruit of which resembles that of the 
Zizyjphvs jujuba. Bedara piiteh, d«5y^lj^ 

or Bedara pahit, ^U ^1j^ The name of 
a totally different tree, the leaves of 
which are used in medicine. Note : The 
latter species is also sometimes called 
Bedllra mSrah, ^yir^ j\^ or Pen-awar 
mfirah, 6^tg^ j}\xh by Malays. Beddra 
pandan, ^JoJ j\^ and Bed&ra biirong, 
ijy j\^ The former yielding a fruit like 

that of the large Chinese litchi, and the 
latter like that of the small kind. Biiah 
bed^ra,^lj^ &)ji The fruit of the Zizyphus 
jujuba. Mandi -kan seg&la b&dan-nya 
dengan &yer dan d&un bedara, JC« ^Juu* 

whole of his body with water and the 
leaves of the beddra tree. 

BSd^ra, j\^ or Bed&ra bd,lang, ^Ij ^ljg 
The name of a species of shell-fisK. 

B6dat, £J^ The name of a plant, Sonner- 
atia acida. 

BSdauri, ^g;^!^ and BedAri, ^jj^ The 
name of % kind of large war-ship. (See 
BedAri, sa>^«^). 

B6dfiwi, Ar., i^y^^ A Bedouin ; the wan- 
dering tribes of the Arabian desert; a 
rustic ; a clown ; a robber, a plunderer. 
Note : This is usually pronounced B^ddwi 
by the Malays. Di-lihat bedawi IMu 
m&ka k&ta peny-amun itu, ^a>lwM ^^^ 
4l) ^\f;h &\^ cftU y J He saw a Bedouin 
pass by, whereupon the robber said * * 

B6-d6baa, ^Jg AlsOy more rarely^ Ber-de- 
baa, ^^ji To baa like a sheep or goat ; 
to bleat. In P6rak they say Be-debe, 
Ajj^ M&sok kandang kerbau meng- 
(iak m&sok ksLwan kambing be-debaa 
m&sok reban &yam ber-k6ko', ^^ <5-«L^ 

^^^ji ^t On entering a buffalo's pen, to 
low like a buffalo; on joining a flock of 
goats, to bleat; and on entering a fowl- 
house, to crow like a cock — Proverbial 
expression^ meaning, to be all things to 


stones. Lalu di-Mwa'-nya-lah terbang 
naik ka-atas s'btlah batu iang amat besar, 
^L^ &]j.^ ^^\S c^i^U ^jJ dijM^liJ^S 

^ ^Ui Then he took him up and flew 
with him on to a very large rock. Telan 
batu, y li ^ To swallow stones. Note : 
This expression is an idiom which means 
to hold one's tongue about anything. 
B&tu hitam ta' ber-sanding, *b ^^sl^^ ^\^ 

^Juuo^ A black stone without projec- 
tions — Prov.y said of anything which it 
is diflBoult to injure in any way. Jauh- 
nya tengah dfta batu, yl| I^J diJ ^^W 

It is distant a mile and a half. Tiada 
sampei dfta batu, yi\i |^J ss^^**^ "^^ ^^^^ 
not as much as two miles. Note : This 
use of the word Batu, yl^ A stone, to 

denote a mile, or any distance marked 
by a milestone, is now well understood 
by Malays, who make frequent use of it 
when speaking of distances to Europeans. 
Practically, however, the term conveys 
little idea of distance to the ordinary 
Malay, and, except in very civilized parte 
of the country, it is -not used by the 
native^s among themselves, the only man- 
ner of reckoning distance employed by 
them being statements of the time which 
is occupied in covering the distance in 
question, the number of turns in a river, 
and other methods equally vague and 
unreliable. Kayu batu,ylj ji\^ The hard 

wood of the Blutnea lacera. Men- j Mi 
batu, yli v^«il^j^ To turn into stone; to 

become petrified. Mem-batu, yL*^ To 
be as hard as stone. Mem-batu r6boh, 
&^ji^ yL*^ To celebrate several feasts 
or ceremonies at one and the same time, 
as, for instance, to give one feast in 
honour of a marriage and a circumcision. 
Ber-batu, yl^^ Stony; covered with 

stones. Tinggal batu-batu-nya sehaja, 
sW^ t^iy^ y^ This idiomatic expres- 
sion is used to describe the state of an 
orchard when the season of some par- 
ticular fruit, say the durian, is passing 
and there are only left a few fruits 
hanging here and there on the trees. 
Champak b&tu, ^l^ S^^ To take a 
final farewell of any place; to shake 
the dust of a place off one's feet. 
Note : This expression aiises from the 
custom, sometimes resorted to by Malays, 
of casting a stone into a stream which 
they are leaving, and saying, * Timbul 

Bau', yU 

batu aku balek!' ^\^ /lyb J^ ' Not 
until that stone floats will I return ! ' 

Bau', yU A scent, a perfume, an aroma, 
an odour, a smell, a stench, a savour, 
a pleasant or an unpleasant odour. Bau* 
iang harum, (•^l^yU A sweet scent. 

Bau' iang wangi, ^^'y^ /^ A fragrant 
perfume. Bau' bClsok, ^5--*y yU An 
evil smell. Bau' apak, ^) y\i and Bau' 
hanching, ^^ise^ y^. A rank, fetid, or 
villainous odour. Bau' hannyir, ^ Ut y\^ 

A strong smell, as of fish — not applied 
to the smell of decayed animal or vege- 
table matter. Bau' hamis, ^j*--s^U>^*l^ The 
rank smell of goats, tigers, musang^ and 
such beasts. Bau' hangit, 3^[^y\i The 
smell of anything scorching or burning. 
Dan be-ber-apa Mnga-biinga iang &mat 
harum bau'- nya, ^Ui v^^ ^j^ ^^'*^ 
^y^ (^j^ And great quantities of floral 
decorations, the perfumes of which were 
fragrant. Si-apa iang mem-bftat ampat 
perkara ini maka s'k^i-kali ti&da ia 
men-chium bau' shurga, &1^--^ ^ c-* Lj-^ 

<-Sj^ y^ Whoever does any of these 
four things shall by no means be per- 
mitted to smell the perfumes of heaven. 
Bau' ayer wangi, -q^'^ j-i^ yU The 
odour of scent. Ber-dbah bau'- nya, 
^^y^, ^^'^ The smell of it has changed. 
Bau'- bau'- an, ^^yU yU or ^^^y^ Per- 
fumes, scent. Ayer bau'- bau'- an, y\i jil 

^^y\^ Scent ; liquid perfumes. Maka raja 
pun ber-siram ber-langir pMa p^su amas 
itu sudah mandi ia mem-akai bau'- bau'- 
an, ^j^\ j-U JJ ji^y, ^ytT^y ^^y g); «^^ 
^^y^ y^ s^^ ^' v^^^^j^ fij.-*^ ut-il The 
prince bathed and washed himself with 
vegetable juices which were in a golden 
vase, and when he had bathed he 
anointed himself with perfumes. Maka 
di-bAboh ftlih r&ja bau'- bau'- an deri- 
pada nardstu dan kelam ter-lalu harum 
bau'- nya, ^^^y\^ y\^ gV? J^l dj^^J v^A — • 

^y\^ jV>^ j3V (^ c)'^ ^-^-^ ^-^^ -^^d 

the king, with perfumes of spikenard 
and aloes, the scent of which was 
exceedingly fragrant. Ber-bau,* yl^^ 

Having a scent; fragrant of; smell- 
ing of ; reeking with. Ber-bau' minyak 
tanah, dJlJ ^5^t>^ ylj^ Smelling of kero- 

sine oil. Ber-bau' bftsok, ^5-^^ yl^y 


Emitting a foul stench. S ' bau'- an 
^yL— « Of one and the same scent; 

friendly; accustomed to one another; 
reconciled to one another. Belum s'bau*- 
an lagi kerbau itu, ^^ ^Jl ^^y^ ^j^, 

«u*il Those buffaloes are not yet accus- 
tomed to one another. Note : The follow- 
ing fictitious example, partly borrowed 
from Marsden, is a curious instance of 
the number of words in Malay which 
closely resemble one another, and will 
give the student an idea of the import- 
ance of correct pronunciation. Bahwa 
ia mem-bawa' bekas bau*- bau'- an ter- 
pikul di-atas bahu-nya lalu ka-bawah 
tali bawar, ^y\k y\^ ,j^ M^W*^ v^' |^ 

>^ ^U es^U^yj ^^"^ ^la y^J^ Now 
he bore a case of perfumes upon his 
shoulder, and passed underneath the 
cord which denotes a place where custom 
is payable. 

Bauh, fi^Lj To split the thickness of a 
bamboo (which has already been split 
longitudinally and flattened out) in such 
a manner as to separate the inner and 
outer layers or surfaces. Nofe : This 
word is for the most part used by the 
natives of Kelantan. In other parts of 
the Peninsula the word Sepat,. ^ULo is 
usually employed. 

Bauh, Hind., &}\4 The shoulder. (See 
Bahu, ^\^) 

Bauk, ^^b Whiskers; hair on the face, 
as opposed to hair on the chin; feathers 
under the beak and on the neck of a 
fowl. Note : The more common word 
for whiskers is Jambang, ^^-wsk The 
word J6bing, ^j^ is also met with. 
The word Bauk, j^b is much used by 
the natives of Kedah. 

Baulu, J^ A kind of pastry. In Perak 
they say Bdah Cllu, ^^ &|^ 

Baung, fi^lj The name of a fresh -water 

fish. It has no scales, and has sharp 
armed points to its fins which sting as 
well as wound. Note : The Malays dis- 
tinguish between the following species 

of Baung, ^^l^ Baung fi,kar, ^\ ^^U 

Baung kAnyit, ^^ ^^Ij Baung gantang, 

^Ax? ^^Lj Baung pisang, ^^^ 4^Lj and 

Baung pAntong, ^y ^^Lj Note: The 

following fresh -water fish are of the 

Bawa', M^lj 

same family. PS^tin, ^U LgLwang, ^^J 

and Ikan dAri, i^j^^ ^^f^^ The Patin, 
^li is the largest variety, and the 
Baung, £^Lj intermediate between the 
Lawang, ^^J and the Ikan dAri, ^^Li\ 

Baur,^^U To mix, to stir up together, to 
blend. Lalu di-baur-kan tepong dengan 
santan itu, u;-^) ^^fj^ ^J ^ya ^^^^IjJ jJJ 
Then he mixed the flour with the ex- 
pressed juice of the coconut. Champor 
baur, ^^G yu&. Irregularly mixed ; con- 
fused, incoherent. Champor baur bangkei 
man Asia dan benatang, ^J^ ^^Lj ji-«^ 
^Lj ^b ^^L-^ The carcases of men 
and animals were huddled together, 
were inextricably mixed. Per-kata-an 
champor baur ta' ber-Ajong ta' ber- 
pangkal, *U ^^'^ *Uf j)\^ ^u^ c>*^-^-* 
y^jk Confused words without ^com- 
mencement or ending. (See also Adun, 
^^j1 Champor, yu&. and Gaul, J^l^ To 
mix, etc.) 

Baur, ^^l) Irregularly bent ; some one way 
and some another ; warped (as planks). 

Baur,^^li The handle of a fishing-rod or 
fishing-net. Baur kail, Jil^^^l^ A fishing- 
rod. Baur taut, ^^^ j^\^ The rod which 
is set by itself, with line, hook and bait, 
and visited from time to time by the 
owner. Baur sa' sau', y\ — © ^^l^ A land- 
ing-net. Baur jerat, ^y^ j)^ The handle 
of a snare or gin shaped like a fishing-rod. 

Baur, ^^l^ The name of a short weapon 
which in Pfirak is a token of rank used 
by the Raja MMa, who in that State is 
the heir apparent. 

Biwa', H^b To bring, to take, to fetch, to 
carry, to bear, to convey, to escort ; to 
take along with one. Also Mem-bawa', 
M^U^ To bring, etc. Bawa' nasi, 'l^l^ 

^e^b Bring food (Zii., rice). Maka Alih 

Hang Tdah di - bechS.ra - kan iang di- 
bA,wa' - nya itu maka sekelian di - per- 
sembah-kan p&da Adipetra, d)^1 vsX-^ 

I^jI jj yi^^u^yk^ Then Hang Tftah 

spoke of that which he had brought, and 
made known everything to Adipetra. 
Meng-&pa gerangan maka tid^da angkau 
mem-bawa' bMak itu ka-mari, c-*U-* 


Bediiri, ^ai>J^ 

Hang Tuah, may be a copyist's error for 
Bendul, J>3^ the door-step, and the use 

of Di- a instead of Di-8,tas, j-Jl^ would 

seem to confirm this view. — S'telah 
hari trang chuacha m^a Raja Sri Bama 
ka-d{la laid istri dan Temenggong Laksa- 
m&na dan segala 6rang besar-besar 
sekelian beduanda pun ber - jMan - lah, 

l>^ fb s?j-* eb ^^^ eb^ tj^ sg;^ ^^^ 

^^ji oy ^-^^ c5<*^*^ f>f ^^-^' When 
it was bright daylight Sri Rama and 
his queen, with the Temenggong, the 
Laksam&na, and all the chiefs and fight- 
ing-men, set out upon their journey. 
Note : In colloquial Malay this word is 
little used in the latter sense, the terms 
BMak raja, gl; JJ^ , JAak-jAak, f ji^ 
and Kdndang, iJi^ being more com- 
monly employed. 

BSdOri, i^j^^ The name of a precious 
stone, said to be the cat's-eye. The 
correct pronunciation is Baiduri, sSJ^^ 
Note : This word is only met with in the 
literary language, and it is impossible to 
discover from Malays the true nature 
of the gem indicated, but it may be the 
opal. In ordinary and colloquial Malay 
the cat's-eye is termed Mfi,ta kAching, 
^^ uoL. The terms Bediiri bAlan, 

s^ji say^ The moon-gem, and Beddri 
pandan, ^JoJ ^^j^^ The Pandanus gem, 

are also met with. M&ka bMu 6kor 
bflrong itu deri-pMa amas dan p6rak 
dan bMu - nya su&sa dan balong - nya 
deri-pada bedAri bMan dan mfi,ta-nya 
intan dan lidah - nya beddri pandan, 

^yt^ c>l^ wT-' ^J^ *• t^^ /il yy "^^^ 

O^^ K^J)^ .^^ O^^ d^^ ^^ c)'*^ The 
tail of the bird was of gold and silver, 
and its feathers were of mixed gold and 
copper, its comb was of * moon-gems,' its 
eyes of diamonds, and its tongue was of 
^Pandanus gems.' (See Pandan, ^JoJ 

The name of a tree, PandanuSy etc.) 

BSdQri, i^j)^ The name of a tree with 
rose-purple flowers, Oaloi/ropis giga/ntea. 

B6d0ri, ^g;>Vi The name of a kind of war- 
ship. S'kettka l&gi hllang &sap bedil itu 
msLKa tampak-lah k&pal bediiri tinggal 
s'bAah sebaja ber-sauh t<inggal, '^^^ 

Begar, Ab., /i^ 

y\i dllftiJ v5A^ «^» Ji^ *JL4» ^ ^t 
JX^y 6>L-»^ Z^ir^ ^\y,r-^ y^ ^^JJ^ 

Presently the smoke of the cannonade 
cleared away, and it was seen that only 
one war-ship' was left, riding at a single 
anchor. M&ka di - tampak - lah s'biiah 
k&pal bedftri di-tengah laut itu ter-lalu 
besar-nya, i^j^ J>^ &)^.^^ dlaiJj <.Mw* 
^j^ ^iji v«^l &>i dAJj He espied a very 
large war -ship in the middle of the 
ocean. Note : The form Bedauri, sSjy^^ 
is also met with. 

B6ga, «*-^ To hold a fighting-cock while 
the artificial spurs are being fastened 
on. Also Mem-b6ga, ^J^^^^ Note: To- 
fasten spurs is Bdlang, ^^ or Mem**^ 
bfdang, ^^ 

Biiah remhega di-bllwah dWang 
Anak merp&ti terbang ka-J&wa 
Adek mem-b6ga &bang mem-b{llang 
S&ma-s&ma mem-bClang ny&wa. 

A rSmhSga fruit beneath a tray; the 
little pigeons fly to Java ; the younger 
brother holds the bird and the elder 
fastens the spurs, and together we risk 
our lives. Note : Pijnappel renders this 
word * To sharpen the spurs of a fight- 
ing-cock,' but this, we believe, is not 
the meaning attached to it by Malays. 

Bdgak, ^5^^ A coxcomb, a dandy, a fop,. 

a fribble; smart; elaborately dressed; 
stylish in costume; * dressed within an 
inch of his life.' Orang b6gak, ^5^^ i^^V 

A fop, a dandy. B6gak s&ngat bMak itu, 
3i\ ^Jy t»A^L* ^^Jlfti That youth is very 

extravagantly dressed. Note : The form 
SSgak, ^5^^ bearing a similar meaning, 

is also in use among the Malays of Pdrak, 
Singapore and Johor; in most other 
parts of the Peninsula, however, BSgak,. 
^3^ is the form employed. 

Bdgap, cJlC^tj Corpulent, stout, robust;, 
thick, solid. (See G^emok, J>»^). 

BSgar, Ar., Ji4 Early fruit ; first pluck- 
ings; to harden by cooking; hard^ 


Begi, ^ 

hardened, obdurate. Note : This word 
is not in use among the Malays of the 

BSgl, -J^ To wind rattan round the edge 
of a^asket to bind it ; to bind the edge 
of a basket with rattan. 

Bfiglnda, XlJ^ One who is of royal birth 

(whether male or female) ; a king, a 
queen, a prince, a princess, a monarch, a 
ruler, a conqueror. (See Baginda, ^^jJ^). 

Bfigok, ^^ A goitre; goitre. Kena 
begok, ^y^ ^^^ To be afflicted with 
goitre. Ber- begok, ^jf^ji Having a 
goitre; suffering from goitre. Note: In 
Kedah and some other parts of the 
Peninsula, the term Gerdndong, ^-xJ^^ 

* is applied to a goitre. In Pet&ni they 
say Gondong, ^>>3^ and in Pfirak 
Bengo', "^ 

B6h&duri, Pebs., %fij^^ Heroic; that 
which appertains to a hero. (See Bh&- 
duri, sg;^Wi). 

B6han, ^ To fell timber, to cut timber, 

to cut timber up into logs ; to beat, to 
strike, to thrash, to drub, to thump. 
(See Bahan, ^). 

B6h&na, Hind., ^l^ A loud noise, an 

uproar, a clamour ; noise, sound, tumult ; 
loud noises, tumultuous sound. Tdjoh 
negri p&dam peltta t^Ljoh simpang ge- 
langgang retak tiga btllan drang meng- 
&ndong habis ter-gftgor men-dengar 
beh^a susLra tiikang bdngkok handak 

ber-langkah itu, ul.%Jl * |»aU ^J^ ^^ 

iS^j^ ^y J^^ O^ -^^^ //-^ u-^^ 

««^) ^S^ji ^J^^yjJ^ The lights were ex- 
tinguished throughout seven countries, 
the roads to seven cockfighting yards 
cracked, and women who were three 
months with child all miscarried, on 
hearing the loud noise of the hunch- 
backed workman's voice as he was 
about to start upon his journey. M&ka 
sampei beh&na ka-ddlam negri, ciL—** 
^^jR f^\^ ^\^ ^J>^^-^ The tumultuous 

soimd penetrated to the ears of thosp 
within the city. M&ka seg&la ttang 
l&yar pr&hu itu pun tAmbang beh&na- 
nya seperti 6rang men-ebang k&yu di- 

rlmba, ^y ^-^'y^V jl^ ^ ^ 

Behlna, ^^ 

H-H;*> jl^ ^tA- ^jL>i &j!l^ J^a All the 

masts of the ship fell down, with a sound 
resembling that made when men fell 
trees in the forest. Note: The form 
Bhftna, ^l^ is also met with. 

BShar, ^ The name of a kind of black 
sea- weed. (See Bahar, j^). 

BShiri, ^j^ Prudent; skilled; elegant; 
accomplished, polite, well - mannered, 
civil ; virtuous ; polished, as Besi beh&ri, 
sg;W* <^ Polished steel. 

B6ha8, ^j'-'^ That which withholds, pre- 
vents, or protects; a stay; a patron, a 
protector; to be supported, stayed, or 
withheld. (See Bahas, ,j^). This word 
also has the meaning of ^To knock 
against,' as Kepala ter-behas di-pintu, 
jsuJ*^ u^y J^ His head knocked up 
against the door. 

Bfihaa, Jav., ,j— h To dispute in a friendly 
manner ; to make an allusion ; to satirise. 
Mem-bahas, ^j^^-f-j-^ To drive in a wedge. 
(See Bahas, ^j^). 

B6hat, ^ A share, portion, or profit 
accruing from participation in any evil 
enterprise. (See Bahat, ^). 

B6hek, Ah., ^^fgt^ The name of a kind of 

skin disease. Note : This word is not in 
common use among Malays. (See K{U*ap, 
c-*;^ , KfLdis, j^^^9 etc.) 

Bfihtna, ^^teH Great; very; particularly; 
especially ; extremely ; much ; to take 
notice. of, to regard. Scllah-nya ti&da 
behina, ^^^ al^ ^Le His fault was not 

great. Wama t{lboh-nya ti&da piiteh 
behlna, ^^ djry al^ ^y ^jj The colour 

of his body was not very white. Ti&da 
behina br&hi-nya ka-p&da ftnak-ku, altil 
vMfiJl jJlS ,^1^ ^jjft^ He was not parti- 
cularly in love with my daughter. Di- 
dcllam di-&tor-kan b&tor behina, ^)aa 
c5«^ y ^ c/-)^'*^ Inside [the prison] many 
corridors are constructed. M&ta-h&ri 
ti&da ka-lihat-an behina, al«^ ^^^I^a^ 

cjft^ ctH^ The sun was not very visible 
(t.6., could be only indistinctly seen). 
Apa behina ia ka-p&da &ku P ^^t ^^^ c3 1 
^1 jA^ What is he to me ? What care I 
for him P Behina-kan, ^< .ygr f j cmd Mem- 
behina-kan, J^^a^^^ To regard, to pay 


Behkan, ^^ 

attention to, to care for, to mind, to 
fear. M&ka sek&rang ini p^tek lihat- 
lah tiada-lah behina-kan r4ja l&gi-pun 
per-kata-an iang tiada layak di-kltta- 
kan-nya, <jlx^ ts^^ v^j-i' i^lC^ <.sA_^ 

^i ^it^ o'UT^ oA^^ eb s/^ ^'^W 

^^^ Thy slave notices that now he 
no longer pays any attention to the king, 
and also that he makes use of words 
which it is not suitable for him to use. 
Note : It will be noticed that this word 
is usually employed in negative sen- 
tences. In P6rak the form used is B6na, 
^ which seems to be a contraction of 
BehSna, ^^ and generally means to 

take notice of, to pay attention to. 

Behkan, ^^^ Yes; true; nay more; even; 
aflBrmative assertion. Ada-kah wajib ? — 
Behkan, ^^^ — s-^b ^^^^ Is it imper- 
atively necessary ? It is. Behkan atau 
bAkan ? ^^ y 1 ^^^ Is it, or is it not ? 

Deri-p&da behkan itu, «*hi) ^^Si^ Ji^a 

From that affirmative assertion (viz., of 
the Prophet.) Note : This word is not 
used by the Malays of the Peninsula. 
The form Bahkan (Ar.), ^^^ , with the 

above meaning, is weU known and used. 

Behna, U.^ Callous, indifferent. (See 
Behina, ^^^tr^ and Behina-kan.) 

66hor, j^ A shallow in a stream; a 
hidden shoal in a river. Note : Compare 
Tohor, jiS Shallow, etc. 

Behrak, ^j^ To void, to stool. (See 
Bfirak, ^^ which is at once the more 
common and the more correct form.) 

Behtra, )jsl^ The Ark of Noah ; a galley, 
a barque, a barge. (See Bahtera, i>4i). 

Bdjak, ^3^ Kneaded. 

B6jinah, dJ\^ A vase; a basin; a tub; a 

Bdka, *s^ Familiar, confidential ; to talk 
a matter over, to discuss in an informal 
manner; to persuade, to entice away 
and so to crimp a slave or any one 
bound to the service of another. Mari- 
lah kita ber-Ara-dra b6ka-b6ka dahMu, 
Jybj Y^sXf^ Yb^y --^ ^J^ Come, let 
us talk the matter over, ^laka &da-lah 
ka-p^da sd.tu hari sekelian pawang p{lkat 
dan p&wang jermal dan p&wang jlla dan 
pawang blat dfldok ber-chUkap dengan 
ber-b6ka-b6ka sama sendiri-nya, 

Bekal, J<^ 

^|j a^y £^U ^jjftiC^ ^g;UyL^ jJL^ dJljl 
^J^j ^ &^U ^b J^c^ ^^U ^b J.^ ^^U 
^jlJ^k^ l»Lo Y'^Ksiji o^*^ *-^^^^ Upon a 
certain day all the medicine-men who 
looked after nets and fishing-stakes and 
casting -nets and small fishing - stakes 
were sitting talking and chatting to- 
gether. Mana-kan kfi,wan sahya ta* lari 
di-b6ka ulih si' &nu itu, \rh^ ^^^^ J^^ 
«Hll jJl •^ d)^l tM^j ^ji 'Ij Of course 

my servant absconded, enticed away by 
that man. Note: Cra-Ara, y\jj\ has a 
similar sense to B6ka, <-sA^ 

Bdka, c&\f^.j The name of a tree the fruit 

of which grows in long black pods like 
a bean. Note : This tv^ord is principally 
used by the natives of Kelantan and 
Pet&ni. (See B61i, ^^ which is the name 
more commonly applied to this tree. In 
P^rak it is called Bonglei, -J^^)- 

BSkak, ^^^ To copulate; to fasten in 

couples; to couple (as dogs or other ani- 
mals). Anjing pem-bAru di-bekak {Qih 
pran itu, u«^l ^^ d)^l ^J ji;>■^^ ^^ 
The hounds were coupled together by 
the dog -boy. Note: In the primary 
sense £his word is usually applied to 
cattle, birds, and animals only. 

Bftk^kas, ^^ Materials ; furniture ; the 
utensils of any trade; paraphernalia. 
Maka raja pun ber-titah ka-pada segfila 
inang peng-asoh-nya meny-droh siap- 
kan bekdkas s'banyak iang di-ka-handak 
(klih tftkang, JSlo jJl^ is^j^ ^y ^]j i-sAw 

^Lj-^ ^l^ .^P^tr^ &^y^ .ffir^'^ ^' 

^y ^i^ ^^W^^ The rdja ordered all 
his nurses and attendants to make ready 
as many materials as the workmen 
might require. Maka di-sAroh-kan 6rang 
besar hantar-kan-nya ka-pMang serai 
p&dang kiinyit serta dengan barang 

bekakas tebang itu, t^j\ ,^^jj^^ ci\— -• 
jt>^ &j^ a^/ ^^U ^j^ ^Jli^ ^y^^j^ 
4ll ^ j^^ ^j^. He ordered the chiefs 
to send them to the plain where lemon- 
grass and saffron grew wild, together 
with all the necessary materials for 
felling trees. Note : The form Pekslkas, 
^j^^ is more correct and much more 
usual than Bekakas, j^^ 

B6kai, JCj A supply of anything taken 
on a journey; provisions for a journey; 


Bekam, ^ 

stores of food for an expedition; sup- 
plies. Petang sekftrang kita tftrun mem- 
bawa' bras bekal chAkup s'pMoh gantang 
s*6rang, ^^ *'^W^ e)^y ^^ ^^lCu» ^ 
$j^s-^ ksLiS d)yL^ *-^^ J^ This after- 
noon we will go on board, bringing with 
us a supply of rice amounting to ten 
gantang each. M&kaTanMegat pun mem- 
tleh 6rang anam ribu 6rang per-tikam-an 
dan dAa ribu iang mem-b&wa' bekal, 

J<j H^L*^ ^ y^j l^j ^) J ,^j^ Tan 

Megat selected six thousand fighting- 
men, and two thousand men to carry 
the provisions for the journey. M8,ka 
TClan Petri meny-Aroh siap-kan s'biji 
tabak isi-kan s'chiikup segala m&kan-an 
di-d^lam-nya siiroh hantar-kan pMa 
8.nak-nya S.kan j&di bekal-nya kena bAang 

4i' The Princess ordered a large covered 
tray to be filled with all kinds of food, 
and to be sent to her^son as a provision 
for him in his exile. Ambil wajit ini bdat 
bekal, J<j ily ^1 2c^)^ J^l Take this 

sweetmeat as a provision for your jour- 
ney. Bekal iang tiada habis dan pelita 
iang tiada p&dam, ^b ^\^ ^lft»*i J^ 
j»jli jL^ ^L^ An inexhaustible supply, 

and a lamp which will not be extin- 
guished. Note : The compound forms 
Bekal-an, ^^^ and Per-bekal-an, ^^,y^ 
are also met with. Bras bekal-an, ^^ 

,j^ Stores or provisions of rice for use 
on an expedition. Ber-bftat per-bekal- 
an ter-lMu b&nyak ber-bagai-bagai rdpa- 

To make an abundant provision of all 
sorts of articles. Ber-bekal, J^^ Pro- 
vided with stores, etc., for a journey. 
S'tengah ber-bekal s'tengah tidak, oAsua 
jjj^ 6kis^ J^^ Some have provisions, 
some have none. 

B6kam, ^ A mark made on the flesh; to 
let blood by cupping. Note : The Malays 
usually cup by means of a tube made 
from a buffalo horn. When an elephant 
raises its trunk and turning the extre- 
mity forward moves it about in the air 
smelling danger or the proximity of some 
other animal, that is called Bekam, ^ 

Bekas, ^j^ 

B6kang, ^ The name of a sort of cake. 
(See also Bengkang and Bangkang, ^^ 
A cake, etc.) 

B6ka8, j'M.-^ A sign ; a mark ; a trace ; a 
token; an impression ; a crease; a scar. 
Maka di-lihat-nya pAndi-pftndi itu pun 
telah hllbis-lah pesok-pesok bekas di- 
gigit tikus, diJ ^y Si) rv^^y ^r^^ ^^^ 
^j^S^ M^^ ^f^ Y^J^y^ <dM^ He saw 
that the bag was riddled with holes, the 
sign that it had been gnawed by ruts. 
Lihat-lah aalamat-nya bekas kAku hSri- 
mS,u, y^^ ^^ ^jS\ ^ A o <six^ Behold 

as a sign thereof the mark of the tiger's 
claw I Serta di-tunjok-kan segala tempat 
astana dan balai k6ta p&rit ayah-nya 
dahMu tet&pi sudah tinggal bekas seh&ja, 

gl^ ^ J^ esJw ^Uj Jy>J ^1 ai^U 

And moreover he pointed out all the 
sites of the palaces, halls, forts, and 
moats which had formerly belonged to 
his father, but of which only traces now 
remained. Bekas tAboh, d^y ^j^ or 

Bekas bMan, ^Jl^ ^j^S^ Some garment 
which has been worn, given by the 
owner to another as a keepsake. LMu 
di-sambut bekas tiiboh dan siirat,^S 
i^y^ ^tj d^y ^j^S^ & ^ ,8,» - . <» J He then 

received the love-gift and the letter. 
Jika ber-betul-an p&da hfi,ti &dek per- 
tama chinchin tiga bentok dan kain 
bekas ttlboh s'helS tanda Mek ramah dan 
mesra, ^Uy ^S\ ^U jj ^^^ caU>. 

\y^^ ^b 6^\y ^ Jl JuJ If it meets with thy 

approval, little brother, thou shouldst 
first send three rings and a garment 
which thou hast worn, which will be a 
sign of love and affection. 

Pergi ka-bendang men-chabut kflmboh 
Di-ch&but bMak chepat ber-lari 
Mohun-lah p&tek bekas tAboh 
Kain di-p^kai s'hari-hari. 

d^/ «y^^ ^j^ ^y 

^yl ^j^ <^V^ JuJbj^ 

Go to the rice-swamps to pull out rushes, 
and when they are pulled out the 
children run swiftly away. Thy slave 
craves as a token the garment which 


Bekas, ^j^ 

you wear every day. Note: It is fre- 
quently the custom among Malay lovers 
to exchange sd/rongt since that garment 
can be worn by men and women alike, 
and this practice has caused the death 
of more Malays, under native rule, than 
any other custom. Bekas kllki, ^^ ^jS^ 
Spoor ; a footprint ; the impression of a 
foot; the track of an animal. Bekas 
lipat, ^ ,j^ A crease or mark made 
. by folding a garment. Bekas r6da, ^jS^ 
*^jj A rut; the mark left by a wheel. 

Tahi m&ta bekas tidor, ^ uoU ^U 
jj^jwJ Eye -matter, the sign of recent 
slumber. M&ta-ku bekas tidor gerSngan 
m^a jadi sd^lah pandang-an-ku, c&UL^ 

My eyes still are obscured by the traces 
of recent sleep, and thus I do not see 
aright. Bekas t&Dgan, ^iJ ^j^ Sign- 
manual; the mark left by a man's hand. 
Note: This expression is often used to 
mean the wounds inflicted by stabbing, 
etc. la pun me-nanti di-dfilam mahligei 
TAan Petri itu sehS,ja handak men-rima 
bekas tangan angkau, ^1 JJ'^eXJuu* ^y ^\ 

f^y^ JJa^ gl^-^ uu^l ^ys^ ^\yl .^^^ir^ 

y^' o^^ u-^ He awaiteth thee m the 
Princess's pavilion, solely for the purpose 
of receiving the marks of thy hands 
{mz.^ of fighting with thee). H6 BAja 
Chdmar Laut iang ti&da ber-b<idi angkau 
trlma bekas tangan &ku, i^i y\t^ gl; ^ 
yS\ J>\5 ^ ^jJ yCe>l ^^^ji ^W ^ 

King Sea-gull, thou graceless one, 
receive my sign manual I H6 &nak 
Mald,ka tahan-lah bekas tcingan pen-ikam 
aku,/) ^%<t^ ^U ^ ijJu^b ^X. ^) ^ 

O men of Malacca, wait and ye shall 
receive the marks of my hand as I stab 
you I Mem-bAang bekas, ^j^ ^!><-^ To 
mislead; to put ofE the scent; to start in 
the opposite direction to that you mean 
to* take eventually. Note : The com- 
pound form Bekas - an, ^^^ is also 
occasionally met with. In some parts 
of the Malay Peninsula this form has 
been contracted into Kesan, ^^ t and 
is then used of tracks, traces, foot- 
prints, etc. 

B6ka8, ^j^ A vessel, a receptacle, a place, 
a box, a flask, a tub, a case, a place to 
put anything into. Bekas d&wat, ^j^ 
&\^^ An ink-bottle; a vessel for holding 

Beku, j^ 

ink. Bekas strih, &jtr^ ^jS^ A box con- 
taining the ingredients for betel-chewing. 
Bekas tembfikau, ^Lj-J ^j^ A tobacco- 
pouch or box. Bekas minum-minum-an, 
^j^fA'tt^ j**^ A receptacle for holding 

liquors. Maka ia pun meng-ambil s'bilah 
pisau chandong dan pisau chantek s'bilah 
bekas sirih s'biji dan bflngkus jahit s&tu, 

C^'*^ ^j^tW^ ^Jft^ yj^ ^W** *-^\s5U^ 

yLo i^\e>. ^j^^ji She took a knife with 

a curved blade, an ornamental knife, a 
svrih box, and a bundle of sewing 
materials (a housewife). Serta mem- 
b^wa' seg&la msQsian-an itu di-d41am 
suatu bekas, ut^l ^^ J^ 'b^^-^ &j— • 
^j^ S\y^ f^\^^ And they brought all 
the food in one receptacle. Handak 
mAdik pim tiada ber-bekas, ^^^y» J^^^^^ 
^j^^ jI<J ^y Even if I wanted to go 

up river I have no boat (Zif., no vessel 
in which to put myself). 

BSkat, BS^ Replete. Bekat s&ngat r&sa 
prut, fi^y ^\j ufc-^L*A SS\^ My stomach 

feels very replete. Maka di-lihat-nya 
bekat sflngei itu dengan pr&hu tiga r&tus 

haluan, ^^ u>^\ ^y^ ^ ,crW*^ caL^ 
^^ ,j^b *— ^>^^ He saw that the 
surface of the river was covered with 
the three hundred ships (i.e., as he looked 
down upon it from a great height.) 
Note : The terms Kennyang, ^^ Seng- 
kak, ^3^^ Sengoh, &^ and Tiimpat, 

Siu»i are aU common and all convey a 
simUar meaning. 

BSkatuI, JJlCj aiid BAbor bekatul, JJK^ ^^ 

A kind of broth made with black rice. 
(Also pronounced Bekatul). 

Bftkim, f^ Dumb. Bini-mu d.sal-nya 
bekim, f^^ J^^\ f^sHA Your wife of 
obscure (Zit., dumb) origin. Note : This 
word is not used by the Malays of the 
Peninsula. See Bisu, ^^^ Dumb. 

B6-kSrja, g^ To work, to labour; to give 
a feast to celebrate a marriage, circum- 
cision or other domestic event. (See 
Kerja, g/ Work, etc.) 

B6ku,yC; Congealed, consolidated; hard- 
ened, either by action of heat or cold; 
to become solid, stiff, coagulated, clotted, 
curdled. Ayer bekni, ^ ^) Ice ; con- 


gealed water. Mtnyak s&pi iang beku, 
yCj ^ ^U ^5^^ Clotted ghee. DS,rah 

iang bekuy ^ ^ 5;U Congealed blood. 

D&deb Btsxx Mbis beku ka-samua-nya, 
^\y^ j^ ^Ub^^ <S4j|j The curds are 

all coagulated. Kena beku, ^ U^ To 
be congealed, frozen, curdled, etc. 

BSkQkong, ^/^ A kind of sea-bream, 
Chrysophrys berda. (See Bengkong-kong, 

Bdl, J-^ An inseparable prefix which is 
attached to certain radices to give them 
a verbal form: — Ajar, ^1 To teach; 
Bel-&jar, J«^3? To learn. 

B6la, Jtrf Vengeance, revenge; to wreak 
vengeance for a death, to revenge a 
death; retribution. Tuntut b61a, J<tj SjsjI 
To wreak vengeance, to take revenge. 
S*pftloh hari tflan-nya m&ti kris itu men- 
untut b61a, 21^1 ^^ <^*^ ^'y ^^^ 4^ 
Jei £jajuu« Ten days after its master had 

died, that dagger sought vengeance. 
M&ka di-b£la drang iang kena biinoh 
itu dengan s'chdkup-nya, ^jj\ Jt^^a tsA-* 
^j^ ^a «^» a^ \jXMi They fully 

revenged the death of the man who 
had been murdered. Jika fiku ber- 
tikam dengan Laksamd^na s&ma s'drang 
di-astdna ini jika dku m&ti s'6rang ti&da 
ber-b^la dan nllma-ku pun tiada mesh- 
hor jika damikian baik-lah ttlrun meng- 
&mok sep&ya bfi.nyak b61a-ku, ^\ <-sA &, 

^yJ dKi^l^ ^^j c^Uk j^^^ jUj ^y 

j^Ki Sl^ s?lA-« ^^ If I fight with the 
Laksam&na alone in this Palace, if I 
die, I die alone and unavenged, and 
without renown; therefore it were better 
for me to go out and dmoJc, so that 
my death may be more fully avenged. 
la mohun-kan ka-pMa bonda-nya 
handak pergi bdla mdka kd^ta bonda-nya, 
^J&ngan-lah tiian bdla kar&na tflan 
bftdak kechil Ifigi,* ^]j^ si^ ^J^y^ s? ' 

i/* J«^ c5^-^ c>V c>^^ Jtii He asked his 
mother's permission to go forth and 
avenge [his father's death], but she said, 
■* Gk) not to revenge it, for thou art still 
only a little child.* K&lau-kalau Si 
Jebat itu tdrun meng-&mok ia drang 


Bel&chu, j^Ji; 

md^ti handak bSla, ^^^yi ut^l ^st-^^ t>J^ 

d^ ^^^ ^^^ i)!l^ ^' i5^^^ Lest by 
any chance Si Jebat should Amok^ for 
he is a man who will die with his death 
already avenged (i.e., will sell his life 

Bdia, Ae., h Calamity, misfortune, evil; 
trouble, son'ow, grief. (See B&la, Jlj 

which is the form usually employed by 

Bdlabas, ^h The name of a kind of silk 
cloth. (See Bl&bas, ^h)* 

B6libat, 4^ Certain steps in a war-dance ; 
the name of a kind of sword made of 
wood, used in fencing and sword-dances 
in time of peace. Note : The form 
Belebat, 3^ is also met with. 

B&labor, j^h Food, money, or goods ad- 
vanced to another for a fixed period; 
advances; rations. (See Lfi-bor, j^i To 
advance food, money or goods). Note: 
The form Pe-labor, ^Ai is also met with 
bearing the same sense as Bel&bor, ji^ 
which latter form is probably a mere 
corruption of the former. The initial 
Be- <JL| in this word must not be regarded 
as a verbal prefix, but rather as a cor- 
ruption of the prefix Pe- cJ Pelabor 
habis palembang ta' &-lah, A^i* ^^jy^ 
d3l *lJ Prov. The literal rendering is 
"Our resources are exhausted but Pa- 
lembang is still un-conquered " and the 
general meaning is to spend all your 
money and fail to gain your end. 

B&lachak, ^h Sometimes valiant and 
sometimes timorous; of uncertain valour. 
(See Biachak, ^h). 

B&lichak, ^^ Many; common. This 
word which is also frequently pronounced 
Melachak, ^^^ is used alone or together 
with Yak, ^ in the exact sense of the 
English, "common" because plentiful. A 
purchaser will say " I don't want that, it 
is Melachak yak where I come from," 
(M6wah, 5^-^ has the same meaning.) 

B&lichan, ^j^^\ Caviare; small fish, prawns, 
or shrimps dried in the sun, pounded in 
a mortar, and preserved with spices. 
(See Blachan, ^h). 

BSiachu, y^h and Belftchu minyak, ^^ 
^^f^ Calico. (See Blachu, y^h). 


BelMau, ^ JA^ 

B&ladau, ^al^ A small knife with an almost 

semi-circular blade, sharp on the inner 
side only. (See BMdau,^oJg). 

Bg-laga, i^^ To fight as bulls, rams, 
cocks and other birds and animals; to 
collide, to dash against; to test the re- 
lative hardness of any two things by 
dashing one against the other. Be-l&ga 
kerbau, ^^ i^h To fight buffaloes. Be- 
laga d,yam, ^1 <^A^ To fight cocks. Be- 
luga bdah kras, ^^ a|^ ^^^ To test the 
relative hardness of two nuts. Bagai - 
mana melikei handak be-Mga dengan dA- 
rian, ^^^J ^a ^li juUJb ^j^ ^U^ 

How can a water-melon fight with a 
dnrian? — Prov. Note: The form Ber-l&ga, 
cJTSjj is more correct but less usual. 
The root LS^a, ^-JS is rarely (if ever) 
used alone. See also Sabong, ^^ U 

B&lah, dij To split, to split in two, to 
cleave, to slit, to divide, to cut in two ; 
to burst ; side, part, portion ; half. (See 
Blah, dii). 

B6lah-b6lum, f^^^ The name of a stick- 
insect. (See Blah-belum, i*^>l^ ctnd 
Blam-blum, j^^lj-Jj). 

BSIahak, ^3g To belch. (See Bl&hak, 

Bdl-ijar, j^^) ^To learn, to study, to 
practise. (See Ajar, j^] To teach, etc.) 

B6lak, ^^ Circular marks in the grain of 
wood, the veining of wood. If a person 
having tried to conceal something about 
himself, his origin or something he has 
done, and is then found out, people will 
say Nampak sudah belak-nya, aJu* ^^i^ 

^ His ingraining (his real self) is 
now apparent. (See Blak, ^). 

B6lika, -sJl^ All, every, each; altogether, 
wholly, entirely ; in a body, all without 
exception. (See Bl&ka, -sJ-S^). 

B&ISIak, ^A^ Having prominent eyes, 
having eyes starting out of the head; 
a white spot or blemish on the eye. 

B6lilang, ^X^ A grasshopper, a locust. 

Tempat tiada lang kfi.ta belfilang, * Aku- 
lah lang,' ^ dJ/l ^2^ 51^ ^ j^f aiJ In 

places where there are no kites, the 
grasshopper says, * I am a kite ! ' — Proi). 
A whale amongst minnows : usually ap- 

Belalang, ^1^ 

plied to those who assume authority in 
the absence of the real possessors of it. 
Tiba - tiba sampei pMa per - tengah - an 
bendang md^ka di-pandang anak semang 
itu tengah mem - Angut beUlang bras 
d^pat s'6kor di - mfi.kan - nya damikian 
lah laku - nya, ^j^>-* •J^ ^Ju-^ f h-V 

Si>j4^ dA5 Ut^l k^ ^] ^JuJJ <^A^ ^JOL^ 

When they reached the middle of the 
rice-swamp they espied the wild boy of 
the woods catchiug grasshoppers with 
his fingers, and eating each one as he 
caught it : such was the manner of his 
employment. Ada pftdang ada belfi.lang, 
AjJig J I ^oU J I Wherever there is a 

meadow, there also are grasshoppers — 
Prov. Maka di-lihat Mih-nya 6rang 
meng-amok b&nyak dfi,tang itu seperti 
belalang, ^Ij ^\L. ^jj] ^^1 l^^ ,£^ 

^^ &jLji 34} ^b He beheld men coming 

to the attack, like unto locusts for 
number. Ikan belalang, ^^ ^^\ The 
flying-fish. Bel&lang pijar, y^ ^:^ The 
lady-bird. Pa' bel&lang, ^i| *U Father 
Grasshopper, a hero of romance whose 
good fortune has passed into a proverb 
among Malays. Note : The Malays dis- 
tinguish between the following kinds of 
grasshopper. Bel&lang bras, ^%i J^Jl^ 
The rice grasshopper, a grasshoppe^ of 
medium size and with green and white 
wings. Belalang daun, ^^^la ^A.^ The 
leaf grasshopper, a small green species. 
Belalang gambar, j^ a3J^ The picture 
grasshopper, a large yellow grass- 
hopper or locust, also called BeUlang 
kdnyit, ^^ ^^ The saffron grass- 
hopper. Belalang hantu, yu>^ A-3^ > 
BeMlang bajang, ^l^ ^ig , Belalang 
p61ong, ^y ^^ 0?- Belalang pelsit, 
Ifr^ ^^ The familiar - spirit grass- 
hopper. A very long grasshopper with 
long green wings. Note : It is believed 
by Malays that when a wizard who 
possesses a familiar spirit is subjected 
to the ordeal by water, flights of grass- 
hoppers come up to the surface so soon 
as the wizard is immersed. Bel&lang 
jamban, ^^^a^ ^X^ The bathing- house 
grasshopper. A very small and almost 
black grasshopper, with a minute head. 
Beiaiang j6ngkong, ^^ ^ig The 

slightly twisted grasshopper. This species 


Belalang, ^h 

has a long narrow body and white and 
brown wings. Belalang menerong, ^^ 
^jy^ The rush grasshopper. A bright 
green species. BelSlang mtlpor, y^ ^h 
The creeping plant grasshopper. A grey 
species. Belalang pikat, 2^ ^^ The 
elephant -fly grasshopper. A brown 
cricket. Bel&lang pinang, ^j^ ^h The 
betel-nut grasshopper. A species which 
has a round body and green wings. Be- 
lalang ranting, A^^ A)ij The twig grass- 
hopper. A wingless species. Belalang 
riisa, ^jip ^^ The deer grasshopper. 

An insect which has a long thin body, 
long legs, and is of a green colour. 
Bel&lang t&un, ^^y\S ^1^ cw- Belalang padi, 
^^aU ^ig The true locust, which has 
red under -wings and is eaten by the 
Malays. Note : The term Belalang, ^A^ 
is often applied by Malays to insects 
which are not of the locust family, 
thus: — Belalangchengka,dak, ^^Ka^ ^Ij 

The cicada. BeMlang ganchong, AJI^ 
£^^ The praying amantis. There are 

still numbers of other kinds of Belalang 
besides those named above, such as Be- 
lalang pfLyoh, fijiy ^ig Belalang ka- 

mahang, ^-p^ ^Jg etc. Tali belalang, 
^h ^J^ The name of a small tree which 
produces a kind of bean in a red pod. 
Both beans and leaves are used by 
Malays as a remedy in small - pox. 
Keteh beiaiang, ^X^ 6^ The legs by 
means of which a grasshopper springs. 
Keteh paha belalang, ^h "^ &^ The 
bar -spring of a matchlock. Petei be- 
lalang, ^h ^c«^ A tree the wood of 

which is used for making spinning tops 
and the handles of choppers. The fruit 
is eaten with rice. 

:, ^Ag The name of a fresh- water 
fish which is covered with scales. 

B6iaiang, ^1^ or Prahu kepala belalang, 
^A^ m y^ly A long narrow boat the 
deck of which is below water-level; it 
has plank sides and a roof made of Atap. 
They are much used in Kelantan. 

BfilSlei, ^^ A proboscis, a trunk. Belalei 
g&jah, <w>.l? ^^4 An elephant's trunk, 
Belalei tenok, ^yS ^h The proboscis 
of a tapir. Bel&lei bMak, ^Jli ^X^ 
The long upper lip of the rhinoceros. 

Belanja, ^ 

• Bemiei ayam blanda, ^ ^1 ^3g The 
lobes of a turkey. G&jah mati ta' tinggal 
belalei harimau mati ta' tinggal -kan 
blang, ^U y^j^ Jh y:j^ '\S ^U ^\S 

^ ^jjXISXj *Ur An elephant dies and 

leaves no trunk behind it, a tiger dies 
and does not leave its stripes — Prov. 
meaning however great or feared you 
may be you die and there is nothing 
left of you. 

B&lambang, ^-s-Jj A flake or tuft of the 
substance called Hijok, ^^^^c^ , a kind of 
rush used for fastening sheaves of pdd% 
etc. ; a sheaf ; a bundle ; a truss. 

Bdl&nak, ^Jg The name of a small salt- 
water fish of the mullet kind ; the mugU. 

China men-ampi di-dalam prahu, 
Di-dalam dtllang ikan belanak, 
Shina Tambi jemput men-jamu. 
Pa' Sayang pMang meng-S,mbil ftnak. 

^)j-> ^bj s?^^^*^ cJ^^ 
^^ ^1 p^a ^Ija 

The Chinamen sift rice in the boat, and 
inside the tray there is a mugU. Shina 
TaAbi invited them to a feast, and 
Pa' Sayang went home to fetch his 

Bdlllnga, iX^ An earthenware vessel used 
for cooking curry, etc. (See Blanga, 04). 

B&langing ^(AM The name of a kind of 
boat or ship. (See Blanging, ^^)- 

B6langkang, ^<^ The metallic noise of 
metal falling on stone. 

B&langkar, ji^ The name of a salt-water 

B&langkaSi ^j^^XaJ^ The king-crab, Limulus 
rriolucmnus. Pedang fikor belangkas, ^ 
^jJ^ ^\ or Pedang 6kor pfi-ri, ^1 ^ 
^g;U A three - edged rapier. KMit 
belangkas, ^j.J^ aJ/ The shell of the 

Bdlangkas, ^j^-^^ The name of a sea-weed 
which is considered a delicacy by the 

B&lanja, wJ^ Money; money for current 
expenses; pay, wages, hire, charge> 


Belanja, ^ 

cost; allowance, advance; expense, ex- 
penses ; ready money, cash ; revenue, 
income ; a present of money, supplies ; 
provisions, food ; commissariat, com- 
missariat stores. (See Blanja, g^). 

BSIanja, ^ A relapse ; to have a relapse ; 
to have a return of sickness. (See Blanja, 

Bdlantan, ^^^uAj A short club. 

Bdlantlira, HiND.,^Ujtii A forest, a wood; 

a jungle ; a wilderness ; the backwoods ; 
a place which is in a state of nature — i.e., 
where there are neither paths nor habi- 
tations ; virgin forest. M&ka ia-pun ber- 
jalan masok iitan iang lepas belant&ra 
iang besar rlmba iang b&nat, ^y ^] csX* 

^LA He set off and entered the bound- 
less jungles, the enormous backwoods, 
the desolate forests. Note : This word 
is derived from the Sanskrit Wandnta/ra 
and not from Antara or its Malay form 
Ant&ra, ^Ui) as has been supposed by 

some authorities. 

B&lantei, ^^t^ The name of a species of 
light wood. 

Bdlantek, ^ 5 »»J^ A spring-gun; a trap. 
Tfilhan belantek, ^ >pu)j ^iJ To set a 
spring-gun. Tali belantek, ^ 3 ^^^ ^J^ 

The cord which is attached to the trigger 
of a gun and pegged across a game-path. 
Kena belantek, ^ ^ ^j^Jj U^ To be shot by 
a spring-gun. Bintang belantek, ^ju^ 
^..aJj The constellation of Orion. Note : 

There are two kinds of Belantek, ^ ^ ^^suS^ 
in which a spear, and not a gun, is used. 
One, called Belantek p&ut, &jU ^5-^»*J^ 

consists of a piece of springy wood bent 
back, which when released by game 
touching a string attached to a catch, 
rebounds, striking the spear and driving 
it forward with great force. The other, 
called Belantek p&rap, cJ;U ^ ^ -^ ^ , is 
on the same principle as a gigantic bow. 

B&lar, ^ Full of; swarming with. (See 
Blar, ^). 

BfilSsah, d^^ To drub, to thrash, to 
beat. Also Mem-belftsah, 

B&lat, ^ Fishing-stakes in the sea or in 
the river. (See Blat, ^). 

Bel&tok, ^3g 

BdlUta, £Jg The name of a salt-water fish 
which is chiefly remarkable for its habit 
of running over the surface of the water 
erect on its tail. (This fish is commonly 
called T6dak, jjoy). 

Belatek, ^ig The Java sparrow, Padda 

BSiatI, ^JJg (yr T&li belftti, ^J^ J\J 

Hempen rope ; a cord, a cable, a hawser. 
Note : Pijnappel renders Belati, ^^ by 

* European ; of European manufacture,' 
as in India, and gives * Kain belfiti, ^^^ 

^J^ A cloth of European manufacture,* 

as an example. In th^v Malay Peninsula, 
however, this word is only used with 
reference to rope, and does not convey 
the above meaning to the generality of 

Bdiati, ^A^ The name of a bird. 

B6latik, ^1^ A rice pilferer. Note : Thia 

word is given on the authority of Dr. 
Pijnappel, who states that the form 
Jelsltik, ^^ is also met with, and that 

the word Gelatik is used in a similar 
sense in Javanese. 

BSmtok, j^^Jlj The generic name for the 
woodpecker. P6nggor tAmbang bel&tok 
men-Ampang m&ti, 4)yAj ^^ji J^j^ 
jU M^y^ The dead tree falls, and the 
woodpecker dies with it — Prov.y signi- 
fying that the ruin of a great man 
involves that of many people. It is,, 
however, also used to mean that the in- 
nocent suffer with the guilty. BAnyi 
beUtok, JtJyJLi ^^ The sound of the 

woodpecker. Note : The following are 
the different species of woodpecker 
known to the Malays. Bel&tok Mat, JsJy-S^ 

aJI The tool woodpecker. A brindled 
species, Picvs analis. Belfi.tok b&tu, JsJyJ^ 
yli The stone woodpecker. A black 
species, Meiglyptes tristis. Bel&tok bfi.* 
wang, &)\i ^yA^ The onion woodpecker. 

A yellow species, Brachyptemus aurantius. 
Bel&tok p6nggor, /ifiy jaJyA^ The dead- 

tree woodpecker. A tufted species. 
Bel&tok rimba, ^^r^j .sJyJg The forest 

woodpecker. A black and red species, 
MuelleHpiciis pulverulentus» To the ordin- 
ary Malay these are simply divided into 
two species, the Belatok kampong, .±)y ^ 


Belau, ^ 

^yL«^ , the woodpecker of the kampong, 
and Belatok rimba, h-u^^ J^^h the jungle 

BSIau, ^ The name of a salt-water fish. 

Bdlau-b6lau, t>^ Flashing, sparkling (of 
the eyes). Note: This word is given 
on the authority of Dr. Pijnappel. Com- 
pare Kilau, ^L>^ Sparkling, etc. 

BSIayam, ^X^ To brandish, to wave in 
the hand. 

B6-I&yar, jik^ To sail, to set sail, to start. 
See Layar, ^J A sail, etc., and Note 
under Be, -i 

BSIdi, ^^ A metal bucket. 

Bdldu, Port., ^jJj Velvet. Per-t&ma di- 
p&kai seluar beldu hijau sampei ka- 

lAtut-nya, ^^^u^ j^et^}^ j^^ s3^^*^ f^-^ 
^^ First of all he donned a pair of 
trousers of green velvet which reached 
to the knee. Maka di-pakai pMa b&ju 
beldu kesAmba, ^ ^k ^^ ^^^^ <^^ 
i^r^j^ He also put on a coat of scarlet 

velvet. M&ka di-angrah& per-sfilin-an 
beldu dan sutra, ^^yu^Uy li^b c&\_^ 
\jsu^ ^la >)Jlj He bestowed gifts of gar- 
ments made of velvet and silk. BArong 
beldu, >)ii ^jji The velvet bird. 

B6l6bak, ^5^ A spear made of bamboo 
sharpened to a keen edge, used either 
in the hand or with the Belantek paut, 
S^U. ^ 3 »y,<Aj A spring-spear trap for kill- 
ing game. (See Belantek, ^ ^ ^a^-Jij A 

BdlSbar, j^ Pieces of bamboo, or stakes 
of wood, driven into the bed of a river 
in such a manner as to form two sides 
of an isosceles triangle, at the apex of 
which is the entrance to an arrangement 
of stakes which hold the fish captive. 
These pieces of bamboo, or stakes of 
wood, shake backwards and forwards, 
as the current flows around them, and 
thus serve to frighten the fish into going 
in the desired direction. Note: The 
terms Berlah, J^ , Pen-Aju, ^y^ arid 
Fem-b{lnoh, ^j^ are also used. 

B6l6ba8, ,j^ A small smooth lath; the 

piece of wood which forms the upper 
part of the frame in which a wall is set; 
a small lath used to fasten the edges of 

Belei, ^ 

two pieces of cloth which are about to 
be woven together ; a ruler, an instru- 
ment for ruling lines. 

B&ldbat, a^ The name of a little cake 
which is cooked gently in steam, and 
when cooked is served wrapped up in 
plantain leaves. Belebat s&gu, ^U 2^ 
A sweetmeat of this kind made of sago* 
Belebat j&gong, ^^^ i^ The same 
made of Indian corn. 

BdlSbat, 2<J| Certain steps in a war-dance; 
a wooden sword. Note : The form 
Belabat, 4^ is also met with, and also 
in P6rak, more commonly, Pelbat or 
Pelebat, a-Ii 

Bdldda, jJ; A kind of stiff porridge 
made from bean-meal, which is cut small 
and eaten with syrup. In Perak this is 
called Pelda, IjAi 

BSlei, ^ To embrace, to hug, to fondle, 

to cuddle, to caress. Maka segra-lah di- 
ftmbil Mih Che' Alang itu di-pangku 

dan belei dengan triak td,ngis-an, <^A^^ 

^^ di^ s^^ ^ Then Che* llang 
quickly lifted her up and nursed and 
fondled her. M&ka di-pangku belei ti3,da 
lepas deri-p&da dAkong-nya, ^^<iUa tsA^ 

^^^ ^j^ ,j*JJ ^^ ^J4 She nursed and 
embraced the child, nor would she set it 
down. Md^ka Bendahftra ttas, itu ti&da 
l&lei dengan mem-elok dan chium pangku 
dan belei &nak sudara-nya itu, c&L..-^ 

C^^ d>^^ c3>^ ^^ Ji ^^ ^' yj^^ 

^ ^b^^r^ ^1 ^ v^l*^ y^ The old 
. Bendah&ra was not slow to embrace and 
kiss and nurse and fondle his nephew. 

BSlei, ^ To float against; fall against. 
This word is used of anything floating 
on water, that while so floating adheres 
to anything, as to a snag, an overhang- 
ing branch or the bow of a boat. When 
used of a falling object this word is only 
applied if the centre of the object is 
struck ; for instance, if a man or animal 
falling from a height struck the middle of 
his body or of his arm against a branch 
it would be Ter-belei di d&han k&yu, 
j^lf ^laa ^^j^ Struck against the 
branch of a tree. If the falling body 
hit its head the word used would be 
Ter-hampas, ^jJUity 


Belei, ^ 

B&lei, ^ A weir for catching fish. Sebab 

belei ini tiftda meng-ena kar^na bising 
sangat 6rang, ^j\^ UJU ^\^ ^\ ^ u,^.^ 

^ji^l ai>U« ^^ tr^ ^i The reason why this 
weir does not catch fish is that the men 
make such a noise. Note : This word is 
given on the authority of Mr. Marsden. 

B§lek, ^^L^ To look at with open eyes; 

to look closely; to observe carefully, 
to examine carefully, to observe accu- 
rately ; open ; wide open (of the eyes). 
Maka kain itu pun di-bawa' meng-fi,dap 
serta di-per-sembah-kan ka-pada baginda 
maka telah di-b^ek-nya rsita-rd^ta pada 
poat-nya nyslta-lah tenun-an paduka 
adinda, &^ cjaUU M^liJ o^^' oi^ ^-^^ 

^ V^b J^"^ ^ ^^^ »"*^ "^ o^^i-H-*y*^ 
Jia) .sJoU JyS iJJlj J]^ The cloth was 

taken into the king's presence and pre- 
sented to the monarch, and when he 
had examined it by looking closely all 
over the fabric, it was evident to him 
that the cloth was of his mistress's 
weaving. Note : Compare Perati, ^Jly 
and T61ek, ^ To look, etc. 

BdlSnchas, ^j^-^^^ A caterpillar. 

B6l6nga8, ,j^ Sticky, as, for example, 
of the body after bathing in salt water. 
(See Blengas, u^)- ^^ P6rak the word 
is Melengas, ^j^J^ 

Bdlengsit, ^LJd; Drooping (of the lower 

Bdldnting, ^^jJ^ Crammed until it swells 
(of the belly). 

Bdlera, l^t^-l^ A shuttle, a weaver's shuttle. 

BdlSrang, 6^ Brimstone ; sulphur. 

BdlSwar, j)^ The name of a species of 
passion-flower. Note : This plant is also 
called Mentimun blanda, JoJij ^ j .»<i ^> ^ , 

the Dutch cucumber, by the Malays; 
the fruit is round, and when ripe it is 
of an orange hue ; it is eaten as a vege- 
table by the natives. 

Bdlia, ^ Young, tender, fresh. (See 
Blia, ^). 

B&ITak, ^3ftii Wide open, gaping, yawning. 
(See Bliak, ^). 

B&ltan, ^^ygrk A spirit, a demon; a spirit 
supposed by Malays to inhabit the bodies 
of certain animals, especially the tiger. 
(See Blian, ^). 

Belikat, ^5^^ 

BdlTan, ^^^ The name of a tree the 
timber of which is used for roofing 
buildings. A very hard and valuable 
wood common in Borneo. (See Blian, 

B6ITang, ^^ The name of a tree, the 

wood of which is used for fuel. (See 
Bliang, ^). 

B&ltau, ^t^ A respectful term used in 
addressing an aged parent or master, 
or in speaking to any venerable man; 
it is also used as a pronoun of the 
second person. (See Bltau,^). 

Bgltbat, (L»f^ A double - bladed canoe 
paddle; a paddle which has a blade 
at each end; probably from Ber-lipat, 
2U^^ double. 

BdltbiSi ^j'-^ The teal, the whistling teal, 
Dendrocygna Javanica S'kawan belibis, 
cT^ ^^IC* A flight of teal. 

Bgltda, J^ The name of a large salt- 
water fish which attains to a very con- 
siderable size ; it has thin, small scales, 
subcutaneous eyes, a rough skin, a narrow 
back, broad flank, and a fringe of a finny 
nature running along the stomach and 
lower extremities ; its head is small and 
pointed, and its teeth are long and sharp, 
Ghirocentrus dordb. (See Blida, o^Jij). 

Bdltdang, ^^y^ The name'of a salt-water 

fish which is shaped like an eel. (See 
Blidang, ^). 

BglTgu, Jav., jfi^ The name of a kind 
of gourd. (See Bligu, >^^). Note: 
This word is given on the authority of 
Dr. Pijnappel, who states that it is 
also called Kiindor, jJ^^ a large gourd 
often grown on the roofs of houses. On 
the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, 
however, the latter term is applied to a 
fruit tree which bears a fruit which 
somewhat resembles the Langsat, ^LJi 

B6ltkat, 3SLM The shoulder-blade, the 
scapula. Dan di- parang -nya belikat- 
nya mS.ka 16her-nya pAtus dan beltkat- 
nya pun pdtus, csU ^^^sfif^ ^J^"^ (^'*^ 

slashed him on the shoulder-blade, and 
his neck was severed and his shoulder- 
blade cut in two. Note: In colloquial 
Malay the shoulder - blade is usually 
termed TMang kipas, jJl^^ ^jJ The 
fan bone. 


Bellku, y^i 

Bdltku, «Cj^ Winding, circuitous, serpen- 
tine ; a sharp bend or turn in a river's 
course. (See Bliku, ^^<<ii). 

Bdltlah, dl^ To retch; to vomit with 
retching ; to strain ; to attempt to vo- 
mit without result ; to make a noise in 
the throat, like one retching or strain- 
ing. Telah di lihat-nya Mih inang tAa 
ia pun ter-mftntah belilah dengan latah 
Idtah mMut-nya mem-andang cLnak 
semang hAtan itu, ly ^1 dJ^l ,^^i^^ ^ 
J^y» d»J d53 ^0 ^ daJ^^y ^y ^\ 
sm^ ^y^ ^-•-.^ ^1 4jju-» When the old 

nurse saw him she vomited and retched, 
and made wry mouths as she gazed at 
this wild boy of the woods. 'Sote : This 
word is rarely used alone, the word 
MAntah, da)^ usually preceding it. In 

colloquial Malay, MenglAak, ^j^^ is 

very commonly used for * To retch.* 

B^limbing, ^^^^ The generic name for 

a family of trees which bear an acid 
fruit. (See Blimbing, ^^ .^ ^ij ). 

B^limbing, ^.g.^a-lj A species of salt-water 
turtle. (See Blimbing, ^-j-^Jii). 

BAlin, ^ A kind of fish-spear. 

Bfilingkas, ^j.^<^ The name of a small 
plant. Note : This word is given on the 
authority of Dr. Pijnappel. 

BfilintuI, J>uJ4 The name of a trap used 

for catching mud-crabs. It consists of 
a piece of net with a wooden upright 
in the centre, to the top of which the 
bait, usually a piece of skate, is attached. 

Bftitong, ^yxr^ An axe, an adze. (See 
Bllong, ^^). 

Bdlis, ^j'^J^ A disease of the eyes; sore 
eyes ; one eye different to the other in 
any way. 

B6li8, ^j^-^ Unea^ in mind, anxious. 
(See Blis, ^j^ Uneasy, etc.) 

B6-lt8ah, d.^^ Anxious, uneasy. (See 
Ltsah, d^ Anxiety, etc.) 

Bftltu, ^^ Castrated. 

B6-lddak, ^^^ Used of liquid in which 
impurities can be seen floating about, or 
as when sediment is stirred up in water. 

Bftlddok, ^*^^ The name of a salt-water 
fish which is long and narrow in shape 
and covered with small scales. 

Belabor, j^^ 

Bdlok, ^3-1^ To tack, in sailing. Ada-pun 
bfilok itu per-ch&kap-an 6rang iang di- 
halAan ka-pada 6rang iang pegang 
kemfldi minta kanan-kan jika Uyar itu 
tadah s'blah kiri dan minta' ka-lori jika 
layar tadah s'blah k&nan, ^1 ^^ ^y I a f 

^l^iji^aaU^S c^sg^'U;u.*Tackr 

is the word used by the man in the bows 
to the steersman when he wants 1) go 
to the right, if the sail is spread on the 
left side, or to the left, when the sail is 
spread on the right side. Bfilok jAru- 
mMi beting ter-pampang di-halAan 
prahu, ^^yft>a ^A-jy ^ ^gJ(^ yjj^ ^^ 

ybly Tack, steersman! There is a 
sand-bank visible across the bows of 
the boat. 

BS-l6lok, ^y^ Said of fruit that has fallen 

in quantities from a tree and strews the 
ground. Probably from L61ok, ^y 

which means mud. 

Bdlongkang, ^5X1^ Harness for draught 

Bdlongking, ^t»<^ The name of a species 
of edible snail. 

B&longsong, ^^^ or Kain belongsong, 

^^ ^l^ A cloth of mixed silk and 

Bdlontok, ^^sjJ^ The name of an edible 
fish found both in fresh and salt water. 

Bdlor, ^ To jerk; to dry in the sun. (See 

B6lor, y^ This word is always used in 
conjunction with Selor, y^ and the two 
together, Selor belor, ^ ^ mean " All 
over the place," as when a person enters 
a house and instead of sitting down 
walks about everywhere and examines 
everything inquisitively. 

BdlQbor, j^yM The stakes or lengths of 
split bamboo which support an earth- 
work. The Malay equivalent for the 
European gabion. 

BfilQbor, ^^ A large basket, usually 
square in shape, made of the palm leaves 
called D&un sang, ^ ^^b by the Malays, 
which is used as a place in which to 
store rice, salt, etc. ; a place in the bows 


Belabor, j^^ 

of a trading boat in which salt and 
other articles which are carried in large 
quantities are stored, hence the word is 
sometimes used to mean *^ in quantities." 

B&lubor, j^j^4 A kiln or mound in which 
charcoaJ is burned. 

Bdlubu, j(Pij A large earthen jar, used as 
a rice measure, and holding from ten to 
twenty gcmtang. 

BglQdak, ^^^ An asp, an adder, a viper, 
a venomous reptile of the serpent kind. 

BSIuei, i^^ A drawn bet; even, quits; 
equal success on both sides in gaming, 
cock-fighting, etc. (See Bluei, ^g^)- 

B&IQhan, ^jJ^ The howdah on an ele- 
phant's back. See Kop, «3^ which is 
the word used in the Malay Peninsula. 
BelAhan, ^^^ is given on the authority 
of Dr. Pijnappel. Possiblv this is another 
form of Baiohan, ^^ (See B&loh, &^k). 

B6IQkar, ^^ Secondary growth of jungle; 
underwood ; coppice ; brushwood. (See 
BlAkar, /^). 

B6IQIang, ^^ Skin, hide; the skin re- 
moved from the carcase of any animal. 
BelMang kerbau,^^ ^^ Buffalo hide. 

Jemor-kan belAlang, ^J^ s^j^^ To cure 
a hide by exposing it to the heat of the 
sun. Pem-idang belMang, AJ^ ^wV.»»i 

The frame on which a hide is stretched 
while it is being cured. Note : The term 
BelMang kring, ^^ ^^ A dry hide, a 
cured hide, is used in colloquial Malay 
as a term of reproach, conveying an idea 
of great parsimony to the person to 
whom it is applied — thv8y in the follow- 
ing proverbial saying : Ktkir p&ri beld- 
lang kring di-rendam tAjoh hari ta' bfeah, 

^\S ^j\i> d£^y ^^J^ ^/ ^^ ^j[i y^^ 

iUolj A grater made from the skin of a 
skate, and a dry hide though soaked for 
seven days, will not be wet. Note : Be- 
lMang, ^^ is almost exclusively used 
of a skin which has been stripped from 
an animal ; while it is still on the body 
it is called KMit, ^^ Nangka belMang, 
^^ tiUi A species of jack-fruit the 
fruit of which is very hard. 

B6lum, jyJ^ Not yet. Belum l&gi, ^i ^^ 
Not yet ; not as yet. Belum sedia, ^yM 

Belum, |»^ 

^^Ju« Not yet ready; unprepared. Belum 
tentu,^^ ^j^ Uncertain; not yet certain. 
Belum chukup, *^y^ ^y^ Insufficient, 
not enough yet ; not yet sufficient. Be- 
lum penoh, &y^ a^ Not full yet. Belum 
d&tang, ^b j»^ Not yet arrived ; not 
come yet. Belum masak, ^U f,^ Un- 
ripe ; not ripe yet. Belum gAgor bflah- 
nya lagi, ^S ^1^ // j*^ The fruit is 
not yet falling (i.e., is not ripe yet). 

Ka-Siam sudah ka-Telok sudah, 
Ka-Makah sehaja sahya iang belum, 
Ber-chium sudah ber-pelok sudah, 
Ber-nikah seh&ja sahya iang belum. 

^J^ 5J^--A A»-^ ^ 

(•y^ W-* e*^-** ^^^ 

l»y^ L^-^ gl<-^ d<J^ 

Siiam and Telok have I visited ; to Mecca 
only have I not yet been. I have kissed 
her and embraced her, but I have 
not yet been wedded to her. Aadat 
MalS,yu mem-bfi.wa' sharat hMub&lang 
apa-btla ia ka-sungei mMut-nya tiMa 
man ber-k&ta-k&ta karana belum h&bis 
ka-sdngei itu, J>j-s» M^Lj.^ y4^ SaLo 

uHll s?^>-^ o^^ CJ^ i£>J^ It is the 
Malay custom for one who is skilled in 
warrior's knowledge, when he his reliev- 
ing himself, to refrain from speech 
because he has not yet completed his 
ablutions. Belum sempat ber-tttah 
mdka Laksam&na pun ber-diri, 2Ju^ ^yS\ 

had not yet had time to speak, when 
the Laksamana arose. Tengah mSIam 
ter-lampau dini-h^ri belum sampei, dU 
.^u.^ r^ s^^W*^ y^y (^^ Midnight 
was long past, but the dawn had not yet 
come. Belum pS.tek ber-temu s'm&cham 
per-k&ta-an k^nak-k&nak itu, <-£AJf^ (^jM 
4il r^l^ 4^*^^ f^*^-^ >^->^ Thy slave has 
never yet heard words like unto those 
spoken by this child. Sia-sia angkau 
ber-n&ma hMubfi^lang belum lagi angkau 
ber-jumpa dengan mAsoh dan pe-r6mpak 
iang besar-besar bh&ru ber-temu dengan 
s'6rang biidak kechil itu pun sudah tilda 
ter-bech&ra-kan, f^^ ^X^ f^\Sj^ yC6>l pl^w^ 

O-^' J**^ c3^->^ t^y^ ^'^ J^J^ )Ji^ P-M 



c/b^^y ^Ift' ^"^^-^ It is useless that ye 
should be styled warriors ! Te have not 
yet encountered powerful enemies or 
pirates, but have only met one little 
child, and even with him ye cannot deal ! 
Belum pernah, dJy |#^ Never yet; never 

as yet. Si-&pa drang iang sangat br&ni 
maka m&sok ber-l&boh p^da jambat-an 
larang-an itu deri-p&da zaman ayah-ku 
dahMu pun belum pernah si-^pa-si-^pd 
orang ber-14boh di-sltu, ai>Lli ^j^\ cjC^ 

Y*^^ <dy (•>? ^^y Jy^^ ^^i ^l*^ ^j^ 

jsLp^^ &j^iji ^^y Who is the man who is 
so bold that he enters and anchors at 
the pier where no man may anchor ? 
From the days of my father's reign even 
unto now, never has any one anchored 
there! Kar&na belum pernah ia ber- 
petra, t^^ ^gi <JJy f^^ ^^j^ Because 

she had never yet borne a child. MAka 
sekian l&ma &ku dfldok p&da hiitan ini 
belum-lah pernah S,ku men-dengar suatu 
suftra iang besar Mgi mem-bri hashat 
dan gementar segfila sendi tMang-ku 
seperti su&ra iang ka-dengar-an itu, <-2A^ 

^\y^ &jlu^ tSAlJy ^pJuL-^ y^L^ jSLk^ ^b 

^' ^^jX^ For how long a time have I 
dwelt in this forest, but never yet have 
I heard a voice so loud, and which 
caused such fear, or which filled my 
bones and joints so with fear and tremb- 
ling as did that voice which I heard. 
Deri-pfi,da kechil sampei besar mem-bfi.wa' 
agong belum pernah p&tek lihat ka-l&ku- 
an Tflan Petri s'macham p&gi ini, J^^ a 

.Ai^U dJy p^ ^/l M^Lh- j^ ^^^ ^ 

From the time when she was little even 
until she had grown up and had reached 
the age of discretion, never yet have I 
seen the Princess's behaviour such as 
it has been this morning. S'belum, |»y<s-^ 
Until; before. S'belum &ku mem- 
biinoh stru-ku itu har&m-lah daging-mu 

itu ka-p&da &ku, ^iy»^ ^y^^ ^^ f^jK »<> 
/] JJ^ 4il y^\^ ^1^ *' Until I have 
slain mine enemy thy flesh shall be as 
an abominable thing unto me {i.e., I 
will not eat of it). M&ka s'belum sudah 
per-k&ta-an iinta itu m&ka harimau itu 
pun me-16mpat-lah ka-atas-nya serta 

Bdlut, &^ 
meng-glgit-nya, ^^'la-O-i esJ^-^ c>8— • ^ 

^^iSif^^ Ij^ Before the camel had done 
speaking the tiger leapt upon him and 
bit him. Hamba tiian ta' br&ni mem- 
bli-nya s'belum men-dfi.pat hukum, «.,— ^ 

f^i^ ailjA^ |.^l8^ ^^^ ^\j^ 'Ur ^)y 

Thy servant was afraid to purchase it 
until he had received orders to do so. 
Ingat s'belum kena jimat s'belum hfi,bis, 
^Ub |»^i<— • ^U<^ \iS (•^Il^-o i^\ Have a 

care before evil has yet befallen you, and 
be economical before your substance is 
dissipated — Prov. S'lagi belum, -J'X-* 
^j^ So long as; until. S'l&gi belum tiba, 
4.,-^ ^j^ ^^^^ So long as he has not 
yet arrived. S'l&gi belum kembWi pada 
peng-hMu-nya atau tdan-nya, j*^ ^^'^ 
^ly yl Jyk^ ^ ^^ So long as they 
have not yet been returned to their 
chief or master {i.e., until they have 
been returned.) S'l&gi belum ka-dengar- 
an ka-pMa rS,ja, gj; JJiS ^^^^ ^^ ^J^^^^ 
So long as the king has not heard of it. 

Bdlumbang, ^^j^ A wave, the waves. 

Note : The form Gelumbang, At^^? is 
more commonly used. 

Bfilumbei, ^^yM Not yet. Note : This 

is a form only met with in colloquial 
Malay. It is a contraction of Belum 
sampei, ^Ju^ r^ Not yet come to pass, 
not yet arrived. 

B&lunggu, yS^ Chains, fetters. (See 
Lunggu, y^ Chains, etc.) 

B&luntaSi j^^j The name of a plant 
which is used for hedging, Pluchea 

Bfilurl, Port., ^j^ Velvet. Note : The 
form Beldu, ^jJ^ is in more general use. 

B&IQru, jjjJ^ A hard-skinned fruit (the 
Sentok) used by potters for polishing 
the vessels after they have been made 
but not yet baked. 

Bdlut, i^Ltrf To turn renegade; to go over 
to the enemy ; to desert to the enemy ; 
to assist the enemy while pretending to 
oppose them; treason, treachery; to bend 
without recovering its original shape, 
like a badly tempered weapon. Jika 
6rang di-dalam k^bu ta' bfilut ta' ter- 
pichah kdbu-nya, ''^ j^^ ^1^*^ ^^^1 



Belut, &^ 

^^^ d^y *lJ S^y If no one in the fort 
betrays it, it cannot be captured. Ada 
iang lS,ri Ma iang bfilut, jl ^g;^ ^' 
&^L*ii Some fled and some went over to 
the enemy. Pem-b61ut, & ^a A. rene- 
gade, a traitor. Ber-kl&hi ta' t&kut 
bfilut iang taknt sangat, 6/l5 'iJ ^^jA 
afi^L) S/U^ S^ I fear not fighting, but 
I am much afraid of treachery. 

BSlut, S^ A fresh- water fish like an eel, 
often found on the mud. 

Beman, ^^ The name of a tax formerly 
levied in Perak by the Bendah&ra. 

B&mbam, f^^ To cook in the embers; to 
bake in the embers. S'6kor di-panggang 
dan s'6kor di-bembam, ^\^ ^XSJ^j^^^tS^ 
f^^^ j^Ls^ One (fish) they roasted on 
a stick, and one they baked in the 

Bdmbam, ^^^ The name of a fruit tree, 
Mangifera taipan. Pohun bembam, ^y 

1^^ A bembam tree. Bflah bembam 
bAah Pet&ni, ^l«-i al^ ^v^-^ &)jA The 
hSmbam fruit, the fruit which grows in 

B&mbam, ^•.t-^ The name of a fresh- water 
fish. Note : This fish is also called 
Penaram, (•^U* 

Bdmban, ^^^ A conical shaped fish-trap, 

constructed of bamboo wicker-work. It 
resembles the trap called Bdbu, ^^ or 
L6kah, dSfy , but is smaller, and the 
conical end is more pointed. Tfi.han 
bemban, ^^. ^^ To set a fish-trap. 
Ikan pitin kena bemban, U^ ^U ^1 
^jj-u^ A ydtin fish caught in a fish-trap. 
Angkat bemban, ^^^ Bi^\ To lift a fish 

trap out of the water in order to see 
whether any fish have been caught 
in it. Umpan bemban, ^^ cA^' The 
bait placed in a fish-trap to attract the 
fish. Lapang bemban, ^^ ^% The 

framework in the water which is used 
to support the trap. It usually extends 
to some distance on each side, and is so 
constructed that no fish can pass through 
it. The sides converge towards the 
mouth of the trap and thus help to 
direct the fish into it. Note : The follow- 
ing are the names of the principal 

Bemban, ^^ 

wicker-work or rattan fish traps in use 
among Malays : — BAbu, ^^ The largest 

trap of this kind used by the Malays. 
In some parts of the Peninsula this 
word is not understood, L6kah, dST^ being 

used in its stead. The former term is 
used in Pfirak and Kedah, the latter in 
most other parts of the Peninsula. TAar, 
^ly is the name given to the largest trap 
• constructed of the Cnak, ^^1 thorn 

(Zizyphus calophylla). Setapan, ^^\sua or 
Set&pu, yU^ is also made of this thorn, 
but is smaller than the TAar, ^ly , while 
Singil, J-As--» is like the SetApan, ^yU^ 
but smaller still. Serkap, t^JS^ is a 
conical-shaped trap which has an aper- 
ture at the apex of the cone large enough 
to admit a man's hand and arm. This 
trap is used by waders in shallow water, 
several men usually working in line, and 
striking down through the water with 
their traps until they succeed in covering 
a fish, when they insert their arms and 
catch the fish with their hands. Ranggas, 
^j'-^j is a form of Serkap, ^-flf^ made 
of split bamboo. Tanggok, ^jf^ is a 

wicker-work basket worked by hand, 
and used as a prawn basket, or to catch 
small fish under the river banks. Terbin, 
^Ji is a small square wicker-work trap, 

with a falling door. Peng-ilau, ^^ is 

a trap long and oval in shape, which is 
set to catch fish under the banks of a 
river. Jdt, S^ is a small wicker-work 

trap, made of rattan, which is set in 
such a manner that when a fish enters 
it and takes the bait, the mouth of the 
trap closes, and the trap itself springs 
up above the water level carrying the 
fish with it. This form of trap is called 
Balut-balut, f&yij by the natives of 

B&mban, ^^^ The name of a tree the 

leaves of which are used for making 
baskets and mats ; it bears a red fruit 
which is not edible, Qaatteria sumatrana. 
M&ka TAan Petri pun teng&dah ka- 
l&ngit ber-genang-genang ayer mata-nya 
j&toh ka-bidei laksfina manik pAtus peng- 
ftrang seperti hdri rentek pa^i btlah 
bemban m&sak Idroh, ^^Jky^ ^V tsA^^ 
^Ul3 ^j^ dllcj. Jl.ji\ Y^j^ a^K 5jUJ 

^^ St^j ^j^ ^A^ £;^ o-V ^^ 
&j^ <5**^ c3^ ^l>^ T^® Princess raised 


Bemban^ ^^^ 

her eyes to heaven, and her tears fell in 
drops on the floor as beads when the 
string which binds them is broken ; like 
an early morning rain shower or the 
fall of the ripe fruit of the h&mban tree. 
Daun bemban, ^^^--^ ^^^b The name of a 

pike or spear which has a broad leaf- 
shaped blade. 

66m ban, ^^^ A knot tied with three 
or more strings in a peculiar manner 
resembling fancy plaiting. Also BAku 
bemban, ^^^ ^^ Maka di - bftngkus 
dengan bdngkus telepok ISyu ber- tang- 
gam dengan simpul-an bdku bemban 
dtla-blas lapis, ^/-^^ cj^^ u-^^*^ ^-^^ 

^j^^ ,jJ^ She enveloped it in a cloth 

which was stamped with figures, the 
bundle being tied by means of twelve 
plaited knots. 

Bfimban, ^^^ The name of a fresh- water 

fish. Note : The form Bembam, ^%^ is 
also met with. 

Bfimbang, ^^ or Bembang-an, ^Ji^^ A 

secret and immoral intimacy between 
two persons of opposite sex who are 
not united by any matrimonial ties. 
Crang s'bembang - an, ^^t -^^ ^^^1 A 

couple who ^ have formed an immoral 
intimacy. Anak k&mu s'bembang -an 
dengan 6rang mMa itu, ^^Lt-M^t^ >*^ ^' 
4**il |J|^ 4yl ^^ Thy daughter has 

formed an immoral intimacy with that 
youth. Note : In the Malay Peninsula, 
Kendak, ^y^ and Ber-kendak, ^^y, 
are usually employed in this sense. 

66mb&ran, ^W^ A kind of sedan-chair 
for one person to sit in. (See Tandu, 

BgmbSru, j^^l^ The name of a tree. Bem- 
b&ru laut, 6^S yj\^ Hibiscus tUiaceus, 

Bemb&ru landak, ^y^ jj^ Hibiscus 

mutdbUis. (See Bllru, j>;li). 

B6na, U^ To care, to mind; to take to 

Wa-h6 chuchu-ku iang bljak s&na 
Jfingan-lah tiian ber-h&ti bdna. 

my grandson who art wise and pru- 
dent, do not take this matter to heart. 

Benam, ^ 

B&na, U-j A plague, a disease; an epi- 
demic among human beings, animals or 
plants. Habis-lah segala pohun kelapa 
di-makan bena, cJJ^ ^y J^^ isJu^lib 

^ ^^"^ -A.11 the coconut trees are ruined 
through disease. 

B6nak, ^ Having a bad memory; dull, 
stupid, forgetful; slow to learn and 
quick to forget ; brains, marrow. Benak 
tWang, ^yJ ^^ Marrow. Bddak ini 
benak ssLngat dftdok meng-ftji s'tahun 
bAlat alif-ba-ta-nya pun ta' d&pat, ^J|^ 
l^JI aJ^ ^U^ ^\k^ jj^j a£>L> ^ ^1 
JLila *lJ ^y ^iJ This child is very slow 
in learning ; he has studied for a whole 
year and has not mastered his alphabet. 
Note : The word Ctak, ^^1 is more 
commonly used than Benak, ^ in re- 
ferring to the brains. 

B&nak, ^ Silver coins that have no ring 
in them. 

BSnIlIu, J^\J4 The name of a parasitic 
plant also called Bend^lu api, ^1 ^^ 

Note : This term is used figuratively to 
mean a parasite. The form Benfilu, 
^^Ljj^ is also met with but neither of these 
is used in P6rak where they say DaJu- 

daiu, ryi^ 

Bdnam, ^ To duck; to immerse; to 

punish by ducking or immersion ; to put 
to death by ducking or immersion; to 
sink. Di-benam bdsoh di-jemor p&nas di- 
bSkar hangus di-b&noh mati m^na-mana 
titah sedia patek junjong, j4^^ i^\i ^^ 
^pj^ d»<jJ f^L. ^U d5^ J j-i>Ub /l^a ^U 

^j^^fj^ <-sV^ Where I to be immersed 
in water till I was dripping, or scorched 
in the sun, burned by fire, or killed 
dead — whatever was Your Majesty's 
order, I thy servant would submit to it 
readily. M&ti di-benam, ^a ^U May 

you die on the ducking-stool I Note : 
The above is a curse not unfrequently 
heard in Malay countries, where death 
by ducking is a recognised forin of exe- 
cution. In Pahang, where until recently 
every Malay chief who sat in the Council 
of Four had the power of life and death, 
the manner of taking life was specially 
laid down for each chief. Thus, the 
Shah-bandar, ^Jo^^ killed by stabbing 
with a kris down through the left 
shoulder (Salang, ^ Lo) ; the Crang Kaya 


Benang, ^ 

Ohenor executed his victims by stabbing 
them with a cast spear (Ttkam tandang, 
^ ^) ; the Dato' Kaya Temerloh by 

ducking (Benam, ^); and the Dato' 

Mahr&ja Perba Jelai by beheading 
(Panchong, ^^^). Kena benam, ^ UT 

To be punished by immersion. Note: 
The term Rendam, (•Ji^ is used of soak- 
ing inanimate objects in water, or of the 
voluntary immersion in water practised 
by buffaloes. Benam, ^ is also used of 

dipping vessels in water to fill them, or 
of leaving things in water to soak. When 
a boat is full of leaks it is said Prahu 
ini bdchor s&ngat bagai r&ga di-benam, 
^a i-Tl; ^b a£>L> ji^y, ^] ybly This 

boat is leaking like a rdga immersed in 
water. (The rdga is a ball of open rattan- 
work used for Malay foot-ball). 

Bdnang, Ax^ Cotton ; thread. Kain benang, 
^ ^^o A cotton cloth. Kain benang 
ber-champor siitra, \yuj9 jiu^ji ^ o^^ 
A cloth of mixed cotton and silk. Be- 
nang halus, ^^ ^ Fine thread. Be- 
nang k&sar, ^^-^l^ ^ Coarse thread. 
S'tAkal benang, ^ JO*** ^ large skein 
of cotton. Sa'Anting benang, ^ ^y^ 
A small skein of cotton or thread. Be- 
nang sutra, \jSL^ Aj4 Sewing thread. 

Benang n&nas, ^b ^ Thread made 
from the leaf of the pine-apple. Benang 
pancharwerna, ^^^j^ ^^. The small 
bracelet of thread of different colours 
worn as a charm against sickness, etc. 
Benang k&rap, <^j\^ ^ The thread 
used within the framework of a loom . 

SenMoh k&yu di rtmba, 
Benang kirap ber-simpul pMeh, 
Sflnggoh dAdok ber-tindeh rtba, 
Jangan di-h&rap k&ta-kan bfllih. 

The semldoh bush grows in the forest ; 
the strings within the framework of the 
loom are in a tangled knot. It is true 
that I sit on thy lap, but do not hope 
that thou mayst take any other liber- 
ties. Benang r&ja, gl; ^ The rainbow. 

Note : This expression is not used by 

Benar, y4 

the natives of the Malay Peninsula. Be- 
nang &rang, ^^1 ^ju-j The line used by 

carpenters to mark wood which is to be 
sawn, etc. J&rum dan benang, ^b ^^^^ 

Ajj Needle and thread. Chdchok benang,. 

ka-p6nggong jarum, ^ji^ ^ ^^ 

(•jiplcK To thread a needle. S*hel6 benang,. 
^ ^q^--» A thread ; one thread. Tiga 
hel6 benang, ^ ^^ *— CJ Three threads. 
Benang tAjoh hel6 ^J^ dc^y ^j^ Seven 
threads. Lalu di-kemas-kan balek 
'seperti per-bAat-an T<ian Petri jdga 
s'helfi benang tiftda bei-Abah, ^^jC^ayi 
^Ji^ i-S> ^g>t* ^^IjJ Jft^y &jlu^ ^\i 
^^]jl jL^ ^ Then he packed it up 
again exactly as the Princess had done, 
so that not even a single thread was 
changed. Pdtus benang dapat di-hdbong 
pdtus harang sudah s'Mli, ^|J Ajj ^y 

^IC^ 5J.^ ^^b ^y ^y>o If thread 

snaps, it can be joined; if charcoal breaks, 
it breaks once for all — Prov., signifying 
that near relations may quarrel without 
a permanent breach being caused, but 
that quarrels with friends may" be more 
serious matters. LAlus jS.rum IMus 
klindan, ^^^^J^x-i^ ^^ ^jij\e^ Jjp If the 

needle can pass through, so can the 
thread — Prov. Used usually when speak- 
ing of a man's probable success with a 
woman to whom he is paying attention. 

Bdnar, ^ True, right, just, correct; 
approval ; approved ; reliable ; punctual ; 
truly, really, verily ; to allow, to permit, 
to authorise, to sanction, to approve. 
Maka Sahut Raja D6nan * Itu-pun benar 
sSngat k&ta kakak,' ^^J ^\j Sy^Lo csA^ 
^\^ u^l^ 2£>l^ ^ ^ybil Raja D6nan 
replied * That which thou sayest is very 
true, sister mine.' M^ka di-lihat-nya 
Mih ka-ampat marika-itu benar -lah 
seperti k&ta Hang TAah, dJ^I ,^ss^^ c&A-^ 
5ly ^ u^l^ syUp dJ^ V<i^ ^^'l^ AH 
four of them saw that what Hang Tftah 
said was true. • Per-k&ta-an iang benar, 
jj^ ^^*^j-* True words; a true saying. 
Benar-lah seperti k&ta tiian, ijlui diy^ 
^ly u^l^ It is true what thou sayest. 
S'belum di-si&sat preksa mustahil btllih 
di - ka - tfthu - i benar sfllah - nya, (•^-8— • 
^^ y4 ^^^tf»^<^ d)^ Jfc^7«^>^ L«jy ^If^J 
Until the matter has been examined and 


Benar, y4 

enquired into it is impossible to know 
what is true and what is false concerning 
it. Benar jiiga, t^y^ y4 That also is 
true ; that is so ; truly, verily. Benar 
sangat b&gai tttah, ^ ^\^ S£>L^ y^ 

What Your Majesty says is very true. 
H6 mentri-ku ada-kah benar ka-p&da 
bechara-mu sekelian ? d^bl ^^jst^^ ^ 

^jjftlC-o (••;l^ vkfi^ yA O my counsellors, in 
your opinion is this right ? Jika dengan 
benar dato' ka-dtla brani-lah hamba 
dato' ber-dfi.tang sembah, jx\ ^a csA-o. 

d.s,» .0 ^tj^ «yb <.p.M*jb dL3l^ \yj>S »yb If 

I act with the approval of both of you, 
I am willing to make representation on 
the subject to the king. Patek tfta itu 
6rang benar sfingat, jx\ Ayl 4il 'y <-^Jf^ 
^Ld Thy old slave is a very reliable 
man. Jik&lau benar bagai janji di-per- 
bftat itu, %M^\ Slyy a ^^^9^^ ^l^ yA jf^^^ 

If he is pimctual to the promise which 
he has made. Maka tttah Baginda ^ Hd 
fthlun-nujum ber-k&ta benar-lah angkau 
ka-p&da &ku ti&da slkan men-jMi ka- 

merka-an,' &^y ^^^jJ^I ^ JsJs; asLgf c^A^ 

Then quoth the monarch, * astronomers, 
speak ye truly unto me, and it shall not 
be a matter for wrath.' Orang baik 
benar, y4 <-^*^ £^^' A truly good man. 
TAa benar gaya-nya, ^^ y4 ^j^ His 
manner is that of a truly old man. 
Seraya ber-pikir bahwa sdnggoh-nya 
kanak-k&nak itu benar, sg'^^-^ 

y4 y V *' Vi^^ ^ri^y^ 1>^ /^j^ And 
she also pondered, saying, * Verily that 
child is very right.' M&ka di-benar Mih 
Tiian Petri &kan Raja Ambong b&lek 
itu, ^^^^1 el; ^\ ^y^ ^\j^ dS^I ^0 cftJ^ 
<**i' ^^ The Princess allowed Mja 
Ambong to return. Mana benar pd,da 
8ud4ra-ku segra kita kerja-kan, y^ ^L» 

^^^ ^ \jfij> jS\j\^y^ JJ Whatever may 
be approved by thee, my cousin, let us 
quickly perform it. MS^ka titah raja 
m&na-m&na benar pcLda m&mak Benda- 
h&ra-lah, ^U JJ y4 V^^l• gl; d»^ 4aL^ 
d);libja^ Then quoth the king, * Do what- 
ever is approved by you, Father 
Bendah&ra.' Ya-ya benar, y4 vk In right 
good earnest; with a right good will; 
with all one's heart. di-gftsak 
dengan ya-ya benar, f^ ^jj^»3 ^^\S^ jM 

Benar, y4 

yj Then he beat him right heartily. 
Note : The use of this expression is for 
the most part restricted to colloquial 
Malay. S'benar, y^^^^ Really, verily, 
truly ; in truth, in earnest ; properly ; in 
good faith ; proper ; real. Jika ia handak 
ber-kira dengan s'benar, ^3«Juu^ v^l ^^W 
y.,f^ ^j 1^^ If he really wishes to 
make arrangements, S'benar -nya hal 
itu, ^\ J&* »^>'-»^ That matter is as you 
state. Aku m&rah - kan - nya dengan 
s'benar -nya, ^y-i-^ ^^^ <j*^^>^' I 
rated him in good earnest. Khabar-kan 
dengan s'benar, ^>J^-^— o ^^ of^s-^ TeH 
me truly. Maka ter-pikir di-dalam h&ti- 
nya s'benar jAga per-k&ta-an R&ja 

D6nan itu, y^^s^ ^Ub ^loa j<xt^jS «^l— 

^ o^-?^ eb d'^y ^J^ S^® thought 
within her heart that Raja Donan's 
words were true. Maka ia pun meny- 
erah-kan diri-nya ka-pada Tfthan iang 

s'benar. J^i^ ^ji^ s^y^ c^y s?' "^ — * 
y.^^ M ^^y He resigned himself unto 
the True God. Ada-lah hal pe-langkah 
p&tek deri rdmah p&tek di-hMu negri 

ini p8.da pe-r&sa-an sAkor jAa &kan ber- 
b^ek pMang jik&lau &da ampun kemia 
tflan-ku mohun-lah pfttek pMang dahMu- 
meng-&mbil langkah iang s'benar, ^J 1 a I 

s?-^ J>^^ <-^>J^ ^yj^ <^V^ ^^^ Je^ 
^ ^y ^ky J] ]y^ /^ ^-[^\jk JJ ^1 

Jybj ^y <^U <JuJy y3ly. L^y ^yL*l jJ 
^jLj^ A4 di<AJ J-5^lA^ The omens which 

accompanied thy servants' departure 
from their homes in the interior were 
such as to cause thy servants to feel 
that it will be diflScult for them to return 
home. If, therefore, Your Majesty will 
pardon and favour thy servants, they 
crave permission to return up river in 
order that they make a proper departure. 
M&ka sembah Bendahara *Ya tAan-ku 
s'benar - nya - lah tltah Sri Bet&ra itu,' 
^P^ da-J ijij^^x--u» ^ly l;i^UbJJ^J d.8-^ <^A^ 
4ii^W Then the Treasurer said to the 
king, * Yes, Your Majesty, it is in truth 
as the Sri Bet&ra says.' Orang iang 
cherei-berei-kan 6rang dengan sehftbat- 
nya iang ti&da dengan s'benar-nya, ^jj] 

^J jL^ ^U^ ^^ ^J!^» ^ji s?-^ ^ 
^^y't^ Men who separate a man from 
his friend without due cause. Benar- 
kan, ^^y4 and Mem-benar-kan, 



To allow, to permit, to authorise, to 
sanction, to approve. Bahwa maka ada- 
lah jikalau di-benar-kan dlih ka-raja-an 

negri, J^l ^^y4^ ^^-^ <J1^' <-sA^ '>< } 

i^jS^ o'^'->^ ^^^ ^^ ^* ^® allowed by 
the government of the state. Maka 
T<ian Petri Ganda firan telah mem- 
benar-kan llkan suami-nya pergi itu, 

«:^) ^Jy <i?<^'>** The Princess Ganda 
Eran permitted her spouse to depart. 
Bahwa maka sArat ini mem-benar-kan 

si-&nu, ylft^ c/-^^'-!-*^ cT^' ^^r^ ^-^ Ih — ? 
• Whereas this letter authorises so and so. 
Barang di-benar-kan Allah, ^^y4^ p^U 
ijDI May God permit it! Bfita handak 
ber- main -main ada-kah di-benar-kan 
Ayah dan bonda ? ^\^) VJ^^J^ i3'^'^^ «^ 

^^ 4^1^ <uJ oO^*^ ^ ^^^^ ^ p^^y • ^^ y® 

permit it, father and mother? lang 
benar di-benar-kan iang sd^lah di-salah- 
kan, ^jjX^Loj dJU ^ ^n^yA^ y^ The 
truth is approved and the wrong is dis- 
allowed. Ka-benar-an, ^^y^ Approval, 
permission, authority. Jikalau dengan 
ka-benar-an tftan, ^)^ ^y^ o^*^ ^^-^ 
If it meets with your approval. SArat 
ka - benar - an, ^^y^ ^Jj-^ -^ letter of 
authority; a document giving permission 
to do anything. Minta ka-benar-an *U;u« 
^^y^ To ask permission, to apply for 

Bdnara, ^U^ A fuller; a washerman; one 
who fulls cloth. Ta tdan-ku ada s'6rang 
benara mem-leherll-kan sa'fikor kaldei, 

Your Majesty, there was a washerman 
who kept an ass. Damikian-lah hal 
ben&ra itu p&da tiap - tiap p&gi hari, 

sS;^ s/^ f*-V ^ «wl ^^ J^ dLft5CL.a 
Such was this fuller's daily morning 
task. S'telah sudah ia mem-bdwa' kain 
itu maka di-lepas-kan Mih bend,ra, rfU .>m 

When he had carried the clothes he was 
let go by the fuller. 

Bdndsa, ^\j4 Destroyed, spoiled, demoli- 
shed, ruined, perished, wasted; to des- 
troy, to spoil, etc., also Benasa-kan, 
^jjCaL^ and Mem-benftsa-kan, ^^^^x^f.^ 

To destroy, to spoil, to demolish, to 
ruin, to waste. Kena ben&sa, ^j^U^ U^ 

Benasa, ^\j^ 

To be destroyed, to be spoilt, to be 

demolished, etc. £ntah-kan sudah r6sak 
dan benasa dan entah-kan sudah karam 

tenggelam prahu kanak-kanak itu, ^^^^ 

3l\ \>^ l^ yjlji ^JJ^lAJ I know not whether 

that child's ship has been spoiled and 
destroyed, and I know not whether it 
has been capsized and sunk. Jikalau 
di-taroh di-d&lam kampong mS,ka kam- 
pong itu r6sak dan jika di-tfi.roh di- 
dalam negri mdka negri itu ben&sa, y^^-e^ 

^)j ^j[; 4il ^jlu^ ^^X^ ^y^ f^'*^^ esjylJJ 

^\j^ 34} ^j^ <J^. ^j^ ^)0J &jij\S^ c£\dk 

If you keep him in the compound, the 
compound will be destroyed, and if you 
keep him in the country the country 
will be ruined ? Mfi.ka di-pS,kai pMa bfi-ju 
beldu kesumba &da satu pencha ta' sudah 
jikalau sudah rflntoh benlLsa dilnia aalam, 
yU al c^^^jij j^\i Jy ^Uj ^A«- 

Jl£> Ua j^^ ^jj ^^^^ ^^ A^^^ *^ l^ 
He also donned a coat of scarlet velvet, 
one hem of which was not completed: 
were it to be completed, this terrestial 
universe would crumble to pieces and 
be demolished. Maka ada-lah ka-tiga 
mer6ka-itu benasa sebab per-kata-an-nya 
sendiri, ^U^ 3.fgS^^ *— ^^<^ ^1^' csA— ^ 
^g^jjL*© ^'lafy H--j^ All three of them 
were ruined by their own words. Maka 
negri Manjapahit itu habis - lah aku 
benasa-kan dan Patch Gajah Mada aku 
b<inoh lalu di - tendang bdmi dengan 
kfi-ki-nya, ^\ dJu^ Ub 3>i] ^-^^i^^ju^ ^jf^ csJL« 
^jujj ys d3^ yS] jU d^\S diU ^Ij ^^)C^Uj 
^\^ ^a ^^ * I will destroy the land 

of Manjapdhit, and I wiU slay Patch 
G&jah Mada,' and he stamped his foot 
upon the ground. Maka bfita pinta' 
p&da sudara-ku pergi me-langgar negri 
Gedong Batu r6sak benasa-kan s'k&li, 
^J^ J^ Jy •i\j\^^ JJ *lajj 3^ ta\^ 
^K--o ^jC«Ui <5**jyy^ ^J*^ I beseech 
you, sister, to invade the land of 
Gedong Bfi.tu and to utterly ruin and 
demolish it. Eaayat Selangor mftsok 
men-chAri sekeUan kampong di-benfisa- 

kan, ^jjftlC^ ^Jy9^ ^^\^jj^X^ ^^^^j 
^jjC^U^j ^yuf The people of Sel&ngor 
came in to steal, and they wasted all 
the villages. Maka segala herta pe- 
s&ka-nya telah habis-lah di-ben&sa-klm- 


Benatang, ^Uj 

nya di-rAmah per-ampd-an j^lang itu, 

vB^I AJle^ ^^'y^y ^A?*^ -AU his property 

and inheritance had been wasted bj him 
at the prostitute's house. Bab iang-ka- 
anam-pMoh lima pMa me-nyata-kan pri 

6rang mem-benfi,sa-kan 6rang, ^'l^ s^lj 

Chapter the sixty-fifth, setting forth the 
law concerning those who ruin their 
neighbours. Ka - benasa - an, ^*LoL^ 

Damage, destruction, ruin. Jika dftli 
ttlan-ku bdat aniaya atas kanak-kanak itu 
b^rang-kali hampir - hampir kita kena 
ka-benasa-an ini-lah pandang-an patek 
hamba tfla, ^glJl 5l^ y3ly ^j l^ — ^ 

ly H-M>jb v5VU ^JoJ iiWI ^^'l-oU^ If Your 

Majesty oppresses this child, we shall go 
near to incurring destruction : this is 
the opinion of myself, your old servant. 
Me-lain-kan dengan fi,kral tAan-nya ka- 
pada segfila ka-benasa-an maka tiada ia 
meny-fileh, JC. j^ ^ly J^l J>^ j:^ 
dL^ ^\ aL^ cs^. ^^-LoU^ But if the 

owner has promised [to bear the risk of 
any damage which may be done], he 
[the borrower] shall not have to make 
it good. 

BSnatang, ^Uj An animal, a beast; any 

living creature which is not human. 
Besar jAga ka-sakti-an-nya biilih ia men- 
jadi-kan diri-nyatAjoh mfi,cham benatang 
lain s'bagai deri-pd^da s'kali ka-pada 
s'kali, ^jj^al^kA-* i^\ d)^ ^ ^Ji ^ <— T^ j^ 
^IC* JJ^ J ^L^ ^J ^uj ^L. d£^y ^ji^ 

^IC* jJ^ Her magic is great, and she 

can turn herself into seven different 
kinds of animals, a different one on each 
occasion. H6 ben&tang iang tiada ber- 

aakal, Jto^ ^l«J ^ ^^ ^ beasts, 
who are devoid of all understanding. 
M&ka seg&la benS^tang iang di-dalam 
hdtan itu ber-hamba-kan diri-nya ka- 
p^a r&ja stnga, ^lja ^ ^U; JC« dL^ 

^^^ sl; *^ ^jl^ c/^^ 4i) Jy^ All the 
beasts in that forest submitted to the 
lion king. Rioh gegak gemplta bdnyi 
segala benatang, jL* ^j^ 3^ ^ &jij 
^Ui The noise made by all the animals 
was loud and clamorous. Ben&tang 
bilkas, ij^|>j ^^ A ravenous animal ; a 

Benchana, Hind., ^l^ 

beast of prey. Benatang iang me-rftyap, 
cJiil^ M ^^ Vermin, crawling insects, 
Benatang iang me -lata, &X^ M ^^ A. 
reptile, a creeping thing. Benatang iang 
ter-bang, ^y ^ ^U^ Flying insects. 
Aakal benatang, ^\j^ J^^ Bestial - 
minded. Kesan benatang, ^U^ ^^ The 

spoor or tracks of an animal. Note : 
In the colloquial dialects of Petani, 
Kelantan and elsewhere this word is 
frequently used in speaking of inani- 
mate objects in the sense in which Ben- 
da, Jo^ A thing, etc., is employed in other 
parts of the Peninsula and Archipelago. 

Bdnchah, 6^ Low -lying land; marshy 
land ; swampy land ; a marsh, a swamp. 

Bgnch&na, Hind., ^l^ Evil; mischief; 

injury ; secret mischief or injury ; mis- 
chievous counsel. B&gai-mana-kah k^mu 
sekelian handak men-j&di-kan r^ja akan 
bArong hantu ini per-tama bangsa-nya 
hena dan prdngei-nya pdn bengis dan 
mata - nya bflta p^da siang hkn dan 
b4rang-ka-m&na ia ber-triak ada-lah 
suatu benchana ^kan datang damikian 

ka-ada-an-nya, ^^y*^ ^ ^K -^^ ^l^ d^L^^ 

^M*l^ ^^ ^U ^\ ^\^ How can ye 

all desire to make the owl your king? 
In the first place, his caste is low, and 
his disposition is cruel, and his eyes are 
blind in the daytime, and, wheresoever 
he hoots, evil is about to befall. Maka 
jikalau ia lepas deri-pada benchana-nya 
itu nesch^ya sejahtra-lah ia m^ka ta' 
dapat ti^da ia ^kan men-d&pat benchana 

besar jAa Ma - nya, ,j*JJ ^gl ^^ csA_^ 

If he escapes from that injury, all will 
be well with him, but for a certainty 
he will sustain grievous injury. Maka 
pikir-nya jlda-pun jikalau aku taroh 
herta ini neschaya b&nyak-lah bench&na- 

nya, &j^ &^j^ /\ ^ ^y\^^ ^/^ ^^^^ 
j\^ ^\^ s?W v:ri' H® thought, *lf 
I keep this property, for a certainty 
great mischief will arise therefrom.' 
Maka k&ta Rd^ja Ptkas samoa-nya ka- 
laku-an ini benchcLna deri-p&da angkau 


Bencbar, j^ 
j{lga men-ipu dkya, di-atas &ku, &\i 

/:£>] jj^a ^i^ ^1 ^»/A? ^1^^ ^j^j:^ eV> 

^l ^la ^^1*3 jlicr*^ ^y^ Then said R&ja 

Plkas, * All this state of things is mis- 
chief of your contriving, through your 
cheating and deceiving of me. Entah-kan 
benchS,na raja-rS,ja dan entah-kan ben- 
ch&na deri-pada drang besar-besar dan 
entah-kan bench&na segala hantu shStan 
dan entah-kan benchana segfi-la bArong- 
bdrong, ^l^ ^jjC^I ^b Y^b ^^ o^' 

>^ y^ oV^ O*^' c>'*^ O-^ t^^^ ^^^ 

^t^J^ y^ oV^ c5^' o'*^ O^***^ I ^^^^ 
not whether it is mischief caused by 

kings, or chiefs, or fiends or devils, nor 

whether it is mischief caused by the 

birds. Men-datang-kan benchana dan 

ka-chedera-an, ^^'b^ o'*^ i^^ ^^^^AJIjou. 

To cause mischief and injury. Mem- 

bench£lna-kan, ^bl^^^^.*^ To entice into 

mischief ; to seduce ; to lead astray. 

B6ncha,r, j^ Dazzling ; blinding by radi- 
ance ; dazzled ; dazed ; blinded by radi- 
ance. Benchar md.ta mem-£lndang meita- 
hari, sS>W^^ &Jsju-^ iU j^ My eyes are 
dazzled from looking at the sun. Pem- 
benchar mata, 5U j^*'^ Anything dazz- 
ling to the eyes. 

B§nchar, j^ Strident; out of tune; usually 

said of the noise made by a bad or 
cracked gong. 

BSnchat, 5^ Stopped (of a work) ; stop- 
ped in mid career; to missfire (of a 
gun). Note: The forms Genchat, d^ 
and Renchat, 3^j also occur. 

BSnchi, ^^9^ To hate; to detest; to abhor; 

to dislike ; to object to. Benchi-lah kka 
mem-andang, &U4^ j^l di^^ I hate the 

sight of it ; I hate to look at it. S'telah 
sampei ka-b&lai di-pandang Meh Raja 
Bendahd,ra Mangku Biimi pada slnak 
semang h{ltan itu maka ia pun ter-lalu 
benchi - nya ia - pun ber - fingkat masok, 

yX# ;ljbJa^ g|p d)y ^JoJa ^[^ S?^^**^ ^^^^ 

^U ulS£>\j^ ^y v^l ^^t^ When he 

reached the hall, R&ja Bendahara Mangku 
BtLmi saw the wild boy of the woods, 
and he disliked him so much that he at 
once returned to his private apartments. 
MIka benchi-lah segala sehd,bat handei- 
nya &kan dia sebab bebal dan dipa-nya, 


H- ' ^ ' ^ ^^*XiS\ ^ouL^ 4U^«> A^^ rtl^^^j ^ 
^IfiJI ^la J^ And all his friends and 

companions object to him because of his 
folly and indolence. Apa-kali sebab ka- 
laku-an t&an damikian ini benchi-kah 
tiian akan kakanda ini, ^Ij^^ ^-^^ ^ I 

Why do you behave so ? Is it that you 
dislike me P Ka-benchi-an, ^ ft.y>^- < An 

object of hatred, dislike, abhorrence, 
etc. Men-J£ldi ka-benchi-an pada segala 
isi negri, ^^^ ^\ JSl* JJ .^yt^fi^ ^^S\^^ 
He became an object of dislike to all the 
populace. Pem-benchi, ^^^*'^ A philtre 
given to turn love into hate. Elemu 
pem - benchi, ^q^-H^ (^^ The magic 
science of thus inspiring hate. Also 
Hikemat pem-benchi, 

Benchoh, &^^^h^ This word and the follow- 
ing one, Benchut, &^^^ have the same 
meaning, only the former is used on the 
West coast and the latter on the East. 

Benchut, &j^hA To be on bad terms; to be 
by the ears. 

Bdnda, Ju^ A thing ; an article ; property ; 
matter; material; treasure; riches. Apa- 
kah n8,ma benda itu, 4i' ^ pli ^^ What 
is the name of that thing? Bab iang- 
ka - ampat - pMoh sambilan pri men - 
cherita-kan benda iang di-bri-kan ka- 
t&ngan drang lain, Jw*^ ^y ^Li^^KA^i <^ij 

Chapter the forty-ninth relating to the 
law concerning things given into the 
hands of another. Danbarangpem-bawa'- 
an-nya seperti pisau pelrang dan seg&la 
benda iang ter-k£lrang herga-nya jadi 
rampas-an benda iang lain deri-pada itu 
kemb&li ka-pMa tAan-nya, ^j\i ^)^ 

^J^ oi^ ^ cr^-^ ^^^ c^^-^ t>/j^ 
^1y jJ^ <^W^ 4^1 All that he has upon 

him, such as knives, chopping - knives, 
and all things of trifling value, may be 
forcibly taken from him, but all other 
articles must be returned to his (the 
slave's) master. Bab iang-ka-dAa-pMoh- 
lima pri hukum meng-embali-kan benda 
iang di-bli sebab aaib £lpa-bila mem-bli 
suatu benda ka-lihat-an atas benda itu 
aaib iang sedta md,ka di-kemb&li-kan- 
nya, ^j^L-^A- ^ ^^ ^ d)y )>)XAi c^l^ 


Bendah&ra, ^Ujsaj 


J^l H-ft^ H-9--» ^^^ ^ 

^A^lt^j Chapter the twenty-fifth re- 
lating to the law as to returning articles 
purchased, because of defects in them. 
When an article is bought and is seen 
to have some defect in it which it had 
at the time of the purchase, it may be 
returned. M&ka iilih sud&gar itu di- 
jftal - kan - nya r(kmah tangga-nya dan 
herta benda-nya di-bayar-kan-nya- 
lah ka-p8lda sudagar itu, ^)j^ d3^1 csX-* 

«fcAi) ^1*3^ JJiS ^d^^l^a The merchant 

sold his house property and possessions, 
and paid the money to the other mer- 
chant. Serta di-kernia be-ber-apa herta 
dan benda d.kan Brahmana itu, Sj.^ 

«-l' ^^^^ ^^ ^ o'*^ ^J^ «-^'>fi y/*^ 
And the king also bestowed a great 
quantity of possessions and treasures 
upon the Brahman. M&ta benda, Jo^ &U 
Valuables, articles of value, treasures; 
specie ; gems ; jewels. L&lu pergi-lah 
ia ka-pMa suatu kedei joh&ri di-bli-nya 
be-ber-ftpa m8,ta benda iang besar-besar 
herga-nya, ^^^^ iJj— ^ Jsi^ ^^\ ^^^ ^ J 

Then he went to a jeweller's shop and 
bought a number of valuable articles the 
prices of which were very great. M&ka 
di-bli-nya be-ber-jlpa mtlta benda lalu di- 
miiat-nya ka-&tas pedati, ^^o <.sA.^ 
^Ij^ Jjf'l^ J)^*^^i ^ iL- tjl>j^ He 
bought a great quantity of valuables 
and put them in the carriage. Apa 
benda ? Jo^ tJ) What is it ? What is the 
matter? What do you want? Benda- 
hfl.ra,^ljt)Ju^ A treasurer; the officer who 

is in charge of the State treasures ; the 
title given by Malays to an important 
chief who is usually of royal stock. 

BSndihSra, ^UjuLj A treasurer; the officer 
who is in charge of the State treasures ; 
the title borne by an important chief 
who is usually of royal stock ; the queen 
in playing-cards. Note : This title, which 
is derived from the word Benda, J^ k 
thing, an article, etc., has now lost its 
original meaning, and is now bestowed 
upon one of the four principal men of 
royal blood in a Malay State without 
any reference to the duties allotted to 
him. The Raja ber-gelar, ^^ gl^ or 

Benda-hd.ran, ^^^l«>«Ja^ 

titled rdjas are usually as follows : — 
Sultan, ^^UaLo or lang-di-per-TAan Besar, 

j^ oV-^^ *^® ruler, lang-di-per-TAan 
MMa, 1*3^ oV-^^ » Bendahftra, j\^J^ 
and Temenggong, ^ ^ C^U? In Pfirak the 

Temenggong, ^j^^ though an impor- 
tant chief, is not of royal blood. In 
Pahang, untU 1880, the Chief Ruler 
bore the title of Bendahara S6wa RAja, 
el> '><5-* ^Ujulj and by a legal fiction was 
supposed to be one of the chiefs of the 
Baginda Daik, ^lj JolJIj Iu that year, 

however, Bendahara Ahmad assumed 
the title of Sultan and created three 
royal chiefs in accordance with the old 
custom of Malay Sultans. One of these 
bore the title of Bendah&ra Sri Mahr&ja, 
s'-H^ s^J-** ^l«t)ju^ to distinguish him 
from the title formerly borne by the 
Ruler of Pahang. In P^rak the Benda- 
hara succeeds the R&ja Miida in that 
office, and may eventually become the 
Sultan, but in no other Malay country 
has the Bendahara any direct claim to 
the succession, the eldest son of the 
Sultan succeeding his father. Even in 
P6rak this custom is a comparatively 
new one. HS md.-mak Bendahara &pa 
jiiga herti-nya kd.ta m&mak Bendahd.ra 
itu, uol^ ^j^ ^jc. ^I^Ujo^ ^U ^ 

v-Hil'^libJa^ ^U father Bendahara, 
what do thy words mean ? Note : Benda- 
hara in Pirak are spoken of as Raja 
Bendahd^ra, ^lJt)Ju^ gj^ and in other parts 

of the Peninsula as D&to' Ungku Benda- 
hjlra, ^l^JoLi y^\ -yl^ In Pfirak persons 
of inferior rank style themselves P&tek, 
4.^ Li and the Bendahara, TAan-ku, 

^ly when speaking to him. In Pahang 

inferiors speaking to the Bendahd.ra 
address him as Ungku, ^£>) anA Ka- 

bawah kaus, ^ji^ &ji^ and style them- 
selves Hamba ungku, j^I h— 4Jb , Benda- 
h&ran, ^^Ij^Jsa^ and Per - benda - h&ran, 
^bju^y A treasury; a place where 
treasure is kept. 

Bdnda-hllran, ^I^J^a^ A treasury; a place 

where treasure is kept. Also Per-benda- 
haran, ^^^Iwo^y Note: This word is prob- 
ably corrupted from an obsolete form, 
Benda-h&ra-an, ^•1;ljt)jsjLi which has been 

contracted into the present form for the 
sake of euphony and brevity. Nasthat 


Beoda-Mri^ ^^UbJa4 

ayah&nda samoa ter-simpaii di-ddlam 
benda-haran Mti onaJsi-aiida, Juu^l X ^^» n\ 
JuJXJ) J\ib ^j\^J^ ^loa ^^Uff^Ji Ij*** All 

thy advice, my father, is treasured in 
the treasury of thy son's heart. Maka 
ber-j&lan ka-diia-nya m&sok ka-dd.lam 
per-benda-hd.ran di-lihat-nya talam &da 
be-ratus, ^lj^ ^5-^U ^l^j^ ^l^^ v^A — • 

^\ji al ^b ,^jx^o ^^IfeJo^y The two 

men went forth together and entered 
the treasury, where they found hundreds 
of trays. Maka B(Lkit SegAntang itu 
pun men-]8di per-benda-hdran besar-lah, 

4s3^ Biikit Segtlntang became a great 
treasure-house. Pe-r&a-an h^ti p^tek 
s'umpama p^tek men-djlpat per-benda- 
hftran di-mdka biimi, <^U ^U ^^L^lj^ 

Thy slave feels as though he had obtained 
possession of the treasure-stores of the 
whole earth I 

Bdndi-hUri, ^^^Ujo^ A treasurer; one 

who guards the treasure; an oflB.cer at 
a Malay Court who is supposed to be 
in charge of the treasure, and who also 
acts as master of ceremonies upon state 
occasions. The full title is Date' Peng- 
hAlu Benda-ha.ri, sa>bJa^ J^^JU syb 

Bdndslla, J1^ A raised platform or couch 

in a royal palace. M^ka Hang Jebat 
ka-Mar ttdor di-^tas bendala tempat 
r^ja dAdok itu, ^>xjr j\^ a^ ^ ct\ — « 

^1 JJJ|^^ gl; aw JIju^ ^Ij Hang Jebat 

came forth and went to sleep upon the 
couch on which the king was accus- 
tomed to sit. Maka r^ja pun ka-l{iar 
diidok di-bendala di-h^dap Mih seg&la 
beduanda, JlJut^J ^^^^j^^ j^y gb <^^ 
j3^j^ J^^ ^^I «^jlibj The king came 
forth and sat on the couch with all his 
body-guard sitting facing him. M^ka 
tetkflla itu di-angrahft-i &yap-an mtnum- 

an di-bendfila, ^1 ^^b^b 4^1 JKaJ «.tU 
Jljuuja vj*J4>^ At that time the king was 
giving food and drink to the people 
assembled on the raised platform m 
front of the palace. Note : This word is 
not commonly met with nor understood. 
It may be Sanskrit but is almost cer- 
tainly not Malay though it bears a cer- 
tain resemblance to Bendul, J>>^ a 

Bend&wat, &j/\o^ 

BSnd^lu, ^1^ The name of a species of 

Bdndang, ^Jj^ An irrigated rice«field; 
a rice-swamp. Tanah bendang, dJo^ dill 

Land for swamp-rice cultivation. Note : 
The terms T&nah paya, ^^U ^iUr and 

T&nah s&wah, es^L« d^\J are also used. 
Dry or hill rice plantations are called 
variously, Hiima, ^^ Mdang, 4uJ or 

Cherang, ^^ Bras bendang, Axi^ ^j^ 
The rice obtained from pddi grown in a 
swamp. Ampang bendang, &Ja^ ^A-*l 
An irrigation dam. T&li &yer bendang, 
fyj4 ^' cJ^ A water-race for irriga;ting 

rice-land. BS,tas bendang, &x-g ^j^^ 

The small banks or dams in a rice-field 
which serve to divide it into small 
squares or fields. P^tak bendang, ^^SfJ 

$Ja^ A plot of rice-ground enclosed by 

the B&tas, ^l^ Aku d&tang deri-pMa 

bendang iang tiada ber-bd.tas deri-p&da 
S,yer iang tiMa ber-ikan, JJ'^J ^la ^1 
^\j^ jl^^ ^1 Jjj^j ^Ij^ jL>»^ ^ I 

come from rice - swamps which have no 
dividing banks, and from waters which 
contain no fish. Tlljak dan rembas di- 
bawa' ka-bendang, ^\^\^^ cr-><P o'*^ &^^ 
^JjL^ The tools necessary for clearing 

rushes and weeds were carried down to 
the rice-swamp. Pergi ka-bendang men- 
chS-but kAmboh, ^^^^ &^ l^^u» ^ jsj^iT Jji 

Go to the rice-swamp to pluck out the 
grass. Note : Kumboh is a three-edged 
grass, and when one edge has been pared 
oS and the grass dried it is used for 
making bags to hold p&di. Ta' kan serek 
liika m&kan di-tajak 6sok ka-bendang 
]Aga-lah klta, ^Uo ^U ^y ^^ ^U 

l^ diSy>. Sjjuj^ ^5^1 A wound made with 
a weed-cutter is not so serious but that 
we shall be able to go to the rice-field 
next day. — Prao. 

B6nd&ra, j\^ or Bendara kClching, j\y^ 

At^j^ A white, black, or yellow oat. 

Note : This is probably a contraction for 
Bendah&ra, used to mean an unusually 
good cat. 

BdndSwat, &^\J^ A stay ; stays ; lashing ; 

cordage which fastens anything, or holds 
anything in its place. M&ka ia pun 
meny - (Iroh tegang bendawat menam 
dan meng-iikoh seg&la &pil-an dan mam- 


b&Dgun-kan segfila chftgak 161a dan meng- 
tsor seg&la ped&ti meriam dan me-lekat 
segfila tfbiam, ^ &^^^ ^y ^\ <a\ — « 
^b ^^\ yL^ d^^ ^b ^^ S^Ij^ 

^y yiM a<]u ^b ^^ i5^'"^ He ordered 
them to tighten all the gun-stays, to 
strengthen all the bulwarks, to erect 
stands for the swivel-guns, and train all 
the gun-carriages and light all the port- 
fires. Note : This word is probably a 
corrupt form of Bandut, B^^x^ to which 
reference can be made. 

Bdnddra, Fobt., I^Ju^ A flag, a standard, 
an ensign, colours. Tlang bendfira, ^ 
\^^yjA A flagstaff. P4sang bendfira, ^U 
IjiJoj To hoist a flag. TArun-kan bendfira, 
'ji^ o^J^y ^^ lower a flag; to strike 
the colours. Meny-ambut bendfira den- 
gan bedil meriam, JiJ^ ^^ I^Jo^ ^i-s-V* 
fly^ To salute a flag. BendSra Baginda, 
jjJsi IjiJui^ The white flag proper to a 

Baginda. (See Aalam, ^b> A standard, 

Bfinddrang, ^^^ A spear of state, which 

is ornamented with plumes of horse-hair, 
and which is carried by the followers of 
a T&ja on great public and ceremonial 
occasions. Note : The right to use these 
spears is one of the distinctive marks of 
rank (Tanda ka-besar-an, ^j^ JuJ) of 
a Malay ruler. Benderang k&nan, ^^^ 

^\S and Benderang kiri, s?^ ^^^ Two 
officers in a Malay Court who are under 
the Bent&ra, ^Isaj Note : This word is 
sometimes pronounced Bandarang, ^j^ 
Maka Tan Ltku mem-ikul benderang 
kftnan dan Tan Likir mem-ikul bende- 
rang kiri, ^l^ Ij^ J<t^yy o^ ^^^-— 
^j^ &j^ y^ yt^ J ^b Tan Liku 

carried the spear of state on the right 
side, and Tan Ltkir carried another on 
the left side. Md.ka bentara mem-tkul 
benderang k&nan di-kd,nan Gajah itu, 

The herald carried the right spear of 
state on the right of the elephant. Mdka 
pftyong dan benderang di-b&wa' firang- 

lah, A^j^S Hjl<a ^^Ju^ ^b ^yU cs^—. 

The umbrellas and spears of state were 
carried by the attendants. 

Bendul^ ^y^M 

Bdnddrang, ^^Ja| Bright; shining; light; 

brilliant; clear (as moonlight). Trang 
benderang, ^^ J^ ^^ Bright, very bright. 

BMan benderang, ^j^ ^^ A bright 

Bdnddrong, ^j>^^ The unwalled passages 
which connect one building with another. 
Note : These passages are usually raised 
on piles to the same level as the floors 
of the houses which they connect. In 
the Malay Peninsula the terms Pe-lantar, 
ynAi and Selasar, ^A-^ are usually em- 
ployed in this sense. 

BSndi, Jav., v^Jo^ A basin ; a small bucket. 

BdndTka, ^^^^ A curse or incantation by 
means of which a person or thing is 
endowed with supernatural strength. 
Note : The form Mendika, tsAj[Jsju» also 

Bdndok, JJ>)ui^ or Bendo*, •>uj A chopper. 

Bdndong, ^}Jj4 A cock, a fowl. Bendong 
ber-sel6ka, .sJ^^ ^>M The cock recites 
poetry (referring to his crowing in the 
morning). Note : The form Mendong, 
4^jju» is also met with, but neither word 

is usually employed except in literary 
Malay ; Bandong, $>3u'j is however com- 
mon. (See Ayam, ^1). 

Bdndong, £>)a4 A small dyke. Note : This 

word, which is not in use in the Malay 
Peninsula, is given on the authority of 
Dr. Pijnappel. 

Bdndu, yoj A friend, a comrade, a com- 

BSndu, >)a4 A kind of sedan-chair carried 
by men. Note: Compare Tandu, ^jJuJ 
A litter, etc. 

Bdndu, Jav., yyj4 Anger, displeasure, 

BdndOan, Hind., ^^^^^ A convict. Note : 
The term Orang s&lah, dJU ^j^) A guilty 
man, is better understood than this 
word by the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Bdndul, J>)uL| A threshold; the beam 
which lies at right angles to the per- 
pendicular posts on which Malay houses 
are built, and which forms the frame- 
work of the floor. Kftyu bendul, ji^ 
J^Ju^ The main beams which rest against 


Bendul, J>M 

the poles of a Malay house and support 
the flooring. M&ka di-lihat t&kang tCla 
itu dMok di-bendul miika pintu, <-&L^ 

He espied the old workman sitting on the 
threshold of the doorway of his house. 
Meng - 6ko' balam di - Mjong bendul 
ter-dengut pAyoh panjang b{lnyi, •^y^ 
^^ ^ esyy l^^yl J>v^ ^^J fi\\ 

The dove cooed at the end of the floor 
beam, and the long note of the quaU 
was sounded. Pantang 6rang iang ber- 
bini bAnting dMok di-bendul mflkapintu, 

^>^ J>J^*^ ^^if ^y s?^^ ^ i)i^ ^ 
yijJ It is forbidden for a man whose 
wife is with child to sit on the threshold 
in the doorway. Pa' Si - bendul, *U 
J^Jou.<>^ A proper name which is used 
among Malays as the proverbial type of 
gross stupidity. Note : For parts of a 
Malay house see Note under RAmah, <ujy 

Bdndul, J>3^ The name of a bird. 

Bdndlu, ^L^ The name of a parasitic 
plant. (See Ben&lu,yUj). 

Bdnga, U^ or Sebenga, U^^ Amazed, dumb- 
foundered; struck all of a heap. Ta' 
l^lu d,ku biiat suatu apa diidok ter-se- 
benga sah&ja, Jjo^^ t^S B\y^ Sl^^iyj 'IJ 

gl^ U.8-«y I was unable to do anything, 

but simply sat struck all of a heap. 

Bdngah, ^ Conceited; very pleased with 

Bdngal, y^ Hard of hearing, slightly deaf; 
an uneasy sensation in the ears ; ear- 
ache ; aching of the ears. Pekak tidak 
hanya-lah bengal sedikit s'b&nyak, ^§5C3 
^Ij-^ ^Jw^ ^ dljlfe jjj^ Not deaf, only 
more or less hard of hearing. K&lau 
kira-nya p&tek men-dengar-kan segdla 
f etenah itu bengal-lah tellnga patek, yi^ 

cs^U If I, thy servant, paid heed to all 
those false reports, my ears would be 
aching from the listening 1 Pekak telinga 
kena peny-dJdt bengal, ^l^ U^ U«]J ^3^ 
y^ Deaf through ear-ache. 

Bdngang, ^ Yawning, gaping. 

Bdngap, «-iAi To have a false ring, having 
a false ring. Bad (of a coin). On the 
west of the Peninsula this word is not 
used in this sense, but Benak, ^ is 


B6ngap, cJU; This word is used in two 
senses ; either to describe a person with 
a hesitation rather than a stammer in 
speech, and also when intending to say 
what is not true the speaker begins to 
hesitate so that it is evident he is not 
speaking the truth. 

Bdnggiila, Jl^ Bengal. Aho negri Beng- 
gala, JlSii s5>^ Ber-l&yar pergi ka^ 
Benggaia, JICa^ ^^ ^i^ To sail to 

Bdnggllli, ^^ Of or appertaining to 

Bengal. Orang Benggftli, ^JU^ 6yl A 

native of Bengal. Note : This term is 
often used by Malays in speaking of any 
native of Northern India. BAat - an 
Benggali, ^l^ ^jJl^ Of Bengalee manu- 

Bdnggil, Jt^ A rising; a lump; a swell- 
ing; slightly swollen. Benggal-benggil, 
^}(t^ y^ A general swelling of the 
joints. (See Bengkil, J©^)- 

Bdngik, ^5tA A failing in respiration. A 
break in the breath. 

Bdngis, ^j.^ Cruel; fierce; rapacious; 
unmerciful ; unrelenting ; implacable. 
Note : This word is not used in the sense 
of cruel to animals, etc. Bagai-m&na- 
kah kdmu sekelian handak men-j&di-kan 
raja &kan b&rong hantu ini per-t&ma 
bangsa-nya hfina dan prangei-nya pun 
bengis dan mata-nya biita p&da siang 
hari, ^*^\if^ JJJUL^ ^^t}<^^\^ d53UtA 

sg;l«t) How is it that ye all desire to 
make the owl your king? In the first 
place, he is of low caste, and his dispos- 
ition is cruel, and his eyes are blind in 
the daytime. Bengis rdpa-nya dan m&ta- 
nya mfirah b3gai sS-ga di-rendang, ,j*^ 
^j^ c-TLo ^l^ &j^ ^U^ ^b ^Ujj; His 

looks are fierce, and his eyes are red 
like parched red peas. R&ja iang bengis, 
,j-^ ^ glp An unmerciful king. Stru 
iang bengis, ,j-^ ^ ^ys^ An implacable 
enemy. M&ka laku-nya bengis seperti 
hartmau lepas t&ngkap-an, ^^i csJL^ 

c)^^ u-^ ylj^ &jl^ u-tA His be- 
haviour was fierce, like unto a tiger 
that has been caught. 


Bengkah, d<»e« 

Bengkah, ^<^ and Mem-bengkah, a<4<^4># 
To produce a result on anything by 
means of force; to strike with or be 
struck by anything ; to move anything. 
Cf. Bdngkar, ^j^ To shift ; to hoist, 

B6ngkak, Hind., ^§5C^ To swell; to in- 
crease ; swollen, a swelling, a bump on 
the body. Bengkak tangan kena sengat 
lebah, &^ liiL^ \j^ ^\S ^^ His hand 
swelled from being stung by the bees. 
Sedikit Id^gi bengkak-lah dia, ^i ^^J^ 
^^a dlJl^it^ It will begin to swell pre- 
sently. Bengkak m&ta-nya bekas men- 
angis, ,j-tA^ ^j^ ^la-^ ^^ Her eyes 
were swollen, the result of tears. Sampei 
piantan kena sengat itu bharu-lah siirut 
bengkak-nya, d)^^ 4il ^^^ ^ ^^'^•^ ^g^^-*^ 
^fi^ &^j^ When twenty -four hours 
have elapsed from the time when the 
sting was received the lump will begin 
to subside. Bengkak pSpa, «-.A^ ^^^ 
The swelling caused by a deep-seated 
tumour. Bengkak bfi.rah, &j\^ ^^^ The 
swelling caused by an abscess or tumour. 
Bengkak, ^^ is sometimes used in 
reference to money, as meaning that a 
sum invested may Bengkak, ^3^ i.e., 
grow larger. 

BSngkal, J<Ai Half -ripe (of fruits); 
almost yellow (of leaves) ; grieved, pain- 
fully affected. (See Mengkal, J^). 
Note : This form is given on the author- 
ity of Hinkert. 

Bdngkiilei, ^^ Stopped; abandoned; 
unfinished ; incomplete (of a building 
or other work). Ter-bengk&lei, ^J^J 
is a more common form. 

BdngkHlis, ,j^^ The name of an edible 
fresh-water fish. 

Bdngkang, ^^L^ Bent, crooked, curved, 
warped (as the blade of a badly tempered 
weapon). Bengkang - bengkong,* ^^k^ 
^j^ Bent in many places ; very 
crooked. (See Bengkong, ^^^). 

Bdngkang, Jav., ^<i^ To contradict ; con- 
tradiction; refractory; disobedient. (See 
Bengkong, ^j^). 

Bdngkar, ^J^ To bloom; to open, as a 
bud; to open, expand, or unroll, as 
grain, etc., does during the process of 

Bengkayang, ^\^ 

BdngkHra, j\<^ or ^dang bengkd^ra, iJ^I 
j\^ The name of a species of prawn. 
Note : The form Mengk&ra, ^K*^ is also 
met with. 

Bdngklirak, ^j^ A skeleton ; the bare 

bones of a human being or of an animal ; 
bones which have been picked clean. 
Dd;ging sedikit pun ta' tinggal h&nya- 
lah bengk&rak seh&ja iang d,da, ^\*y 

Not a scrap of meat is left, only the 
bare bones remain. Bcngk^rak drang, 
^jj\ JJ^^ A human skeleton. Beng- 

Mrak S.yam, ^I JJ^l^ The bare bones 
of a fowl. (See Eangka, l^^). 

BdngkHrik, ^^K^ Reduced to a skeleton. 
Said of a person wasted by disease. 

BdngkHrong, ^^j^ A grass lizard. Note: 
The form Mengkd^rong, ^jj^^^ is also 
met with and it is perhaps the better 
of the two. Note : The Malays distin- 
guish between three kinds of this family 
of lizard, naming them according to 
their colour. Bengkarong hijau, ^Jt>l^ 

j^^ The green grass lizard. Beng- 
karong klabu, jiK ^jij\<^ The speckled 

grass lizard. Bengkarong mfirah, ^^j^ 
&jit^ The red grass lizard. 

Bdngkas, ^j^-X^ and Ber-bengkas, ^^^j^ 

To sneeze. See Ber-sin, ^^tr^y^ which is 

the term invariably used by the natives 
of the Peninsula. This word is given on 
the authority of Crawford, but is not 
known here. 

Bdngkasa, ^^ The name of a fish. 

Bdngk&sa, ^l50g A trap. 

Bdng-kawan, ^^K^ The small lath on 
which the leaves used for thatching are 
sewn with rattan, so as to form con- 
venient lengths to lay across the rafters. 
Atap s'beng-k&wan, ^^Klj.-* «-iJl One 

piece or length of thatching. Note : The 
form Meng-kawan, ^^^^^ is also met 

Bdngkawang, ^^^ The name of a fern. 
Qleichenia ImeaHs. 

BSngkliyang, ^15CAj Satiated; sated; in- 
different to anything. Note : This word 
is given on the authority of Dr. Pijnappel. 


Bengkerang, ^^Mt 

The terms Jemu, j4t^ and Chemus, ^y^ 

are more generally used by Malays to 
express this meaning. 

Bdngkdrang, £j<J^ The name of a tree^ 
the wood of which is used as fuel. 

Bdngkil, Ji^^ A rising; a swelling; slightly 
swollen, swollen (as the eyes by weeping) . 
Note : The form Beng^, ^yJ^ is also 
met with. Bengkak-bengkil, Je^ ^5^ , 
Bengkal-bengkil, J<s^ J^ or Benggal 
benggil, J*^ J^ A general swelling 
of the joints. 

Bengking, ^t^^. Cruel; harsh; tyrannical; 

devoid of pity ; implacable ; unmerciful : 
fierce, savage. Thfilim dan bengking 
ti&da ter-pri, v^y^ ^^ ^fr<^ ^\^ ^it 
Tyrannical and cruel to an indescribable 
degree. Bengking s&ngat &nak r&ja itu, 
ui^\ si; <5J' <^^ ;^t^^ That young rdja 
is very harsh. Kerbau iang bengking, 
^y^^ ^ ^^ ^ fierce or savage buffalo. 

Bengkok, JJ^^ Crooked, bent, warped, 
twisted; out of the straight. Seperti 
ptsau r&ut bengkok bfdih di-betul-kan 
bengkok kita ta' bAlih betul, j»^ Sji^ 

\yi^ If the curved knife used for 
scraping rattans becomes twisted it can 
be made straight, but one's own kinks 
can never be straightened — Prov.^ mean- 
ing, it is easy enough to straighten a bend 
in an implement which hardly ever gets 
twisted, but our own imperfections, which 
are many, are difficult to deal with. 
J&ngan-lah di-kd.ta-kan k&lau tebu 
bengkok m&nis-an-nya bengkok gentek, 

jj^<A-^ Do not imagine because 

the sugar-cane is crooked that the mo- 
lasses expressed from it will also be out 
of the straight — Prov.^ which signifies 
that though a man may have faults, one 
should not on that account condemn all 
his works. It also means, " do not judge 
anyone by his outward appearance." 
Ada iang betul Ma iang bengkok, A^ ul 
jjj<A^ ^ j1 J^ Some are straight and 
some are crooked. K&yu p&pan h&bis 
bengkok, Jj/^ ^-^^ ^U ^l^ The 
planks are all warped, Bengkok-kan, 
^^^ To make crooked; to bend any- 
thing. Chiiba bengkok-kan sedtkit, 

Bengktlkang, ^/M 

a^JuA ^^A^ i^y^ Bend it a little.. 
Bengkok-kan bftlek s'mMa, ^^/^ 
J>*** c^^ Bend it back again. Note: 
The term Orang bengkok, ^yC^ ^^\ is 
occasionally used in colloquial Malay to- 
mean a cheat, a mean fellow, as opposed 
to Orang betul, J^ ^j^\ A true, up- 
right, or honest man. The phrase, 
however, is not idiomatic nor yet correct 
Malay, and is better avoided, but the 

expression Akal - nya bengkok, ^^J^l 
^^^^ is idiomatic and common, and 
means, shifty, not to be reUed on, inten- 
tions the reverse of professions. 

Bdngkong, ^^^ The tissue between the 
leaves and the stem of the sago palm. 

Bdngkong, ^/^ Bent; crooked; curved; 

warped; twisted; out of the straight. 
(See Bengkang, ^^ and Bengkok,, 
l^/^ Bent, etc.) 

Bdngkong, Jav., ^^ To contradict; 

contradiction; refractory. Note : The^ 
form Bengkang, ^X^ is also met with. 
Both forms are derived from the Jav- 
anese BangJcang. 

BdngkOak, J^|^^ The name of a species 
of bird. This may be another form of 
Lengguak, J^l>^ the name given in 
Perak to the middle-sized pigeon between 
the PAnai, ^y and the Pergam, ^y. 

BdngkOang, ^/^ The name of a species 

of yam, which is usually eaten raw,. 
Pachyrhizus angulatus. 

BdngkOdu, ^^y^ The name of a tree the 

roots of which are used by dyers. They 
are also said to be used medicinally by 
the Malays, both internally and exter- 
nally. Morinda citrifolia. The following 
kinds of this tree are distinguished by 
the Malays. Bengkddu b&dak, ^Oj^ 
^S^ The rhinoceros hinghMu. Beng- 
Ididu dS,un, ^^b ^^^^ The leaf hUng- 
Mdu. BengkAdu Iftki-lS^ki, t»^J ^^/^ 
The male b^gkMu. Bengkddu h{ltan. 
^y jo^ The jungle benghAd/u. Note : 

The form Mengkddu, ^^j^ is also met 
with. See essay on the plant in Asiatic 
Resea/rcheSf IV. 

BSngkOkang, ^>^ A kind of sea-bream^ 
Ohrysophrys calamara. 


^BengkMu, ^yOg 

BdngkQIu, jJj^Aj A town and river on the 
western coast of Sumatra, usually called 
Bencoolen by the English, who formerly 
possessed a settlement there. 

•Bdngkunkun, ^^^'i^ A species of fish. 

-B6ngo', *^ Goitre; swollen neck. (See 

B6ngoh, &^ Worked to death; unceas- 
ing; hard worked, hard at it without 
rest. M&ka di-dftlam s'bAlan dda ini 
bengoh di-rasa kita, ^^y^ ^1*3 J tiA — « 

4*^ ,j-*b*^ ^^ O^' b^ During the last 
few months we have felt worked to 

Bfingok, ^^ Dejected, low-spirited, mel- 
ancholy, discouraged. 

BSnguti syy Awr^, crooked, not straight 
(as a head-kerchief). See also firut, &^ji\ 
The forms Mfingut iykt^ (ind Bfinyut, S^ 
are also met with. 

Bfiniiga, Hind., i^\tt^ To trade; traffic; 
merchandise. See Niaga, *^\^ which 
may now be considered to be the Malay 
root of this word since the form Me- 
ni&ga, ^-^W*-^ is now thoroughly recog- 
nised. There can be little doubt, however, 
that this word was originally adopted 
from the Sanskrit, Bdnijia, and would 
therefore be more correctly written as 

B£nih, <&t^ Seed of any kind ; seed ; semen ; 
progeny; posterity; offspring; grain. 
Benih padi, ^^jU d^ Rice seed. Benih 
b&wang, i^U <SM Seed onions. B{lat 
benih pun ta' chftkup, *lJ ^y d<^ Sl^ 
«J1^^ I have not enough even for seed. 

Pddi h&bis sambang piilang benih pun 
tidak, JJJ^ ^j^ d<^ ^y ^i-t-^ o^^ s?^*^ 
The ears of rice were all empty ; it did 
not even furnish the amount which had 
been used as seed. Jika angkau tdkal 
Ada-lah benih, i^ d)ljl jsy /:£>\ csJL^ 

If you prepare the ground for planting 
by bormg holes m it, seed shall be forth- 
coming — Prov.f used by Malays when 
quarrelling, to signify that if the man 
addressed offends in any way, the speaker 
will be revenged upon him. AUo^ Oppor- 
tunities will arise to enable people to 
gratify evil intentions. Tdnam benih, 
^>t^ ^ll and J&toh benih, d^ 4)1 L^ 

To BOW seed; planting; sowing. Lepas 
j&toh benih h&bis - lah ter - bantei di - 

Bentan, ^^ 

tu&rang, ^^V*^ s^J^ dL^lfe ^^ a\^ ^jJi 
When the seed had been sowed, it was 
destroyed by a long drought. S'l&ma 
Ma benih kita knsk ber-&nak di-d&lam 
negri Pahang ini, ^1^ ^^\ S^ ^^ ul |»JLo 

^\ ^ i^J^ ^Iju So long as our seed 

or that of our children exists in this 
land of Pahang. Jika benih iang baik 
jatoh ka-laut men-jsldi pMau, d^ ^^-^ 
yy sg^lflhA- SjK dJW Jxc\i ^ If good 

seed were to fall into the sea it would 
become an island — Prov.^ indicating that 
blood will tell. 

Bdning, ^^^^ To play about in the sun; 

to expose oneself to the sun; to be ex- 
posed* to the sun. Ber-bening sah&ja 
bMak itu di-tengah p&nas, £^-*« ^»J^^ 
^U dWj 4k\ jj*3^ That child does no- 
thing but play about in the sun. 

Bdning, ^t^ Clear, transparent, pure. 
(See Hening, ^^^j^b which is at once the 

more usual and the more correct form). 

Bdning, ^t^J^ To split open fish by cutting 

them through the back, and then to 
roast them over the embers. 

Bdnttan, ^^Attxi The name of a tree from 
which mafits for sailing boats are made. 

Bdnnyali J^ Crumbling; loose; slow 
in doing anything ; over-cooked, boiled 
away. Note : This term is also applied 
to rice which has been boiled too wet, or 
taken too long in the boiling. 

Bdnohi &y^ A turning or fork in a road; 
• to alter the direction in which one is 

going. The form Mem-bfinoh, &y ^H'^ 

is also common. 

Bdnoh, &y4 To double back upon one's 
own footsteps, to retire quickly by the 
way one came, to retrace one's steps. 
This word is probably a miss-pronounced 
form of B6noh. 

Bdnta, ^m,^ Ulceration or suppuration on 
the upper part of the body. 

BSnta, ««^uLj The name of a sharp-pointed 

Bdntan, ^^ Weakness; giddiness, the 
result of physical weakness. Lalu peng- 
san-lah &ku sebab bentan ter-lalu kras, 
^^^Jy ^jjXfcj v^^mo^I dLuJU jJJ Then 

I lost consciousness by reason of my 
exceeding weakness. 


Bentaing, ^a^ 

B6ntang, ^m^ To spread, to spread out, 

to stretch out; to extend; to expand; to 
crucify. Bentang tikar, ^^ ^al^ To 

spread a mat. Note : As in Malay houses 
everyone sits on the floor, the first act 
of civility on the part of a host in wel- 
coming guests whose arrival was not 
expected is to spread a mat on which 
they may seat themselves. To say of 
one's house, Bentang tikar pun tidak, 
JJ^ ^y ^^^ ^f^ He did not even 
spread a mat, is equivalent among 
Malays to saying that he was inhospit- 
able and shewed scant civility. 

Apa gdna kain di-bentang, 
Kalau tidak gdnting-kan Mjn ? 
Apa g(ina strong di-sandang, 
K&lau tidS.k di-b&noh-kan madu P 

What is the use of spreading out a cloth 
if you do not cut a coat from it ? What 
is the good of carrying a weapon sheath 
at your waist if you do not slay your 
rival ? MSka ia pun segra-lah ber-siap- 
kan b&lai mem-bentan^ segdla hampar- 
an iang endah-endah, Jl^^^ ^^ ^] <-sA-^ 

He speedily made the hall ready and 
spread out carpets of great beauty. 
Tet&pi patek minta tAan-ku bAat-kan 
petertlna dan bentang-kan tikar p8,char 
dan permadani, ^'y *Uju» csA^U ^\^ 

^lx»y But I, thy slave, beg that Your 

Majesty will have couches made, and 
cause patterned mats, and carpets to be 
spread. Bentang pdkat, ^y A»aj To 

spread a fishing net. Di - bentang - kan 
kh6mah,<u^ ^^^^^^4^ Tents were pitched. 
Ada iang ter-gAlong dan ada iang ter- 
bentang, ^^ ^ o) ^1j ^/y ^ jl 

Some were rolled up and some were 
spread out, Ter-bentang, M*^y has the 
special meaning of blunted, when speak- 
ing of a blade. Bentang-lah sfi,yap-nya, 
^Lft diJbuj Its wings were extended. 
Nate : The forms Pentang, Aaxi wnd 
Rentang, ^j are also, though less com- 
monly, met with, and the latter is only 
used as regards nets. Note : The words 

Bentar, ysjj^ 

Depang, ^J To crucify by means of 
nails, and Regang, ^j To crucify by 
means of rope, are more generally used 
than Bentang, ^ax^ in this sense. AU' 
Malay crucifixions are done on the 
ground and not raised on a cross or 

B6ntang, ^ax\ A kind of bufialo-sleigh 
which has no wheels, is very rough in 
construction, and is only used for dragg- 
ing timber. Note : For other kinds of 
buffalo carts and sleighs in use among 
Malays see Andor, ^ Jil 

Bdntllngor, ^Ujj The name of a tree 

which produces a species of light wood 
used for making rafters, et<5. Oalo^ 
phyllum. Note: There are many varieties 
of this tree known to the Malays. Ben- 
tfingor bAnga, Li>^ ^U*^ Gahphyllv/ni 
inoph/yllum. Bentfi^ngor bfi,tu, yl^ ^Ux^ 

Galophyllum spectabUe. Bentangor 4kar, 
j^\ J^U^i , Bentangor hijau, ^^^ ^U*^ , 

Bentfi.ngor jantan, ^^u^ ^U*^ , Bent&ngor 

bAnut, fiji ^U^i , Bent&ngor 18,ut, ^Ix^ 

&^i and Bent&ngor jangkar, ^^ ji>^ 

Bent&ngor batang merabau, 
Perling di-d&lam per-angkap 
R&ja Sel&ngor tiba ka-Rembau, 
Orang Kling h&bis ter-tangkap. 

A piece of calophyllum wood, and a piece 
of the intsia amboinensis tree. A parrot 
in a trap. The king of Sel&Dgor arrived 
at Rembau, and all the Tamils were 
made prisoners. 

86 n tar, j»j4 A moment, a second ; a very 
short space of time. Note : This word 
is usually met with in the phrase s'bentar, 
jxj^^ one moment, one second, an in- 
stant. Nanti s'bentar, jxj^^:^ ^eajJ Wait a 
moment, S'bentar l&gi, ^^ jsj.^^ A 
moment later, another second. Negri 
Gedong Bd.tu itu di-minta' d.ngkat-kan 
ka-ud&ra m&ka dengan s'bentar itu jtlga 
negri sudah ter-&ngkat, 4il y li ^>xS' ^^yi 

^K£>ty 5J^ v^y3 <-Jy^ He asked that the 
land of Gedang B&tu might be lifted into 


the air, and in a moment it was lifted 
up. Meng-&pa m&ka damikian ka-lslku- 
an Ttkan Petri ini s&ngat-lah ber-Abab 
dengan s'kejap s'bentar ini, tsA^ tjU-^ 



^j^o Why is the prin- 

cess's behaviour thus changed in a mo- 
ment P MsLka s'bentar lagi ia-pun timbul- 
lah datang men-d^pat-kan b&ngau itu, 

4il^lj ^j<ailjju^ A moment later he rose 

to the surface, and came up to the pddi 
bird. M^ka s'bentar \kg\ datang -lah 
pWa 6rang itu dengan mem-egang 
tdngkat l&lu m&sok ka-m&ri, ysL 


aC^y ^5i^ ^j «^1 ^;^1 Jy isJjJia ^i 

^g^Ui" ^3-*U yi A moment later that 
man came up holding a stick in his hand, 
and came in here. M&ka B^ja Ddnan 
pun minta' b{lat-kan bedak dan limau 
m3.ka dengan s'ketika s'bentar itu jiiga 
llmau ber-ftkup dan bedak ber-stanggi 
sudah ter-siap di-d&lam batil amas m^at 
lima ch{lpak, 'ixju* ^y ^^*s gl^ tsi-^ 

i|^ ^jw*1 JjjJlii ^1^^ c-iljs^y ^sJu^ cs^^*^^^ 
^^ ^^ Rdja Ddnan asked them to 

prepare some cosmetics and lime-juice, 
and in a moment lime-juice scented with 
incense, and fragrant cosmetics were 
ready in a golden bowl which held five 
pints. M^ka di-iisap-kan pada bet&ra 
s'bentar di-haldan dan s'bentar ka-biirit- 
an, ^^b ^^^^ yi^J'-i^y^ ^ ^^jCiU^Jj cs^ 
^jyi^ >w-^^ He applied the smoke to 
the ship, for a moment at the bows and 
for a moment at the stern. 

BSntllra, ^Ujl^ A herald, a marshal, a 
sword, spear, or standard-bearer. An 
officer in a Malay Court who has charge 
of the regalia and royal insignia, and 
whose duty it is to regulate the cere- 
monies on state occasions. Note : In 
Malay Courts there are usually two and 
sometimes four marshals or Bentdra, 
j\sj4 viz: Dato' Bent&ra Dalam,^bu^ ylo 

^1 J who is supposed to preside over the 

ceremonies conducted within the palace. 
D&to' Bentftra Mar, j\^ ^buj -ylj to 

whom is entrusted all ceremonies held 
outside- the royal precincts. D&to' 
Bentara Kinan, ^l^^buj ylj The right 


hand spear-bearer, and D&to' Bent&ra 
Klri, i^jt^j\»J4 •y'^i The left hand spear- 
bearer. These officials are often assisted 
in the performance of their duties by 
one or more junior officers called Bentd.ra 
M{lda,lj^^lL^ Junior marshals. Bent&ra 
pun ber-^ri-lah kiri kdnan sri bfilai-rong 
men - junjong tltah ser&ya ber - seru - 
seru-kan n&ma drang damikian biinyi- 
nya di - kemia Allah di - kernia llasul 
Allah di- kemia dMi iang-di-per-t6an 
Che Husein panggil-panggil-an Dato* 
Temenggong, ^^ ^j^ ^>i*3^ o^^ J^ 

^/^ -yl^ JV^}J^ The heralds are 
ranged on the left and right of the hall 
of state, receiving the royal mandate, 
and proclaiming the names of those (who 
have received titles) in the following 
terms : — ' By the gift of God 1 By the 
gift of the Prophet of God! By the 
gift of His Majesty, the ruler of the 
land, Che Husein is called by the title 
of' Tjemenggong. M&ka ia-pun 
ber-titah ka-p&da bent&ra dalam meny- 
Aroh himpun-kan sekelian firang besar- 
besar, ^Lx*^ JJL^ ^Affy. ^^y s?' ^ — * 

fjM Ij^^ s^cK^ o^^*^ ^j^^ fJ'^ The 
king ordered the marshal to summon all 
the chiefs. Chiikup lengkap dengan 
segfila dftyang - d&yang beduanda stda- 
slda bent&ra chAkup lengkap bet-ftpa 
aadat rS,ja iang besar - besar jAga, «J^^ 

j\&x^ Y^J^it-^ ^|>^ t*^'^ y^ v^*^ «J^ 
<_r^ Yj^ ^ eb Sjlo c3la^ Ui<ii i^J^^ 

Fully equipped with serving girls, and 
fighting youths, attendants, heraldrt, and 
furnished with all things in accordance 
with the customs of great monarchs. 
Maka Baginda pun ber-diri-lah pada tepi 
k61am itu men-anggal-kan seg&la pd.kai- 
an - nya di - sambut Aleh bent&ra di - 
pangku-nya, ^ ^ ^jl^^j^ ^^y ^^ *-s^ 

^yC^ J J lajt^ The monarch stood near the 

pond and divested himself of his raiment, 
which was received by a marshal upon 
his lap. Segala mentri hiilubalang raayat 
sekelian bentd^ra stda-sida dd.yang-d&yang 
benti-benti perufira, IfP^ ^^ ^y"^^ J^ 

U^y t*s?^ t*^'^ t*'^V-^ y^ o<*^ All 
the ministers, warriors and subjects, and 


Benteh, dsAj 

all the heralds, attendants, waiting 
maids, serving girls, and followers. 
Bent&ra hidang-an, ^*y^j\sL*4 Yeomen 
of the table ; Beefeaters. 

Bdnteh, dxj^ The name of a game. 

Bdnti-bdnti, V^^r^ Girls; serving girls; 

female attendants. M&ka BUginda pun 
ber-tltah meny-Aroh dayang - d&yang 
benti-benti meng-iring anakanda Ba- 
ginda, r^b &jj^ ds^j^ ^y JoX? <^i — • 

jjlJ;) joJl3) MjtA^ t*^^ The monarch 

ordered female servants and attendants 
to accompany his daughter. Seg&la 
mentri hMubd^lang raayat sekelian betd.ra 
sida-stda dfi^yang - d&yang benti-benti 
peru6ra,^U^ ,^eiC* a^^ ^X^ s?-)*^ J^ 
Wy ^sff^ t*^'^ l^l^V* AH the ministers, 
warriors and subjects, and all the he- 
ralds, attendants, waiting girls, serving 
maids and followers. Note : In Pfirak this 
word is often written and pronounced 
Biti, t'^eftfti though it is incorrect. 

Bdntil, J:uj A nipple; a pimple, a pustule. 
Bentil sAsu, ^y^ J«j^ ^ The udders. 
Ben til dan jerfl-wat dan t&hi l&lat, ^lu Jx*^ 
aJi ^\S ^1j &^1>^ Pustules, pimples, and 
moles. (See K6pek, ^^^ The breast). 

Benting, ^^^sj^ A breast- work, a rampart, 

a redoubt, a stockade open on one or 
more sides. Chachak benting, ^fXj^ ^\^ 

To raise a breast - work. Note : For 
notes on Malay fortification. (See 
Kiibu, ji^ a stockade). 

Bdnto\ ^y^ or Bentok, yuj A semi- 
circle ; a numeral co-eflScient used with 
rings, bows and other circular or curved 
objects ; it is occasionally used with 
Pedang, £lJJ A sword, the connection 

being in the curved blade of a scimitar. 
MsLka ia pun meny-Clroh ka-pada 6rang 
besar-besar-nya pergi mem-b&wa' ringgit 
s'r&tus dan amaa s'chSpir dan chinchin 
tiga bentok, ^j^\ ^iS &jj^ ^y ^^1 csA—^ 

i^^' ^la ^\j^ ^tr^j 'b^ s/y ,^t>^ 

^yui c-CjJ o<>«^ 4^>^>v ft t>^-^ He ordered 
his chiefs to go and fetch one hundred 
dollars, a saucer full of gold, and three 
rings. Ia pun mem-bslwa' bMoh bangsi 
s'b&tang dan d^yam t6gil s'^kor dan 
pedang s'bento', ^e-J^ &^ji •'^U-^ ^^ s?' 

Beniia, )y4 

He took with him a reed flut«, a 

fowl which had no tail, and a sword. 
Per-tama chinchin tiga bentok iang 
s' bentok tanda mem-iang dan s'bentok 
ber-ekrar janji dan s'bentok tanda j&di 
s'barang becMra, ^yu^ «.-^ cW>^ fM 

the first place three rings; one as a token 
of betrothal and one to confirm the 
promise, and one as a sign that the affair 
shall be brought to a successful issue. 
MAat-an prahu hamba ini batang kftbu- 
kd.bu ada s'krat diia dan pedang jen&wi 

jantan ada s'bentok, ^^ s-4i^ y^'y ^|>-» 

^yf.i^*A J I The cargo of my ship con- 
sists of a few lengths of cotton-tree 
wood, and one sword called the male 
j^Ti&wi. Note : The " lengths of cotton- 
tree wood " is a jocose expression for 

Bdntoh, &yiM Note : This word is only used 
in the phrase Bantah-bentoh, &yu^ dsu^ 

A violent quarrel. Ber-bantah-bentoh, 
&yiJ4 da-fc^ To quarrel violently. (See 

Bantah, dsj^ To dispute, etc.) 

Bdntor, ^^ To bend (as a bough) ; to 
bend anything. 

BdntQIu, y^y^ The name of a fresh- water 

B6ntu8, ^j^y^ To throw against any- 
thing. (See Bejam, f^j which is more 
commonly used in this connection). 

Bdnu, Hind., j^ The bore; a large wave 

caused at the mouths of rivers by the 
meeting of the river current and the 
incoming tide. 

B6nu, y4 A natural fish-pond or lake. 
Note : This word is given on the author- 
ity of Dr. Pijnappel. 

B6nu, Hind., j;^ Sons; progeny; offspring; 
posterity. Note : Compare Benih, d^^ 
Seed, etc. 

BdnOa, )y4 Country, empire, kingdom, 
state, realm, region, land, fieniia 
China, ^^^ I^ China. S'6kor kAman 
di-beniia China dd^pat di-lihat tet&pi 
gajah ber-tangkap di-bd.taqg htdong 
ti&da ia sadar, S^U ^^cify I^J ^^^ J y^ t^^ 


Beni!Uing, ^1^ 

jJ^ A single insect in China can be seen, 

but one is not aware of an elephant being 
caught on the bridge of one's nose. — 
Prov., which is equivalent to the parable 
of the mote and the beam. Benfia Aajam, 
^•^ ]y4 Persia. Itu-lah beniia, Malayu 
iang betul, J^ ^ jiJu \y4 ^' That is 

the veritable Malay kingdom. Seperti 
biirong gs^gak pMang ka-beniia, ^jj^ &yL» 
\y^ ^y ^\S Like a crow returning to 

its country. Proverbial saying, applied 
to one who returns from his travels no 
richer than he went. Ber-raMa segfila 
hamba 6rang iang l&ri deri-benAa su^tu 
ka-ben{la suitu herga - nya diia r&tus 
&kan drang iang men-d&pat, JSLo J>^j-} 

&)^^ )y^ &1^ [^ j^ ^jXJkl ^j^\ H.^ 

a^lJuu^ ^ ^j^\ J\ ^\j I^J ^\Sj^ In the 

first place the value to be paid to the 
captors of any man's slave who has 
absconded from one country to another 
shall be two hundred {i.e., 200 oz. of 
silver). Orang benAa, 1^ &j^\ A name 
applied by the Malays to some of the 
aboriginal tribes in Johor, and in the 
southern part of the Peninsula generally. 

BdnOang, ^|^ The name of a tree^ the 
wood of which being very light is used 
for making floats. 

BSnDdam, |»J^ Affection. 

BSnyal, J^ Too damp, of cooked rice 

which has not been allowed to dry 
sufl&ciently before being removed from 
the fire. (See Benny al, J^j^^). 

Bdnyat, ^ Awry, crooked, not straight 
(as a head -kerchief). (See Bfingut, ^). 

B6o, ^ The name of an insect which is 
also called Tayong amas, ,j--^i t^^ 
Note : The word B6o, ^ is chiefly in use 
among the Malays of Batavia. 

Bdpang, ^^ The name of a sweetmeat 

made of oleaginous rice, and which 
when cooked is usually wrapped in 
paper. Note : This sweetmeat, it is said, 
has been introduced by the Chinese, and 
it is possible that this word is derived 
from Chinese. 

BSr- ji An inseparable verbal prefix which 
is affixed to certain radicals in order to 
give them a verbal form. Verbs thus 
formed may be used in the present, im- 

Ber-&gah-&gah, j^dfl^ 

perfect, and perfect tenses. There is no 
change in termination or other alteration 
in the different persons of Malay verbs, 
the personal pronouns being sufficient to 
convey the sense. Verbs formed by 
means of this prefix are neuter or in- 
transitive. Examples: Prang, ily War. 
Ber-prang, 4y^ To wage war. Jahat, 
tol^ Wicked. Ber-jahat, a^bU,^ To do 
evil, to sin, to act wickedly. SAka, £^y^ 

To like, etc. Ber-s6ka, -sJ^^ To enjoy 
oneself. Note : There are certain radi- 
cals which are never or very rarely used 
without the prefix Ber- ^ The following 
are the principal radicals which come 
under this category : Adu, ^ol Ber-&du, 
^ol^ To sleep (of a king). Adun, ^^S\ , 

Ber-Mxm, ^^^^^j^ To prepare, set in 
order, get oneself up. Angkat, a5C£>I 
Ber-fi<ngkat, a<fi>l^ To move, etc., (of a 
king or an army). Diang, ^J Ber-diang, 
^0^ To warm oneself at a fire. Henti, 
^^gSJLfi) Ber-henti, -e»j^^ To cease; to 
stop, etc. Kel&hi, ^A? Ber-kelahi, 
^1S> To fight, triang, ^^I Ber-Alang, 
^^1^ To visit repeatedly; to go back- 
wards and forwards. Note : Before cer- 
tain radicals, notably those containing 
the letter r (j) in the first syllable, Ber- 
^ changes to Be-. See Be, ^ A verbal 
prefix, etc. Note : In using this diction- 
ary words beginning with the prefix 
Ber-, ^ should be sought for under the 

radical from which they are formed, 
which is never changed in any way by 
the addition of this prefix Thus, Ber- 
Mki, ^^^^ (married ; having a husband) 

should be sought for under L&ki, ^i A 
husband, etc. 

Bdra, 1^ Blushing from shyness; a rush of 
blood to the face ; sunburnt. The general 
meaning of the word is " black," and it 
is usually used simply in that sense. A 
brown face is darkened by a blush. 

Bdr-sldu, ^Jl^ To sleep, to rest, to repose, 

to recline. Note: This term is used 
only in speaking of one of royal blood. 
In Pet&ni the word Ber-adu, ^ol^ is used 

to mean, *To stop, to end, to finish.' 
(See Adu, ^j1 To sleep, etc.) 

Bfir-Hgah-agah, t*d?)^ To make pretence 
of doing something. As in sport to pre- 
tend to be going to hit another. 


BeMgan, ^1^ 

BSragan, ^1^ or M&ti ber&gan, ^1^ ^U 
Dead without the appearance of death 
(as a dry insect). Note ; This word is 
only used in the above phrase. May- 
at ber&gan, ^^\j^ <k^ A corpse so un- 
changed by death that it has the ap- 
pearance of being still the body of a 
living person. In P^rak the form Mer&- 
gan, ^1^ is used, and means that the 
death is sudden and the cause unknown. 

Bdrahi, -e^'^ To love, to long for, to be 
in love with, to doat upon ; to lust after, 
to have the passions excited by ; in love, 
amorous, enraptured, love-sick ; lustful. 
(See Br&hi, ^)^). 

B§rak, ^^ To void, to stool. Si-&pa 

meng-dku bSrak di-tengah j&lan, f^^ 
^ Ifi. dAJ J jj^ j^Uu Who will confess to 

having committed a nuisance? — Prov. 
G^jah handak b6rak besar kanchil 
handak bfirak besar 6sok ka-bebang, 
jj^ jjjujb J^ j^ jj^ jjjujb ^\S 

Aw^ ^3^1 j^ The elephant voids large 
excrement and the mouse-deer is desirous 
of doing likewise. In the end there will 
be a stoppage of the anus — Prov., used 
in the same way as the fable of the frog 
and the bull. Note : The word B6rak 
j^ should not generally be used in 
speaking with Malays, the same idea 
being conveyed more delicately by the 
use of the terms Ka-sAngei, ^jr^ or 
Ka-iyer, ^ l^ 

Bdrak, jj^ Blown out, extended (of the 

cheeks). Anything swollen and which 
is beginning to spoil; no longer fresh. 
Note : This word is given on the author- 
ity of Dr. Pijnappel. 

BSrak, jj^ or Mem-berak, JJ>h-» To 
hold by force under water or in the 
mud, and by that means to drown or 
suffocate anything. Note : This word is 
given on the authority of Dr. Pijnappel. 

B&rSikah, d^l^ Bold, saucy, audacious. 

Bdram, |»^ An elephant. Note: This 

word is only met with in ancient poems, 
and is never used in colloquial or modem 
written Malay, the Sanskrit, Gajah, d^ l? 
having entirely superseded it. Tt is prob- 
able, however, that this was the ancient 
native word for an elephant which was 
in use before the Sanskrit word took its 

Berang-berang, Y^j^ 

place in the Malay language. Negri 
bSram biru, j^ ^^ ^J^ The land of 

the blue elephant. 

Beram, ^^ and Per-mS.ta bSram, ^^ SUy 
A special kind of gem. 

Beramani, ^^Lyi A string of red coral 

with beads in between. (See Manik, ^ U 
A bead). 

B6ramban, ,^^y4 A white, fragrant lily. 
Beramban hAtan, ^y^ ^^^^ Pancratium 
zeylanicv/m. (See Bramban^ cT^-^)* 

BdrHnda, Js3l^ The upper deck of the boat 
which is formed by the roof of the 
cabin. Note : This word, which is the 
same as our verandah, has been derived 
through English and not direct from the 

Bdrandang, ^^ Bare and therefore con- 
spicuous (as a house built on an exposed 

Bdrang, ^^ Fierce, savage, angry, fur- 
ious. Mata-nya m^rah bagai saga di- 
rendang dan ter-lalu bfirang g&ya-nya, 

t^ y V o'^ ^M;*^ ^^ s/^ ^Jt^ cS>^*^ 
^l? His eyes were red like parched 
peas, and his looks were very fierce. 
MS.ka ber-tambah-tambah bSrang, c&L^ 
£^ Y^^ji He became more and more 
angry. Maka segala hMubalang itu mem- 
andang-kan r&ja-nya ter-141u merka 
m&ka sekelian itu pun ber - bangkit 
bfirang hfi,ti-nya dan gembfira Ifiku-nya, 

^b ^U ^y^ ^itt<Mji ^j{^ ,:yt^ 
^^i \jirf^ All the warriors perceived 
that their king was very angry, and fury 
arose in their hearts and their looks 
became ferocious. Maka ka-dAa pfihak 
tentra itu pun bangkit bfirang lalu ber- 
prang, 2^ ^^1 1^ ^5^ ]y^ ^ — • 

^y^ y^ ^jiJ The soldiers on each side 

became furious and they forthwith en- 
gaged in battle. 

B6rangan, ^1^ A species of arsenic or 
orpiment. Berangan pAteh, A^y ^^^j^ 
White arsenic. (See Br&ngan, ^^'^). 

B6rangan, ^1^ The name of a tree. (See 
Br&ngan, ^^ji)- 

Bdrang-b6rang, Y^ji A kind of otter. 
(See Memberang, ^>h-*). 


Ber.&iigkat> 2i5C£>1^ 

B6r-slngkati 5<£>l^ To move ; to march ; to 

go ; to proceed. Note : This word is only 
used of persons of royal blood, or of 
armies. See Angkat, ^^t To lift up. 

Bfirangta, <^^l^ Distraught with passion ; 
mad with love or lust. Ada-pun p&tek 
d&tang ini dengan s(lroh - an pad&ka 
adinda T&an Petri Ltnggam Ohiya di- 
atas k&yang - an mohun per - sila - kan 
t(ian-ku naik di-abas k&yang-an ud&ra 
kar&na TAan Petri itu s&ngat 6dan kese- 
mdran dan gila berangta enggan-lah 
mem-bAang diri ka-dalam hdtan men- 
jadi anak y&tim pid,tu tiada ber-ibu b^pa, 

cjV J^^ vT^'*^ s?^ r^ ^-^ o'y ^^' 

^^j^^^^ o*A^ vT^'*^ ^'^ -^'y c/V*y 

^yt> ^1j^ v^^j ^|>^.4.^ dLJC^I «w^)^ 
^l^ ^1^ jl^ yl^ ^li ^1 ^^\if^ Thy 

slave has come hither by the order 
of thy mistress the Princess Linggam 
Ch&ya of fairyland, in order to invite 
thee to ascend into fairyland above the 
firmament, because the princess is filled 
with desire and lust for thee, and is 
distraught with passion, so that she is 
even willing to cast herself away into 
the forests, there to live like an orphan, 
knowing neither father nor mother. 

B6r-&pa, <^t^ How? What? Howsoever, 
however ; how much ? How many ? Very 
much, very many, a great many. Ber- 
apa besar? j^ ^y4 How big? Ber- 
apa tinggi? ^J^ %^]j^ How high. 
Wa-h6 k&kak negri Gedong Bfi,tu itu 
cherita 6rang ada ber-apa-kah jauh-nya 
deri-pada tempat kita ini? ^\S ^\^ 

^\ UL^ 2UU5 JJ^ J sister mine, accord- 
ing to the tales men relate, how far is 
the country of Gedong Batu from this 
spot where we now are ? 

Ber-apa ttnggi piichok pisang, 
Tinggi l&gi asap &pi, 
Ber-apa tinggi gdnong me-lentang, 
Tinggi Iftgi hftrap hati. 

^^ ^y ^^ cJl^ 

Ber-ftpa, €^)^ 

However high the topmost shoot of the 
banana tree may be, yet the smoke of 
fire is higher still. However high may 
be the mountain which stretches across 
the plain, yet the hopes of my heart are 
higher still. Md,ka k&ta Raja Ddnan 
ber - apa - kah sd^kit - nya untong k&kak 
adek ini ter-lebeh lagi, ^^J ^j S\^ caL^ 
^i djy ^1 ^ j) ^\S ^yd\ ^U ^^\J^ 

Then quoth R&ja D6nan * However evil 
thy fate may be sister, that of thy 
brother is even worse.' Ber-ftpa iimor- 
nya, ^^ •-^•^ What is his age. Ber- 

apa kali, ^l^ i-il^ How often? How 
many times ? Very often. Ber-&pa kfili 
awak meny-Aroh, &^j^ ^^' ^\S f^\^ 
How many times did you send to him ? 
Maka sampei ber-^pa k&li itu damikian 
jdga di-gochoh dlih kra kechil itu, *.M^ 

<ifej?*3 (..Jy^ ^;y(^*^ «w' ^^ <-*l^ ^^^^ 

ufc-il J«^ '^ 4>' Very many times they 
were shaken by the little ape. Ber-4pa 
l&ma, |»i v^l^ How long? Very long. 
M&ka r&ja pun mem-anggil hamba sahya- 
nya ber-tanya hal kra kechil itu sudah 
ber-apa lama ia ber-jalan, ^y gl; tsA « 

^le,^ s?' (•-* •^'-^^ ^'■^^-^ The king called 
his slaves and servants and enquired 
about the little ape and how long he 
had been absent. 

Rslma-rama terbang ka-Rasau, 
Sampei ka-R&sau mera-bilang j&ri, 
Ber-^pa lama abang me-rantau, 
Adek iang tinggal mem-bilang h&ri. 

sa>^«^ ^^^ ^^j^ ^g^-*^ 

The butterflies fly to Rasau, and on 
arriving there they count their fingers. 
Very long, brother, hast thou been 
wandering. Thv mistress who remains 
behind is countmg the days. Ber-&pa 
herga-nya, ,^lSyj <-il^ What is its price ? 

Ber-&pa Atang-nya, ^y *-*lj-^ How 
much are his debts ? How much does he 
owe? Ber-£lpa 6rang-nya ? ^jl?' <-^l^ 
How many men has he ? Bslrang ber-S,pa, 
i^\ji ^jU As many as, as much as. 
B&rang ber-slpa iang di-ka-handak-i, ij\^ 
^gKU ^ J^ *mJ\ji As many (or as much) 


Berchat, ^^ 

as he desires. B&rang ber-apa iang p&tut, 
aiU A4 tJJ^ ^^L^ As many as may be 

fitting. Dan ber-ftpa negri iang sudali 
di-tS!wan ftlih-nya, A-i f^J^ *-*l^ ^^'*3 
^)) ^^^U*3 ^swk-^ And very many lands 

had been subdued by him. Note: The 
form Be-ber-apa, «-j1^ , and more rarely 

ber-ber-apa, «-3)^^ are also met with in 

the sense, very, much, many, very many, 
etc. Note : This word is formed from 
Apa, tJ) What? etc., by means of the 
prefix Ber-, ^ which, however, gives no 

verbal significance to the radical in this 

BSrchat, ^la.^ The name of a small fresh- 
water fish found in the marshes. Note : 
Other fish common in the marshes are 
called RAan, ^\^j or ArAan, ^jjpl , and 
BAjok, ^^ 

B6r-dllleh, ^J)^^ To profess ignorance. 
Maka mata^. hftri pun ber - dfileh meng - 
ftta-kan tiada t&hu, ^^^y ^a?*^^^ ^ — • 
yt>U ^[^ ^\k^ d^\^j^ The sun professed 

ignorance and said that he did not know. 
(See Daieh, d^b). 

Bdr-ddrang, ^^j^ To clash, to clang, to 

make a noise like clashing metal. M&ka 
fl.nak kunchi dAa-blas biji itu pun ber- 
derang jfi-toh sendiri-nya habis gAgor, 

t?^j^ 0>^' s?^ u-^ h^ ^ c5^' '^^^ 
^^ u^^ ^jA^l'J^j^ ^^ The twelve keys 
fell of themselves with a great clashing. 
(See Derang, £^0) 

Bdr-dtang, ^u^ To warm oneself at the 
fire. (See Diang, ^0). 

B6rdu, j^j^ The deck of a ship. 

Bdrdus, ^^^ji Large and prominent (of the 
stomach.) Note : The word BAnchit, 
Ji^^ is more commonly used in this 

B6-rdbat, ^^ Bound round. The owner 

of a fruit tree binds the stem of the tree 
with a wand of thorns or a piece of tin or 
other article to shew that it is forbidden 
to climb die tree, and also to prevent 
squirrels and other vermin from climbing 
and stealing the fruit. Hence Be-rebat 
is sometimes used to mean Forbidden. 

Bdrei, ^j^ To scatter, to fly in all direc- 
tions, to disperse in every direction. 

Berhaia, Jl^^ 

Note : This word is only used in the- 
phrase Oherei - berei, ^g^ s^>^ (See 
Cherei, f^y^ To separate, etc.) 

B§rek-bdrek, Y^^ytA The name of a bird; 

a species of night -jar, Gaprvmulgus^ 
Note : A popular superstition holds that 
these birds are tejing hantu pem-bdru^ 
^jyi^ ytj^ ^^^ The houn^ of the 
spectre huntsman, while others say that 
they are the casting net of the same 
demon. Malays believe that they fly by 
night with their feet towards the sky,, 
and their backs turned to the earth. 

Bdrdksa, Hind., ^j^ji The name of a tree,. 
Cassia fistula. Bftah berfiksa, ,jJkj^ ^'^ 
The small brown pea produced by this 
tree, which in Pahang and elsewhere 
was used as a weight for gold : — 

1 BAah berSksa, ^j^j^ ^s|>i = 1 Keneri,^ 
i^jjS = about 8 cents of a Mexican 
dollar. (See Note under Amas, 

BSrdmban, ^^^j^ Gross-laths used in a 

fence, etc. Note : The word Lembat, 
i^J is used on the West coast of the 

Bdrdmbang, ^^ji The name of a tree 
Which grows on the sea-shore, and which 
bears a sour, flat, round fruit which 
Dr. Pijnappel says was named Biiah 
berembang, ^^ji *l>i from its likeness 
to the piece of wood at the head of a 
mast or flag-staff. Note : The name 
Ped&da, JlJ^i is also given to this tree. 

Bdrdnggil, J<>^^ Protruding entirely 
above the surface, aa does the navel of 
the kernel of a jambu sempal, yu^ j^ju^^ 

above the surface of that fruit. This 
word is given on the authority of Dr. 
Pijnappel, but the correctness of the 
rendering attached by him to this word 
is confirmed by the name of flnggil 
Ber - enggil, which is given to the high 
mountain up which the monkey prince 
climbed in order to pluck the sun. 

BdrhHla, Jlit>;j An idol. Berh&la iang di- 
per-bAat manusia, ^q--3L-« ilyyjJi Jl^^ 
Idols made by man. Berhdla China, 
sOf*^ v3^^ Chinese idols. Mem-Aja ber- 
h&la, JJjfij-l o*-» or mem-Aji berhMa, 
Jlfti^ c^>^ To worship idols. Biimah 



berMla, Jl*>i ^Jj A temple of idols. 
M&ka Stti DSwi di-t&roli-nya ka-pd,da 
rfLmali berhMa, ^jy^J ^^^jJ ^^^at^ *^^ — <• 
JU>^ A^^^ Ji-^ He hid Siti D6wi in a 
temple. PMau berhala, JU>^^y Idol 
Island (a name borne by many islands on 
Malay rivers). 

Bdr-hdnti, ^^^^^^ji To stop, to cease, to 
desist, to rest, to halt. (See Henti ^^g2ui^)« 

Bdrtda, Hind., j^^^ Old, aged, senior. 
Mentri berida, J^^ s5>«^ The old minis- 
ter. Note : This word only occurs in 
the written language. 

Sdrindai oJ^ The whole; the whole of a 
family ; all the inmates of a house. 

Bdring-bdring, t*^^ A large flat copper 
gong used and introduced by the Chinese. 
Note : The form Pering-pering, V^y is 
also met with. 

BSiingin, ^^yAji The name of a tree, Ficus 
benianima. Md,ka di-lthat pada tengah- 
tengah padang itu ada s'pohun ki^yu 
beringin ter-iaiu besar dengan rtmbun 
rempak-nya, ol 4l) £^^ V^ ^ ^^ ^^^ 

He espied in the very centre of the 
plain a ficus benianima j which was very 
huge, leafy and wide spreading. Note : 
In some parts of the Archipelago this 
tree is called Waringin, ^^tM}^ 

Bdrtta, Hind., uu^^ News ; a story, a tale, 
a report, a rumour; tidings, rumour, 
fame ; to report, to retail news or gossip. 
Note : The forms Warita, «-^jl> ^^^ 
Way at, 4llj are also met with. This 
word is little used in colloquial Malay, 
though it is of common occurrence in 
the written language. In Kelantan and 
Petani, however, the form Wayat, 4ll^ is 
used in the colloquial dialects, meaning, 
* To teU, to say, etc' It is used in the 
same way, but less frequently by the 
natives of Pahang. Berita, ^Wj-j is 
generally used in referring to* long past 
events. Men-dengar berita, u»^y. ^Jul* 
To hear news. Khabar dan berita tiada- 
lah ka-dengar-an, isJbL^ uu^^ ^U ^^.^^ 
^^J^ No news or tidings could be 

heard. Maka titah Baginda j&ngan-lah 
tflan - tAan ber - bSaiyak - b^nyak chertta 
•dan berita, pergi-lah kerja-kan s'bdgai- 
mfina iang di-stlroh itu, *y^ d»^ 

Berkat, Ab., 2ij} 

Sl\ &jyM)J^ ^U» C ^.^ c/W^^ The monarch 
said, ' Tell not such numerous tales, and 
relate not so many histories.' Go ye 
and perform that which you have been 
ordered to do. Ber-berita, «*^^^ To 
tell, to relate, to recount. Jikfilau me- 
nSra kenal - nya sekdrang ini mendra 
pergi ber-berita, ^^\ ^^ICo Jj^ ]^f,i^ j^ 

«-^^^ v^y 'j**-^ I^id I know him, I 
would this moment go and tell it to him. 
Mem -berita, 4*^^.5^-*, Mem-berita-kan, 
^^\xij.fM^ and Berita - kan, ^^^ji To 
report, to relate, to tell, to say ; to make 
known. Chftba - lah mem - berita - kfim, 
^\s^j.fM^ Jlj^ E elate it. Pem-berita- 
an, ^^^\siij^ A romance, a written report. 

Bdrkas, ^ji A bundle; to tie together 
so as to form a bundle. Kayu berkas, 
^ji ji^ A bundle of sticks ; a faggot, 
a fascine. Maka m&lam itu jiiga dsltang- 
lah drang kita dengan chj[iri-nya mS^sing- 
masing mem-ikul kayu berkas lalu chft- 
chak kAbu meng-8.dap k<ibu mAsoh itu, 
^0 «^ ^j^\ dUJlJ c-T^ 44) ^U ^ • 

4i) <uo^^^ cJjUl. ^ That same night 
our people came by stealth, each man 
bearing a fascine upon his shoulder, and 
planted a stockade facing the steckade 
occupied by the enemy. Seperti tandok 
di-berkas, ^ji^ ^JjJ S^Lo Like horns 
tied in a bundle — Prov.y used as a simile 
to express want of harmony or union. 
Mem-berkas, ^j.^^^, Mem-berkas-kan, 
^^^y^^j^ and Berkas-kan, ^^^ji To tie 
in a bundle. 

Bdrkat, Ab., 3i^y, Blessing ; good fortune, 
good luck ; prosperity ; blessed ; happy ; 
fortunate, lucky. Berkat doa, loj J^^ 
Blessing wrought by prayer. Insha 
Allah Taala dengan berkat peng-ajar-an 
gAru hamba tiMa-lah lebeh tahu-nya 
segala pen-j{lrit Manjapahit deri-pada 

hamba,;;;/ 0>^^ ^^ v:^*^ ij^ ^' '^' 

JJ^J Please God on high, and by 
the blessing of my master's teaching all 
the warriors of Manjapahit do not know 
more than I. Dengan berkat g<iru-ku, 
^jy/ 3^j^ ^^J Through the holy in- 
fluence of my religious guide. Jika &da 
di-benar-kan Allah berkat kadarat ttOian 


BSrikek, ^^ 

sAnggoh jAa tAan-ku s'b&gai-m&na sem- 
bah p&tek itu, S;Jsi a^^ dU) ^y^ J o» 4^ 

^1 If God permits it, and with the 
blessing of his power it is truly as 
stated by thy slave. K&lau dengan ber- 
kat tAan,y3)y ^^ ^J yi^ If by means 
of thy good fortune. 

Bdrkek, ^3^^ The common snipe. P&roh 

berkek, ^^ a;li The beak of a snipe. 

Kawan berkek, ^^ ^^If A whisp of 

snipe. Note : This word is onomatopoetic, 
and means the bird which says * Kek- 
kek.' In Kedah, Malacca, and other 
parts of the Peninsula the name Tetirok, 
j)^^ is used. 

B6r-k6lahi, ^K^ To fight, to quarrel; 
to be on bad terms. (See Kel&hi, ^^)' 

BSrlah, id^ Pieces of bamboo or stakes of 
wood driven into the bed of a river in 
such a manner as to form two sides of 
an isosceles triangle, at the apex of 
which is the entrance to a fishing-stakes. 
These pieces of bamboo or stakes of 
wood shake backwards and forwards as 
the current flows around them, and 
thus serve to frighten the fish into going 
in the desired direction. (See Note 
under Belebar, ^jJ^). 

Bdrmi, ^y. The name of a small, green 

plant with oblong shaped leaves and 
cup shaped flowers, which grows in the 

Bdrnas, ^^ Tightly stretched ; inflated, 

distended (as a bladder f uU of water, the 
blown out cheeks, or as a boil full of 
matter). The word is, however, most 
commonly employed to describe ears of 
grain that are full of seed or nut-shells 
that are full of fruit, 

BdrniUga, c-?U^ To trade ; traffic, mer- 
chandise. (See Ni&ga, «— T^ and Note 
under Be-niaga, ««Jl<Ii). 

B6rdmbong, ^^j^ The name of a tree 
the wood of which is of a pinkish colour. 
It is used for making planks and house- 
pillars. Agelcea sp. 

B6rdmbong, ^^^ The upper end of a 
casting net. 

Bersil, J-o^ 

KMau bagltu rambang jflla-nya, 
Ikan sesak ka-ber6mbong, 
Bagitu letak rembang k&ta-nya, 
Chftba ber-serah ber-&du untong. 


If the casting net spreads like that the 
fish will be crowded together in the 
upper end of it. If that is the real mean- 
ing of thy words, let us attempt our 
fortune and resign ourselves to fate. 

B6rdmbong, ^^^ The broad plaited 
noose at the end of a string, which is 
slipped over the foot of a bird to hold 
it without injury. The other end of the 
string can then be held or tied to a peg. 

B6r6mbong, ^yji The casing for a mast, 
which is so constructed that it will open 
on one side so as to permit of the mast 
being lowered. 

Bdrdnok, ^yy The name of a species of 
sea Crustacea which are eaten raw. Note : 
The Malays distinguish between two 
kinds, Ber6nok bakau, /Ij ^jji The 
mangrove species, and Ber6nok landar, 

Bdrdnok, ^^^ Tangled, confused; in a 
tangle, in confusion. (See K6nok, ^jy 
A tangle). 

B6rdti, ^^^ A lath ; the laths used as 
the frame of a wall. (See Belebas, ^j^ 
which is the word better understood in 
the Malay Peninsula). 

BSrsat, ^^ By mischance to enter at the 
wrong entrance. Note : Gf. Sesat, i-^ 
To lose one's way, to mistake one's way, 

Bdrseh, <uo^ Clean, pure, unsullied. Note : 
This word is but little used by those 
natives of the Malay Peninsula who 
speak uncorrupted dialects, and its fre- 
quent use is to be avoided, the same 
meaning being more correctly rendered 
by Chftchi, ^^ , Jemeh, dJ^ , etc. 

Bdrsil, J-o^ To protrude from a socket or 
hole, as the eyes from their sockets, a 
worm from a hole in fruit, a gun from a 
port-hole, etc. 


Berain, ,jj»-*^ 

BSrsin, ^^^^^ To sneeze. Tiga kfili tlup 

m&ka Tiian Petri pun bersin Ikhi bangkit 
ter-dMok mem^andang ka-kiri ka-k&nan 
ka-Mdap-an ka*bl&kang, cJ>^ ^l^ i— ^ 

^V c5*^^ c)^^ s?jo<^ ^^^^^ Three 
times he blew (upon the flute) and the 
princess sneezed and then rose into a 
sitting posture, and looked to right and 
left, and in front and behind. M&ka di- 
perchek-kan pdda kra kechil s'kdli renjis 
maka meng-^it ibu k&ki-nya diia k&li 
perchek m&ka men-arek t&ngan-nya ttga 
k&li perchek mcLka ia pun bersin, <-sA — « 

^- vtW; ^^^^ J<4^ '/ ^ J^j^^ 

He sprinkled the little ape with it, and 
the first time he twitched his big toe, 
the second time he moved his hand, and 
the third time he sneezed. Asal kita 
bersin handak-lah di-sambut dengan 
{Ichap alhamdu-lillah, ^^gf^Jl uu^ Jlo t 

aUju^f *Ji^^\ ,^J &j.f4^*^ dlLiJuJb If we 

sneeze we should make use of the excla- 
mation. ' Thanks be to Grod I ' 

Sdrsit, iL^ji To become suddenly visible 

(as anything in the mouth or up the 
nose); To come to light (as news). 
Note : This word is given on the author- 
ity of Dr. Pijnappel. 

BSrsut, &^ji Unfriendly; stern, of the 

B6rtaM, ^ji and Mem-bertas, ^^^h-* to 
breed on the surface of the water (of a 
shoal of fish), 

8Srteh, dJji or Bras berteh, dJ^ ^j^ Rice 
parched in the husk. M&ka nujum tdjoh 
ini pun d&tang sembah p&da baginda 
minta per-bdat-kan dian panjang s'hasta 
j&ri minis s'besar lengan dan siimbu-nya 
besar tbu k&ki dan tepoug tawar dan 

berteh bras kAnyit, ^y ^^} dl^y ^ tsA^ 

^y^y^ o'*^ ^ ^' "^9" ' ^ u^^ sSpW^ «t*iwi^ 

The seven astronomers made representa- 
tion to the monarch, craving that he 
would cause a candle to be made one 
cubit long, measuring from the third 
finger, as big as one's arm, with a wick 
the size of one's great toe, and also holy 

Ber-Mang, ^^^ 

water, and rice parched in the husk and 
stained with saffron. Ber-derap bedil 
iang kechil seperti' berteh iang baik jadi 
bihiyi - nya, Bjiu^ J^ ^ JiJ^ ^J^j^ 
^^ ^^^ ^'W^i ^ji The musketry 
crackled, making a noise like rice in the 
husk when being parched properly. 
Note : Rice parched in this manner is 
invariably used by Malays in all magic, 
and in most other ceremonies ; the medi- 
cine man scattering around him while 
he recites his incantations. 

Padi ini padi Malftka, 
Belum di-rendang berteh dahMu, 
mti abang hiti chelaka, 
Belum di-pandang kdseh dahdlu. 

Jy>j dJ^ ^j^ ^jJ^ 
^A^ ^U> ^1 ^U 
Jy>o 4it^^l^ 6jul>j ^^ 

This grain is grain from Malacca, which 
is parched in the husk before it has been 
fried I Thy brother's heart is an evil 
heart, even before he had seen thee he 
loved thee 1 

B6ru, ^^ or better, B&ngau beru, j^ jfi>\^ A 

species of the small, white stork, or white 
pddi bird. (See B&ngau,^li). 

Bdruang, ^tj^ A bear; the honey bear. 

Urmis. Note : This name is probably 
derived from Rftang, £1^^ A hole, a 
cavity, a hollow, and means, the animal 
which lives in a hollow. 

Bdruchi, ^^^^ ^^ Kain berftchi, ^l^ 

^^jji The name of a fabric of silk and 
cotton, usually of a striped pattern im- 

Eorted from the Gulf of Cambay. Note : 
Ir. Pijnappel states that this word is 
now used in the Indian Archipelago of 
any material that is fine and soft of 
fabric, whether or no it is imported from 

Bdrud, Ab., ^^jk Cold. 

BdrQdu, ^Oj^ A tadpole. 

BdrOga, «— Tj^ A jungle fowl. (See B6rga, 

Bdr-ulang, ^j^ To go to and fro, to go 
backwards and forwards; to visit re- 
peatedly, to visit frequently. (See 
tlang, ^^1). 



Ber-AUh, d3j1^ 

Bdr-Qlih, J^l^ To obtain, to procure, to 
acquire; to effect. (See OTh, 4>1 Through, 

B6rQmbei, ^^^^ or PAioh berAmbei, ^SJiy 
^^^ji The name of a species of quail. 
(See Pftioh, &yiy A. quail, etc.) 

Bdrup, cj^^ A survey station or mark ; a 
beacon or buoy at sea. Note : This word 
though not Malay is now understood in 
the Western States of the Peninsula. 

Bdsan, ^^y-^-^i The relationship which exists 
between parents whose children have 
intermarried. BSsan jantan, ^^ixe^ ^^^^ 
The father of the child who has married 
one's child. B6san betlna, ^^ ^^^^^ The 
mother of the child who has married 
one's child. BSsan s'bantal, Jx^mo ^^^ 
The relationship which exists between a 
husband and wife, both of whom have 
had a child by a former marriage, if 
these children intermarry. Ber-b6san, 
^j^^ji Related to anyone by reason 
of one's children having married his 
children. Note : This word is com- 
monly pronounced Bisan in Pfirak. 

Bdsar, j.^ Large, big, ponderous, great ; 

of high rank ; full grown ; grown up ; 
important ; broad; size ; breadth. RAmah 
besar di-tinggal-kan rAmah kechil di- 
t{lnggu pfi^tah tiang tdngkat ber-teleku, 

^ dJU ^yf J Jft-^ &^^j o^^^^^ j^ A^A> 
^^ji j<£>y If the large house be aban- . 
doned, the little one is occupied. If the 
post snaps a prop wiU serve as a stay. 
SAngei besar, ^ <^>^ -^ large river. 
Md,ka di-lihat s'fikor g^jah ter-l&lu glmat 
besar, ^ i^l yjy 6c>JiS j^^^sl^ a^o ca\^ 

He espied an exceedingly large elephant. 
Orang besar, j^^ ^j^\ A great man, a 
chief. Besar badan, ^Jl^ j^ Largely 

made, ponderous. M&ka Bdkit SegAn- 
tang itu jjldi bandar besar-lah ter-lfi,lu 
rft.mei, ^Ju^ ^^jIok ui^l ^^^ ^y ^ — * 
^b^'^j^ <jJ^ B6kit Segftntang became 
a great town and very populous. TetS,pi 
ter-lalu besar pedaka dan jembalang dan 
pfilak dan bahdi cheMka, ^^33^ ^V^ 
^X^ ^gj^ ^3-L^ ^Ij ^L:.^ J J ^)jj 

But great are the evils from haunting 
spirits, from the spirits which inhabit 
the bodies of animals, and great the 
bodily sicknesses arising from the evil 

Besar, ^ 

magic of accursed spirits. Anak r&ja 
itu laki-laki tambah-an pMa ter-lfillu 

besar tAah-nya, ^^^ r^^S «uAi1 gl; ^1 

^ly j^^ ^ijj Jy The prince is a boy, 

and is moreover blessed with exceeding 
great good fortune. Ada-lah s'drang 
r&ja itu ter-l&lu besar tahta ka-rftjar-an- 
nya, v*.^ j^ ^SjJ ot-^l g|^ ^jy^-^ <iJlol 
^*li^l^ That monarch sat on the throne 
of a great empire. Apa-lah hukum dan 
aadat iang b&lih angkau pel - d,jar - kan 
besar di-b&wah seg^la 6rang besar-besar 
dan besar di - b&wali pe - rentah segala 
Inang peng-fisoh, ^ SoLo ^)j ^%<ck ^Li] 

is^Ui AxJ JSLo d»5y 5^ljo ^ ^b What 
laws and customs canst thou learn, 
grown up under the care of the chiefs, 
and grown up under the rule of all 
thy nurses and attendants. Ada -pun 
kita hidop di-atas dunia ini deri kechil 
di - kandong - an ibu sudah besar di - 
kandong-an aadat jikalau md,ti di-kan- 
dong-an bAmi, ^1*3 <,3J^ ui^ ^yS \ o \ 

K^y ^^J^o ^L. )^ ioLo ^^JuTj 

Our life on earth is first in the wombs 
of our mothers; when we grow up, 
in the womb of conventionality, and 
when we are dead, in the womb of 
the earth. Ya adinda d,kan sekd,rang 
&nak kita pun sudah besar p^tut - lah ia 

men-jadi r&ja, u^ ^1 £^l5C^ ^\ J^U) U 

gl; ^^\^i^ K$\ dldfU y^^ 5J^-* ^y Yes, 

my little sister (i.e., my wife), now our 
child is full grown it is right that he 
should become the ruler. Besar kechil 

jantan betina, ^^ ,^f^ J^^ y^ Big 

and little, male and female. Bech&ra 
iang besar, ^ ^^l^ An important 

business. Besar s'jingkal panjang diia 

hasta, U..^ IjJ ^^^ J<A^..^ y^ A span 

broad and two cubits long. Note : In 
describing objects Malays employ b^sar 
to express breath, girth, or bulk as 
opposed to greatness of length, etc. 
Panjang, ^^ should always be used to 

express great in length. Sama besar, 
y^ l»L^ and S^hesoXj y^^^^f^ As big as, as 

large as; as great as. Dian panjang s&tu 
hasta jari manis s'besar lengan sAmbu- 
nya s'besar tbu kaki, la.-^ yU ^^ ^^^ 

y^] y„„.f ^ \^y^ y ^ ^ y^^^i^ sjr^^ sS>^ 


Besar, ^ 

^l^ A candle a cubit long, measured 
irom the third finger, as thick as the arm, 
and haying a wick as thick as one's great 
toe. Anak Mar s'besar lengan handak 
men-iti batang padi, ^ y^^^^^^ ^jl ^ I 

^jU kl\\ ^esv^ c3**^** ^ young snake 
as big as one's arm wanted to use a rice 
stalk as a bridge. Besar-nya, ^y^ The 
size thereof. Besar-nya tidak lagi ter- 
pri, s?yy ^g?i J^ ^y-^ The size 

thereof was indescribable. M^ka akan 
ka-lima-nya itu besar-nya S£lma s'b&ya 
blaka, ^\^ ^U ^^ a^l ^UJ^ J\ c^L^ 

-sJ J^ Now with regard to all five of them, 
they were all exactly of the same size. 
Ter-lalu besar, y^ ^^y* Ter-langsong 
besar, y^ f)^J^ > Ter-lcllu &mat besar, 
j^ ^1 ySjJ , Amat besar, y^ 3^\ and 
Besar s4ngat, ^Lo y^ Immense, very 
large, big, or great, exceedingly large, 
big, or great. Besar benar, ^ ^ Truly 

inmiense. Besar d,mat, ^1 y^ Too big. 
lang besar s'kfl^li, ^^^^-^ j^ ^ The 
largest; the greatest. Ber-&pa besar, 
y^ <-3l^ How big? How large? TiMa 
ber-ftpa besar, y^ cjl^ jL^J Not very 
big, not very large. Mtlna besar, y^ ^U 

Which is the bigger, which is the 
greater ? Md^na besar kerbau ini dengan 
kerbautadi, ^g^lTji/ ^^ oi'>/>^ O^ 
Which is the greater, this buffalo or the 
one (which we saw) lately ? Mdna iang 
besar s'kali, ^^^ y-A ^ ^^>^ Which is 
the greatest? Hdri besar, j^^ i^j\^ A. 
great day, a festival, a fSte. Besar hati, 
^\^ y^ Delighted, pleased, gratified. 

Besar hd^ti mem-andang ttLan, ^^^ y^ 
^jf dJuu-» I am delighted to behold thee, 
O master. Besar chakap, «-iS'l^ y^ 
Boastful. Ka-besar-an, ^^y^ Greatness; 
ostensible signs of greatness ; the pomp 
of rank. Neschd,ya chiichu-ku ka-lima 
ber-Mih ka-besar-an dan ka-melia-an. 

For a certainty will ye, my five grand- 
sons, obtain greatness and honour. Dan 
di-pandang akan seg&la ka-besar-an 
seg^Ia rtlja-r&ja dan di-lihat-kan ka- 
sakti-an segala d6wa-d6wa, ^1 ^JoJJ ^b 

l*ljiJ JSLo And he saw the pomp of all 

the kings, and he looked upon the power 
of all the Gods. Tanda ka-besar-an, IjjJ 


^y^ The insignia of office, a sign of 

rank ; the special privileges attached to 
any rank or position. M&ka pada sUtu 
hAri ber - triak - lah lembu itu dengan 

suAra-nya iang fi.mat besar, yL« JJ ^^ — * 
y^ 3^\ki ^^j)y^ ^^^^ ui-^'^ My^ sg;l^ 
One day the bull bellowed with an ex- 
ceeding loud voice. Telah hilang-lah 
ka-besar-an kita sebab SetrAbah chel&ka 
ini, ^^ ^jy^ ^ - ;■■■• ^ ^^J^ aUk^Jb alJ 
^^\ Our rank has been lost to us through 
this accursed Setrftbah. Lalu pergi-lah 
ia ka-p&da suatu kedei johari di-bli-nya 
be-ber-S-pa mata benda iang besar-besar 

herga - nya, ^gJ^ B\y^ JJL^ ^gl d^j^ jJ S 

He went to a jeweller's shop and bought 
a great many articles of value, the prices 
of which were very great. Ada-kah 
b(dih b&rong meny-ambar k&nak-kanak 

s'besar itu, Y^^^ ys^^^ ^A>j^ ^^ dl^la) 
3^] y.^^^ Can a bird swoop down upon 

and carry away a child of his size ? 
Besar-kan, ^y^ and Mem-besar-kan, 
^y^^4.^ To enlarge, to make large, to 

increase the size, greatness, or rank of 
anything, to exaggerate ; to extol. 

Besar-kan nama, a^ oO*^ ^^ extol his 
name. Besar-kan pangkat hamba tiia- 

^^y^** ,^'>^ ur-'j^ 3i^ v:rf^ ^^ increase 
the rank of his old servant. Mem- 
besar-kan hasil negri, J-oU ^y.^k.f 
i^jf^ To increase the revenue of the 
country. Mem-besar-kan diri, ^y^^^^j^ 
v^^J To swagger, to boast, to be con- 
ceited, to behave arrogantly, to be 
proud, to be stuck up. Maka patek 
jawab - lah dengan p&tek mem - besar - 
kan serta me-melia-kan akan g%ah 
perkdfia tdan-ku, dij^L^ *^U ts* — « 

£\S ^) ^gu^ By^ ^r-^ "^^ J>^ 
yCily ^l^y Thy servant made answer, 
and exaggerated, and did honour to thy 
strength and prowess, master ! 

Bdsdiit, Dutch, ^L^ The end; the conclu- 
sion. Note : This word, which is only 
used in the Dutch colonies, is a corrup- 
tion of the Dutch, Besluit. 

Bdsdmbi, ^^^-^^ The name of a plant of 
the madder family, .which is also called 
Asam besembi, ^t-*-^ ^) 


Besi, ^ 

B68i, ^^ Iron. Besi baja, gl? ^^ Steel. 
Besi me-161a, J^U ^^^ A kind of steel 

from which daggers which have no 
watering on the blade are made. Besi 
khers&ni, ^JLwoj^ ^^ A kind of steel. 
Besi brS,ni, ^1^ ^^^ A magnet ; mag- 
netic iron. Mflta besi, ^^ &U An iron 
blade. Paku besi, ^^ ^U Iron nails. 
Besi rantei, ^j ^^^ Iron chain. P&song 

besi, ^^ t>^^ ■'■^^^ fetters. Pd,rang 
besi, ^^ 6^U An iron knife or chopper. 
Perda besi, ^^^ J);-i Tinned plates. 
TAang besi, ^^ 4l^ To forge iron. 
TAkang besi, ^^-^ ^^ A blacksmith. 
Angkob besi, ^^ <^^^J Iron pincers. 
Seperti 6rang mem-egang besi iang han- 
gus, ^^ ^ ^ ^iL. £ji^l &jL^ Like 

unto a man holding hot iron. — Prov. 
M&ka ia pun handak meng-&mok md^ka 
tdih Baja Bendahara di-s5.roh tangkap 

t&roh di-d&lam pen-j&ra besi, ^^1 ^ — * 

^^ ^\^ ^1^^ &j\S <Ji<AJ He wished to 

run dmoky but the Bendah&ra ordered 
him to be arrested and put in the iron 
prison. Diam Abi Ugi kental dtam besi 
l&gi sentil, ^ ^J Jxa^ ^S ^^) ^o 

Jo^u^ ^S "nie yam from lying quiet 
grows more succulent, iron from lying 
by wastes away the more. B&tu besi, 
^^ yli Granite. Besi p&teh, d-sJy ^^ 

Tin plating. Besi t&nah, dJlJ ^^ Iron of 

inferior quality. Besi k&wi, ^g^l^ ^^^ 

A small piece of iron which is one of the 
articles of certain regalias, and on which 
a solemn oath is sworn. Besi chabang, 
Aj [^ -^ A w^eapon introduced by the 

Chinese, which has two points like a 
pitch-fork. Mfilka ia pun segra meng- 
ambil rantei besi di-tkat-kan pfi,da ping- 

gang-nya, ^^ J^l^ I A- ^^y s?J ^^^ 
^^S^kgj JJ ^jjCtt^ib ^^ He speedily took 

an iron chain and fastened it about his 

BSstkau, ^fift^. The name of an edible salt- 
water fish. 

Bdsing, ^^ A sensation of singing in the 

ears (such as is experienced when one 
is overcome by sudden faintness). lUsa 
s&kit benar glku ini besing sahtlja telinga, 
UftU gl^ ^ft^ ^\ /\ jj4 a^U ^1; I am 

Bfisok, ^y^ 

feeling very unwell and I keep having a 
sensation of singing in my ears. 

Basing, ^y>^ Replete; satisfied (of the 

Bdsir, Aii., jts^ Having good sight; long- 
sighted, far-sighted. 

Bdska, Ar., \JL^ The act of spitting 
or spluttering; to expectorate; spittle,^ 
phlegm, catarrh ; a heavy cold. Peny- 
&kit iang ber-n&ma bSska dan zflkum,. 
^j) ^lj Ul^ C^J^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ailments 
known as catarrh and cold in the head. 
Note: The words Senia, U^ and Sema- 
sema, t^U^ or Se-sema, U^.^ are more 
commonly used by Malays. 

Bdskat, S^^ and Bclju beskat, ^IC^ ^b 
The name of a garment which crosses 
over the chest and is bound by a girdle 
about the waist. Note : The form Mes- 
kat, 3lC^ is also met with. The word 
has a curious resemblance to the English 

Bdskut, Bng., i^C^ A biscuit. Note : The 
form Meskut, SjCw* is also used. 

Bdsnu, y^ Vishnu the Preserver; the 

God Vishnu in Hindu mythology. Ja- 
wab r&ja Iang ' Baik-lah nanti d,ku pergi 
bri tahu D6wa Besnu,' dKn'l^ ^ gj; <^^U 

jx^ Iji^ ^IJ ^j^ ^jh ^] ^^ The king 

of the kites made answer, ' It is well, 
wait, and I will go and tell Vishnu.* 
Note: This deity does not form part 
of the superstitions at present current 
among Malays, but under the title D6wa 
Besnu, y^ IjiJ The (lod Besnu, men- 
tion of him is occasionally met with in 
Malay texts which owe their origin to 
Hindu originals. 

Bdsok, ^3--^ To-morrow; next day; later 
on ; at a future date ; future. M&ri bfisok, 
^5^-^ sa>^ Come to-morrow. H^ri ini 
di - bri s'bAtir bSsok di - minta s'pAloh, 

d3^i-^ *lax^J ^^^ ^>^-• S?^^ cT^' sa>^ 

To-day he is given one, to-morrow he 
will afik for ten. Md,ka Rdija D6nan pun 
ber-k4ta ka-pftda Tftan Petri ka-dfla itu, 
bSsok p&gi-p&gi jika k^ak dahMu deri- 
pada adek b&ngun ber-adu, ^^^^ q\j <.^ 

v^^ s-^ ^' '>^ ^j^ c>'y ^ ^^ji c)y 

J^l^ o^^i di^' ^J^ ]j^^ i^^ "^ I^ja 
D6nan said to the two princesses, ' To- 


Bestcbri, v^;U^ 

morrow in the early morning, O my 
sisters, if ye arise from slumber earlier 
tlian I do/ B^sok hkri pergi-lah angkau 
naik ka-&taB gtlnong flnggil Ber-enggil, 
^/ ^'l^ ^'U /C£>] di^j^ ^j\^ ^$^ 

JJCi><^ Jft^' To-morrow go thou and 
ascend the mountain called !£!nggil Ber- 
enggil. Baik-lah Inang ttiB, bSsok b6ta 
mu-pakat dengan segila 6rang besar- 
besar meny - Aroh Atus - an ka - negri 

Bandar Tahwil itu, ^^M |>J ^' ^''U 

cr^y ^Jy^;^ l>^ t)^^ y^ c)^^ ^^>^ "^ 
4i< Ji^ ;Ja^ s?y^ I* is w^^l ol^ nurse, 
to-morrow we will consult with all our 
chiefs as to sending an embassy to the 
country of Bandar Tahwil. Note : The 

form llsok, ^5^) Next; next day; to- 
morrow, etc., is preferable to B6sok, 
^5«^ and should always be used in its 
stead, the latter being a corrupt form 
little used in the purer dialects of Malay. 

B6stSir\, ^j\x^ Illustrious; accomplished; 
refined, polite, well-bred ; wise ; possess- 
ing great talents. 

Damikian-lah laku-nya sultan bestfi^ri, 
Men-j&di r&ja diia biiah negri, 
Aadil dan miirah tiada ter-pri, 
tTtus meng-Atus ka-sfi-na ka-mS«ri. 

^yy ogf &^y. ^U JJlo 
^^U^ ^\^ u^^ utI?' 

Such was the conduct of the illustrious 
sultan who had now become the ruler 
of two kingdoms. His justice and gen- 
erosity were indescribable, and he held 
friendly intercourse with the neighbour- 
ing realms. Arip dan bijak-s&na best&ri 
dan pandei meng-ambil h^ti sekelian 
seh&bat handei- nya, ^j)LJ^j ^^b «-*^l 

^JuLfc Wise, clever, and accomplished, 
and skilled in winning the affection of 
his friends and associates. Btldak bang- 
8&-wan mAda bestS,ri, la^ ^^^^ tJ'^-H 
^^\A^ The noble boy; the illustrious 
youth. Jika sAnggoh t£lan bestS,ri meng- 
&pa m&lu di-tentang dfl,yang? J^yj^ ct^ 
Alb ^ajjo jJL. cjU-^ sg;la^ ^^l>-J If in 
truth thou art so well bred, wherefore 
art thou ashamed when a girl faces 


Bdta, uu^ A servant ; a slave ; an attend'^ 
ant, a domestic. Note : This word is 
used as a personal pronoun to express 
I, me, we, or us. In this sense it is 
for the most part only used in writing 
in conjunction with Sehd^bat bSta, JjUho 

, PadtLka sehabat b6ta, i\\m^ ^oU 

^ , or Sri padftka sehabat bfita, ^^y^ 

«v^ a^U^ -fiJjU My friend, etc., (yr vrifh 

Orang tAa bfita, ui-^ ly ^jy] My old man. 

On the Western side of the Peninsula 
the use of Bdta, «u^ in correspondence 
is considered more polite than the use 
of Kita, i^^t^ We, us, etc., but on the 
Eastern side B6ta, 4*^ is only used by 
a rdja writing to his chiefs, and is con- 
sidered rude if used under other cir- 
cumstances in ordinary correspondence. 
In Pahang it was formerly a criminal 
offence for anyone to make use of the 
word BSta, ul^ which was considered 
to be a word which could only be used 
by the ruler. In Malay fiction the rdjas 
usually speak of themselves as BSta, 
uu^ M&sa ini ti&da - lah dd.pat b^ta 
handak pergi, ^IJ d3bl^ ^] ^\  

^J^ jJcUb ut^ I cannot go at the 
present time. Kard^na ftdek b6ta itu td- 
nang lanang drang, uu^jtl «u^ ^^^) ^j\^ 

ijj\ ^3 ^y Because thou, my sister, art 

the fiancee of another. Baik-lah jik&lau 
bagitu m&ka bd^pa b6ta Mb, s'biiah 
l&dang lengkap dengan aalat l&yar-nya, 
o) uL^ i^\i ^]j^ tiU jft^ y<^ dl54'Lj 
^jli aJlc> ^J ^Ji5aJ ^Jj &]y^ It is well 

if that be so, my father has a boat which 
is furnished with all necessary sailing 
appliances. Maka titah Baginda tiMa- 
lah Upa ka - s&sah - an b6ta hanya - lah 
handak mem-bri tahu ka-p&da sekelian 
Isi negri hal tClkang tftjoh ber-cldek iang 
bSta sflroh ber-bahan itu sudah-lah hd^bis 

m&ti ka-samoa-nya, d)ljL^ Jol^ dx^ i^ 

^\y^ The monarch said, * I am in no 
trouble, only I wish to acquaint all the 
people of the land with regard to the 
seven brother workmen whom I ordered 
to fell (the tree), that they are all of 
them dead. Jikalau &da l&gi &bang-ku 
meng-aku bita sud&ra, <^l ^^3 ^\ ^^ 
jS^yji ut^ ^Ul. If thou, O my brother, 


Betah, ^ 

still acknowledgest me for thy relation. 
Deri kechil sampei besar tiada - lah 
pemah bfita men-dengar bAloh bangsi 
tiga-pAloh Ugu di-dalam-nya, J<^ j^ 

Jjb J ^J isJy 4^J^ ^^^ From the time 

1 was small, even until I grew to my 
present size, never have 1 heard, a flute 
with thirty melodies in it. Ahwal m&ka 
ada-lah bSta ma&limi-kan ka-p&da sri- 
padflka seh&bat bfita, ItH J'^' <^^ J'^' 
u:^ Z\\m^ ^jU ^yA jJii ^^^au» I make 
known to my friend. 

Bdtahi ^ Relieved from sickness ; conva- 
lescent; intermission or cessation of 
pain; healed. Betah dan aapiat deri-pada 
s'b&rang peny-akit-nya, JJ^ J ^i<>4c> ^lo dai 
^^XftS'l^ £^^ Convalescent and re- 
covered from all his ailments. Liika 
sudah betah p&rut sah&ja iang tinggal, 
J^ ^ gl^--^ Sj[;U dftj 6Jw^ -aJjJ The 

wound is healed, only the scar remains. 

B6tak, ^ To secure properly, to keep in 
order, to take proper care of. JAru 
betak, ^ ^j(^ A care-taker. 

B6talih, Ar., dJlkg or Betalat, ^ Uaj Leisure; 
idleness; holidays, vacation. 

B6t-apa, <^Ui Why? Wherefore? For 
what ? How ? In what manner ? By 
what means ? As ; like. Note : This word 
is irregularly formed from the root, Apa, 
<-*! What? Why? etc., and is more 
frequently met with in the written than 
in the colloquial language. Mdka k&ta 
s'drang pMa bet-8,pa kita lihat-lah sekfi,- 
rang si-apa m&ti hidup, &^ c&l-^ 

<^L^ £^l5L^ ^ft^ u^ <-4lai Jy ^^y^ 

«-*j^ f^\r-^ ^^^^ Then said another 
man * By what means shall we see who 
dies and who lives ? ' Bet-ftpa fi.ku filkan 
m&ti sebab aku ber-bAat pe-kerja-an iang 
damikian, l\j^^ ^\ h-^^-^ <^'-* c^'^' <-*^ 
^^jft<^jJki ^^•l<^^ Why am I to die because 

I have done such a deed? Hd kamu 
ahli sekelian lihat-lah di-dd,lam nujum 
k&mu bet-&pa-kah akan untong bhigia 
anak-ku ini, <jla^ s^y^^^ ^^ ^^ %^ 
i^VfiJl L^ ^y^\ ^] d^ilai j^\^ ^y ^bJ 
^\ ye wise men see in your horos- 
copes what is the fortune and good luck 
of this my son ! ChAkup lengkap bet- 
&pa aadat raja iang besar-besar jiiga, 


t>-i ^ el; &^^ «-*^ <-fl<*J *-*^^ 
Fully supplied, as is the custom of great 
monarchs. Chetra-kan-lah Mih tiian- 
ku bet-d,pa hik&yat itu sepaya hamba 
dengar, uu-^t ^^^ <-jlsi ^ly d)jl dlu^l^^A^ 

^j i^y^^j^ ^liLo Relate, master, what 

that tale is that we, thy servants, may 
hear it. Jika bd,rang-si-&pa men-dapat 
dia ti&da dengan janji bet-£lpa aadat 
negri di-sAroh bri, <-4l«— » ^jU ^ — r^ 

5jLf> c^U^ v39^^ ^^*^ *^^ s?«^ ^tJuu* 

s?^ ^JX^*^ s?j^ ^^ anyone captures (the 
slave) without having a previous agree- 
ment (with the master), the latter must 
be ordered to give him (as much) as is 
the custom of the country. 

B6tara, Hind., j\xi A title borne by divin- 
ities, and also, formerly, by the Hindu 
ruler of Manjapahit. Sri Bet&ra Manja- 
p&hit, 3^\t^j\si^ ^j-^ The King of 
Manjapahit. M^ka titah Sri Betfira 
*Apa-kah khabar padtlka anak-d,nda 
klta?' JuJUl £ijJj^ d<il^l«i K^j-^^A^ <^^ 
«^ Then said the king, * What is the 
news of our son ? ' 

B6t^ra, ^Isj A galley; a kind of sailing 

vessel. M&ka kd^ta 6rang tiia itu * pergi- 
lah angkau ber-bahan ka-d&rat negri 
Tanjong Bima itu ada k&yu merabau di- 
padang serai di-padang kiinyit di-atas 
biisut jantan Ma-lah &sal k&yu merabau 
itu sempak bahan To' Sang Kijang di- 
PAsat TfiBek di-pauh janggi ter-planting 
satu di-p&dang itu m&ka angkau bahan 
j&di-kan betara,' u^l Jy ^^jl ^^ ^ — • 
u.^1 ^ ^^ v^^ &;1j^ ^^ ^\ ditjSy 

^)j B^^ £jUj v^^-^ £jU0 jlij^^lf j1 
^ ^^U^ h"^ jl^y-^^ jl>) dJb) ^jjXU^ i^ji 

^J:a^ a^Lij ^3^lJ a^yo ^ ^ •y 

y^ O^^W^ Then said the aged man, * Go 
timber-cutting to the back of the town 
of Tanjong Bima, there is an inUia 
amboinensis tree growing on a small ant- 
hill in the plain where lemon grass and 
saffron grow. That tree has its origin 
in a chip from the wood cut by To* 
Sang Kijang, at the Heart of the Lakes, 
where grows the sea -coconut, which 
fell upon that plain. Cut the intsia am" 
boint7isis tree down and shape therefrom 
your galley. Note : This word is a corrupt 
form of Bahtera, 1^^ A galley, eto. 


Betas, ^j^ 

Bdtas, ^j*^ Tom open (as a bag, or a 
garment) ; cracked (as an egg in hatch- 
ing out the chicks); come undone (as 
the seam of a coat). The correct form 
of this word is Bertas, ^^ 

Bdtiwi, s?j^ Batavia. The capital of 

Bdtha, Ae., J^ Difference; to differ, to 
differ from. (See B6za, Js-^^). 

B6ti-b6ti, Y^^fi The name of a small tree 
which bears an edible fruit. Note : The 
young shoots of this tree are eaten raw 
with rice ; the bark is used for tanning, 
and the roots are employed medicinally. 

BStik, ^3*»i The papaya. Garica papaya, 
BAah betik, ^^itSii &\^ The papaya fruit. 

Note : The Malays distinguish between 
three varieties of this tree. Those on 
which the fruit grows close to the trunk 
and near the top of the tree. There are 
two kinds, Betik be-lMang, ^^ ^^^^ and 

Betik bAbor, ^ji ^3^^^ which closely re- 
semble one another, Be-lftlang, meaning 
firm and hard while Bftbor means soft, 
tender. Both these varieties, however, 
are occasionally spoken of as Betik 
batang, ^Ij ^^itsti as opposed to Betik 

rambei, ^^j ^^tf^ the name given to 
the third variety, the fruit of which is 
hermaphroditic, and hangs pendent with 
a long stalk. In PSrak the Malays dis- 
tinguish between the two varieties; those 
which grow in a tree are called Betik 
k&y u, ^ If ^5tsa; while the vegetable, which 

grows on the ground and resembles a 
cucumber, is called Betik &kar, ^\ ^5^^ 
Note : The leaves of the papaya are 
used to wrap raw meat in and to make 
it tender; as a medicine for intestinal 
worms ; as a vegetable dye, and as an 
astringent for tht hair. ^ 

Bdtik-bdtik, V^^ts»i The name of a skin 
disease ; an eruption. 

B6tlk.b6tik, ^^5^ or Dkun betik- betik, 

Vi3i>^ O-?'"^ '^^® name of a shrub which 
grows on the water's edge in the upper 
reaches of rivers where the soil is sandy 
or stony. 

Bdttna, ^^ Female; feminine. Note: In 

the Malay Peninsula this term is applied 
indifferently to human beings and ani- 
mals. In the Archipelago it is not 

Beting, ^ 

generally used in speaking of human 
beings, Per-ampA-an, ^|>i^y being used 
in its stead. Orang betina, ^^ £j>j) A 
woman. Bddak betina, ^jt^ j^o^ A girl. 
Anjing betina, ^^ ^^^1 A bitch. Kftda 
betina, ^^ t J^ A mare. Lembu bettna. 
^jjasj ^tJ A cow. Bd,bi bettna, ^^ ^ L^ 
A sow. K&sar betina, ^^ j^\^ The 

larger rafters which support the thatch 
of a roof. Bah betina, ^jf^ <m The heavy 

freshet which sometimes succeeds a first 
and slighter flood. (See Note under 
Bah, <M A flood, etc.) Besar kechil 

jantan betina, ^^ ^^u^ Jt^ ^ Great 
and small; male and female. Anak betina 
dan anak l&ki-iaki, Y^^ ^^ ^'^ o^ ^^ 
Female and male children. B6ta ini 
&nak laki - l^ki biikan - nya &nak betina, 

c5t^ c5^' ,^> ^^/^ c3^' cH' "^ I am a 
man and not a woman. MSka ia pun 
hilang pMa men-jfidi-kan diri-nya s'fikor 
ftyam denak betina dMok-nya di-antara 
blflkar tfla dengan bltlkar mMa, ^^^^^ 

>/-t^ ^>i^ o^^is^ jy ^ c>y s?' 

\^y* She disappeared again, and turned 
herself into a jungle hen in a place 
between new and old secondary growth. 
M^ka k&ta bflrong betina itu ka-pMa 
bflrong jantan, ^Di-mana-kah &ku ini 
handak ber-telor ? ' JJ^ ^il ^^ ^^^ &lf ^s^ 
;yj^ ^j^ ^\ yS\ d<iUo ^^ ^^^ The 

hen bird said to the cock bird, * Where 
shall I lay my eggs ? ' 

Bdting, ^^ A bank ; a sand bank ; a 

shoal ; a shallow in a river or in the sea ; 
a bar of sand or mud. Sangkut di- 
beting, ^^^^ &^<A^ Aground on a sand 

bank. Ktlpal ter-s^dei ka-beting, J*l^ 
^y^ v^oLojJ The ship was aground on 
the shallows. K^yu h&nyut ter-bftdei 
ka-beting, ^o^-.^ K^^'^y^ &y^ j-l^ The 
drifting timber stuck on the sand bank. 
Sebab sudah l&ma tiMa tampak kd.pal- 
nya itu kar&na ia ka-kring-an kApal-nya 
ter-lekat p&da beting negri LAbok GAa 
Batu sudah tiga bMan lama-nya, <^ - s..o 

^sa.-* yl^ 1/ ^y ^g^ ^ JJ aOjJ J^\^ 

^^U3 ^ji «^JlJ The reason why his ship 

has not been seen for a long time is 
because for want of water his ship has 


Betis, ,j-.^ 

been aground on the shoals of the land 
of Liibok Giia BUtu for three months. 
Di-sentak-kan pr&hu Tiian Petri itu ka- 
tengah laut sampei s'h&ri s'm&lam jauh- 
nya serta lekat di-&tas beting, ^ ^<Jb ,».., o j 

i^j\^ ^J'-^^^ Sji ^J^ «w' s?>^ o'-^ >^'->* 
^j^ ^1^ ^ ^>-9 ,^^^ ^u«o He pushed 

the princess's boat into mid sea so that 
it traversed the distance which would be 
covered in a day and a night's journey, 
and at length got aground on a sand 
bank. BMok jAru-mfidi beting ter-pam- 
pang di-haluan prd,hu, ^?*3^ x>y^ ^5-^ 
y^'y ^ly^^ ^^y i:tt^ Tack steersman, 
a shoal is visible athwart the bows of 
the boat. Note : The term Grdsong, ^^ 
is also used in a similar sense. 

Bdtis, ^j'*^ The leg; the part of the leg 

which is between the knee and the 
ankle. TMang betis, ,j-^ ^y The shin 

bone. Biiah betis, ^j***^ &\j^ Jantong 
betis, ,j-^ ^>**^ ^^^ more rarely Prut 
betis, ^j'-^ &pj^ The calf of the leg. 
Me-randei sAngei ftyer hengga betis, 
^j,,^ \S^ j^) ^^^ s?^^ To wade 
across the river with the water up to 
one's shins. Di-bri betis handak paha, 
l^ ^j^jb ,j-^ v^^J When the leg is 

given the thigh is wanted — Prov. * Give 
4vn inch they take an ell.' Belum tu&rang 
panjang bdah sengkuang s'besar betis, 
^j^^-i^ ^ ■■.■;■ > o £lj<A^ fll^ ^^ ^^!>^ (•A^ 

Before a drought has lasted for a long 
time the shighuang fruit are grown to 
be as big as the calf of one's leg — Prov.y 
used when false reports are spread with- 
out any foundation for them. 

Bdtok, ^^ The name of a small fresh- 
water fish. 

Bdtong, £^ The flood gates of a dam. 
Chabut betong, ^^a* *^W ^^ o^Qn the 
flood gates of a dam. 

Bdtong, ^^ Large, big of its kind ; swollen. 
Note : This word is mostly used in con- 
nection with certain vegetable growths. 
Bftloh betong, ^ys^ &^j^ A large species 

of bamboo which grows to be as thick 
as a man's thigh. Tebu betong, £y^ j^ A 

large species of sugar-cane which when 
ripe is yellow in colour. R{lmput betong, 
A^ Hl»ji^ Large grass ; the name given 

Betul, J^ 

by Malays to an herb used in medicine. 
Apa kena ]d,ri mika sudah betong, U^ c^l 
&ys^ &^y^ ^.sX^ f^jW What has made 
your finger swollen ? 

Bdtong, ^^ or K^tak betong, ^y^ ^^ 
The name of a small, dark green frog 
with grey stripes. Note : This name is 
onomatopoetic, the croak of this frog 
being supposed by Malays to resemble 
the sound 'Tong tang.' B&gai-m&na 
h&ri ta' hiijan, Mtak betong di-ddlam 
telftga dMok ber-trlak ta' ber-henti? 

sS*^->^ *^ ^S^J^J^ ^3"^^*^ How should the 
weather not be rainy seeing that the 
frogs in the well are calling for it un- 
ceasingly? — Prov. Said of one who 
imagines that great events are the 
result of his unimportant doings. 

BdtuI, J^ B-ight, true, correct, honest, 
upright, genuine, real, straight, even, 
exact. Mdna iang betul, Jj»i ^ o*"^ 
Which is right? Which is true? HStong- 
an iang betul, J^ ^ ^^y^ Correct 

calculations. Betul bd^gai peng-g&mak 
ku, ta^iuUCii ^U J>5i My guess was 

correct. Ta' betul, J>:i 'U Not right ; 

untrue; incorrect; dishonest; crooked. 

Panjang Itma k&pal pe-ranggi, 
Sllrat ber-mAat di-negri J&wa, 
Jik&lau betul bd,gai di-janji, 
Abang ta'tfikut mem-b&ang ny&wa. 

IjL&K ^j^*^ ^!>0^ ijL-» 

Five fathoms long is the handsome ship, 
which is overlaiden in Java. If what 
you promise? is true, I, your lover, am not 
afraid to risk my life. Sangkat-lah betul 
b&gai tttah ka-bfi,wah duli, J^ Jbti^L-* 

^.3 fijLj^ dft^ ^\4 What your majesty 
says is very true. Anak d&ching iang 
betul ttmbang-an-nya, J^a* ^ ^'^ c5*' 
^ ^ . l AfJ Correct weights. H6 tiong ini- 
lah 6rang iang betul l&gi ber-t&pa, ^ 

^^J^ J^ J>^ t^ £^^' '^^ trtf 
mina 1 here is a man who is an upright 
man and also a hermit. M&ka di-t6m- 
bak-kan betul men-iiju betd^ra s'kali letup 
ttga-k&li degum-nya &sap ber-p&yong ka- 


Betul, J^ 

^bj^^ ^jiU^ ^JlA ^/o ^If c.^ ^y^ 

He fired straight in the direction of the 
galley and a single explosion gave forth 
three reports, and the smoke ascended 
in a canopy into the air. Dan pelAru-nya 
itu pun pergi betul men-Aju tiang Myar 
itu pfltus langsong ter-champak di-ten- 
gah laut itu, ^f^ ^y ^^\ ^^j^ ^S^ 

il\ SjJ The cannon-ball went straight in 

the direction of the mast, smashed it in 
two and cast it into the sea. Betul-kan 
^y^ cmd mem-betul-kan, ^j<U^^ To 
make straight ; to correct ; to put right, 
Betul-kan s'mMa, J>«*— -• o-^>^ ^^* i* 
straight again. J&lan icmg ber-blit di- 
betul-kan, ^y^^ ^^ ^ ^P^. He made 

the winding road straight. M&na-m&na 
iang s&lah di-betul-kan, <xJUo ^ f^L-* 

^y^^ He corrected whatever was in- 
correct. Ta' d&pat-lah klta mem-betul- 
kan-nya, ,^jiXJ^a--^ B^ d^\^ *lJ We are 

unable to put it right. Ber-betul-an, 
Jy^jk and Be-betul-an, Jyu4 To be in 
accordance, to coincide, in accordance, 
concident. Ber-betul-an dengan Andang- 
{Indang, l*^j) ^^^ ^y^y^ ^^ accordance 
with the law. S'ambilan-blas hftri-bAlan 
Muharram iang be-betul-an dengan dAa 

pMoh Itma h&ri-biilan Agus, ,j^ ^l^ ..t-o 
f^ 4dy Ij^ ^J Jy^ ^ ^j^ s^y^^j^ 
^j^\ ^^yiij^ The 19th day of the month 
of Muharram, which coincides with the 
25th day of August. Jika ber-betul-an 
p&da hftti &dek, ^^1 ^U> jj Jy^ji ^^ 
If it is in accordance with my brother's 
wishes. Mdka IcLlu - lah ber - j&ga - jd,ga 
pAla tAjoh h&ri ttijoh m&lum ber-betul-an 
p&da kettka iang baik saat iang sempema, 

Then they began again to watch for 
seven days and seven nights which fell 
at a time which was fortunate and lucky. 
Dengan ber-betul-an b^gai hukum-an, 
^^S^ ^\i cr'yi^ cT^*^ ^^ accordance 
with instructions. Betul -i, ^^ To 
aim ; to direct. Md^ka di - betul - i - nya 
ka-d&da l&wan-nya, ^1^3 ^lj^ s?*^"^ "^^ 
He aimed at his opponent's breast. 
Note: In colloquial Malay the word 
Betul, J^ is used as a polite affirmative 

Bhftgi, Hind., ,^ 

or form of assent, meaning * True I* 
* Very True!' 'It is true!* 'Thatissol* 
Note : This word may be written J^ 
or Jai but the latter is more strictly 

BdtOtu, y^ The name of an edible fresh- 
water fish which lives chiefly in the mud. 

Bdwak, ^^ A generic name of the iguana 

lizards. (See Bifi-wak, Jjl©* The forms 

Jawak, ^jW^ and JSwak, ^y^ also 

B6ya, \^ Duty, toll, custom duties. Note : 
This word is used in the Archipelago. 
In the Peninsula the word ChAkei, ^y^ 
is employed. 

Bdza, Ae., J^ Difference, different, other 
than, to differ, to be different, to be 
other than. Jauh s&ngat b^za-nya, ^i^Lc^ 
^]Xg^ 2£>Lj» The difference is a wide 
one. Berbdza, J^jj Differing; differing 
widely. Ber-b6za s&ngat bfial dengan 
bAat-an-nya, ^\y ^J Jl^ ai>L^ J^^ 

His boasts and his deeds differ very 
widely. SArat ini ber-b6za s&ngat dengan 
sArat tUdi, &jy^ ^^ ^Lo S^ji ^\ ijj^ 

^jlJ This letter differs widely from the 
one I looked at just now. B6za-kan, 
^^\A To make different, to change. 

Note : The forms B6da, 0^ and Bfitha, 
are also met with. 

Bhadi, ^^J^ Evil magic ; an evil super- 

natm*al influence ; a sickness caused by 
the magic properties of blood. (See 
Bahdi, i^^ Evil magic, etc.) 

BhadOri, Pees., sg;>J^ Heroic, that which 
belongs to a hero. 

Bh&gi, Hind., ^Ji^ To divide, to apportion, 
to share ; a division, a portion, a share. 
BhjLgi dda, l^o ^^i^ Half. BhS,gi ampat, 
3i^\ S^ A quarter. Mftka ber-bMgi 
sekelian tawan-an, ^ ^ Ji C ^^ ^^^y- *^ — ^ 
^)\i All the captives were divided 
among them. Di-bh&gi-kan herta 6rang 
iang mftti, ^L. ^ £;^1 Sy> J^^^ They 

divided the property of the deceased. 
Abu-an mftsing - mclsing di - bh&gi - kan, 
^^if^^ l*^t>-^^ o!^' They divided unto 
each one his ^share ; they apportioned 
their shares. Apa-blla s'fikor men-dapat 
rezki di - bh&gi - nya ka - p&da s'fikor 
damikian-lah hal ka-diia ben&tang itu. 



Bh&gia, Hind., ^Ji^ 

ot-^l ajUj I^ Jfe. dLuX^j When one of 
them gets food it divides it with the 
other, such is the custom of these two 
animals. Ithin tiian-nya itu cltas diia 
bhftgi, ^^ IjJ ^1 u^l ^ly ^il His 

master's permission may be of two kinds 
(Zii., divisions). Maka di-bh^gi anam 
s'bhagi ft,kan 6rang iang mem-lehera- 
kan-nya, ^ £^^l JS ,J^ ^' ^.^ <-sU 

^\yi^ It is divided into six portions, 
one of which is given to the man who 
has looked after it. Bh&gi-an, ,^J^ 
A share, a portion, a division. Bh&gi- 
an dan h&bu-an hMu-balang dan bala- 

tentra, 1^ h e>'^ ^-^ o'^^ c)'^ c5«^ 
The shares and portions of the warriors 
and soldiers. Minta bh&gi-an, ^^(^ '^laj^ 
To ask for a share. M&ka ada ter-bhagi 
hikayat ini atas Itma bhagi-an ia-itu 
akan men-jadi peng-ajar-an p^a 6rang 
iang ber-aakal, ^^1 h"^^ s?^^ *^' ^ — * 

y^ji M ^^^' This history is divided into 
five divisions which shall be a lesson to 
men of intelligence. 

Bhagia, Hind., ^Ji^ or l*^ Happy; 
blessed; fortunate; auspicious. Orang 
ber-bh&gia, ^^^Ji £^^1 The blessed ; the 
elect; saints; fortunate people. Maka 
jikalau ada s'6rang anak-ku iang ber- 
bhS^gia neschaya ber-giina ka-pllda d.ku, 

^] ^ ^^j^ If I had a son of a happy 

disposition he would prove very useful 
to me. Ada-pun bhagia padiika anak- 
fi.nda itu ter-lalu amat bhagia ber-ftlih 
su&mi anak raja besar, -sJ^U 1<X^ o^'"^' 

j^ Thy daughter's fortune is an exceed- 
ing great happiness, and she will obtain 
a great prince for her husband. M&ka 
sekelian - nya itu pun men - ftndok - kan 
kepala sampei rd.pat ka-tikar {Llih ter- 
lalu besar ka-siika-an-nya pMa hati-nya 
m&sing - m&sing men - dengar - kan hal 
mimpi R&ja Ambong itu ter-Mu besar 
bh^gia-nya, ^Joo.- ^^1 ^^^^t)^ ^^'^— ^ 

^\t^ j^-^ ^^j^ **^' ^>8-^' -^1 of them 
bowed down his head close to the carpet 
because each experienced great pleasure 

Bha,ri, Pees., i^ji^ 

in his heart at hearing aJbout B&ja 
Ambong' s dream, which was exceedingly 
auspicious. Apa gerang-an bhagia ham- 
ba, i^r^u^ W^ d^^^ *-*' How great will 
be my happiness I 

Bhilgi-an, ^^yji^ A share, a portion, a 
division. (See Bhagi, ^^i^ to divide, 

Bhai, Hind., ^gl^ Brother. Note : This 
word is used by Malays as a friendly 
vocative when addressing Sikhs. Occa- 
sionally they speak of Sikhs as Bhai, 

Bhaia, Hind., l<>^ Danger, peril; injury; 
evil, miscief ; the occasion of fear. (See 
Bahia, L^). 

BhUna, Hind., ^L^ A loud noise, an up- 
roar, a clamour; noise, sound, tumult; 
loud voices, tumultuous sound. (See 
Behana, ^l^ A loud noise, etc.) 

Bhara, ^l^ A weight equal to four hun- 
dred pounds avoirdupois. Note: The 
following is the table in use in the 
Malay Peninsula : — 

16T&hil, >U= IK&ti (Ulbs.) 
lOOKati, ^l^= lPikul(133ilbs.) 
3 Plkul, J5C^ =j^l Bhara (400 lbs.) 
40 Pikul, JO = ^/ 1 K6yan (5,383* ibs.) 

Timah s*pMoh bhara, ji^ dJyu 6a^ Ten 

bhdra (4,000 lbs.) of tin. la pun pergi 
&ngkat batu sauh itu brat ttga bhara, 

ji^ He went and drew up the anchor 
which weighed three bhdra (1,200 lbs). 
Bfl,nyak-nya chClkei pada tiap-tiap s&tu 
bh&ra dAa pAloh sS.tu ringgit, ^^y^ J^^ 
B^j yLo dJy l^j ^L^ y Lo ^^U^^ jj The 

amount of the duty is twenty-one dollars 
per hhdra (400 lbs). 

Bhara, ^i^ The hull of a ship. 

Bhllri, ^^^ dnd Be-bh&ri, ^g;W The 
name of a small, yellow insect found in 
figs and other fruits. 

Bhari, Pees., v^;^^ Equinoctial. T6pan 
iang bh&ri, ^j^ ^ ^^j^ An equinoctial 

Bh^ri, Pbrs., k^^^ Charming, sweet, 
accomplished ; versed in elegant accom- 
plishments. Note : This word is only 
met with in poetry. 


Bh&ru, ^j^ New, fresh, recent; newly, 

recently, lately; just; only just; now 
at last, then at last; then only, only 
now, just now. 

Prahu tembfirang bh&ru, jtgB, mfisok Malfika, 
Abang pun bhfi,ru fidek pun, 
Bhfiru s'kfili kenal bifisa. 

•JA-^ ^§-^U cJ>. yyirA 

A new boat with a new shroud has 
recently gone to Malacca. I am new 
and you are new and newly have we 
made a<;quamtance. RtLmah bhfiru, d^ji^ 

j^ A new house. K6ta bhfiru, ^j^ u^^ 

A new fort. Bandar, ^^ ^Jutj A 

new town. Bresam Ifima dan aadat iang, jj^ ^ Solo ^b c3 ^^ The old 

customs and the new. Orang, 
A^ £jL>' -^ ^®^ comer, a new man. 
R6ti bhfiru, ^^^ ^j^ Fresh bread. 
Bhfiru dfitang, ^b j^ Newly arrived, 

lately come. Mfina iang angkau handak 
hak Ifima-kah hak bhfiru ? j^l ^ ^^^ 

J>H i5^ ^^^ i5^ iJ'J^'*^ Which do you 
want, the old or the new ? Bhfiru jAga, 
*-0^ ^jiri Recently., j^ 
^J It is still recent, it is still fresh. 

S*ahya Pa' T&kang bhfiru dfitang deri 
negri Linggi men-junjong tttah t<ian 
penghMu klta Rfija Ambong, *U l^j.^.-^ 

^^ irf^^^ sj^ ^J^ J^ ^'^ ^^ ^y 

come, father workman, from the land 
of Linggi, in compliance with the com- 
mands of our master Raja Ambong. 
Akan tetfipi istri-nya itu bhfiru anam- 
blas tfihun iimor-nya serta dengan 61ok- 
nya, ^U ^ ^1 j^ 4il ^>s^l ^laJ ^\ 

just sixteen years of age and beautiful 
to look upon. Ada - pun T6an Petri 
pfida ketika itu bhfiru lepas santap sirih 
diidok di-tingkap kechil rdpa mftka, 

u-^ ^j^ **-i' "^^ ^ ^y^ o'y O^'*^' 

The princess at that time had just 
finished eating betel-nut, sitting at her 
small window which was shaped like a 

Bhfiru, yy^ 

himian face. Bhfiru s'kfichip pinang 
mfi.sok ka-mMut di-ketip dengan gtgi 
serfiya ka-dfla blah tangan-nya tengah 
meng-fichip ptnang jflga s'pfiroh 
mfita kfichip ka-dfilam ptnang itu mfika 
ka-dengar-an-lah bAnyi bMoh bangsi 
iang tlga p{Lloh anam rfigam itu Ifilu ter- 
lepas kfichip itu deri pfida tfijigan-nya, 

cJi^UU 6iS ^U dli ]y^ ^\y^ ^ J>^ 

^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^/>^ <^^ «wl ^f^ 

,^^lJ She had only just put a slice of 

betel-nut into her mouth and was biting 
it with her teeth, while both her hands 
were cutting with the betel-scisfifors, and 
the blade of the scissors had only just 
half entered the nut when the sound of 
the flute which had thirty-six melodies 
in it was heard and the scissors fell from 
her hand. Mfika kfi,ta Rfi.ja Ddnan riipa- 
nya ini-lah bhfiru &ku ber-temu dengan 
l&wan iang seperti, ^^^x> c)^-^^ sb *^ ^-^^ 
&jiL^ ^ ^^3 ^ J yf^ ^\ j^-^ dL^i) 

Then said Rfija D6nan, ^ It appears that 
now at last I have encountered a worthy 
opponent !' 

Selfi^ih dftlang bMih di-rAmput, 
Pandak rflas kfiki bfibi, 
Kar-kfisih 6rang bAlih ku rebut, 
Bhfiru-lah piias di hfiti kami. 

s?^^ s?^^ u-'a> c3^^ . 

The sweet basil may be weeded. The 
joints of a pig*s legs are short. If I 
can elope with another's love, then at 
last my heart will know satisfaction. 
Apa-bila pfitek fida me-lihat sufitu aajaib 
bhfiru - lah pfitek dfitang meng - fi,dap, 

c^jUl* ^)j csJgfU When thy slave has 

seen some wondrous thing, then only 
does he come into thy presence. Aku 
jfidi-kan pfidang jfirak pfidang ter-kftkor 
negri ini bhfiru-lah pAas hfiti-ku,j-^l 

c&V^ ^ly idjj^ I will make this city 
a plain where the castor-oil plant grows 
wild, and a plain inhabited by doves. 




Bhftsa, ^Ifj 

Then at last shall my heart know satis- 
faction. Ada -pun Mta-nya ka-p&da 
fiku ia handak tidor sampei ttljoh h&ri 
tiijoh m^am bharu ia handak bangun, 

He told me that he intended to sleep for 
seven days and seven nights and then 
only would he arise from slumber I Ka- 
mana-kah mentri-ku sekelian Idma ini 
maka bh&ru tflan-ttlan dsLtang, d50L^ 

^'^ fc^'y ^>i ^^ cH' C^ cJ^ "^y^ 
Where have ye been my ministers for 
so long that now only do ye come to see 
me? Bh&ru tSdi, ^^^ ^j^ Just now, 
just this moment, only a moment ago. 
Bh&ruini, ^^^ji\ Now, just now. Bhfiru 
sekarang, £^l^ j»^ Now, just this 
moment ; now for the first time. Bh&ru- 
bhfilru lagi, ^^3 t!>j^ Just this moment. 
Bharu - kan, ^^ji^ and Mem - bhd,ru- 
kan, ^iy^^rJ^ and Mem-bh&ru-i, ^^^^.^a^ 
To renew, to repair, M&na-mfi,na k6ta 
ian^g rendah di-s<iroh tlnggi-kan iang 
nipis di- tebal - kan iang l^ma di - bhdru- 
kan, ^ ,^fj^ &jy^6 &^j ^ «**/r^L. 
^^^ J l»J ^ ^^^^ wtM AH the forts 
which were low he ordered to be made 
higher, all which were thin he ordered 
to be thickened, and all which were old 
he ordered to be renewed. 

I, ^Ih Language, dialect, speech; 
manners, behaviour, breeding; refined 
habits ; civilization. Bh&sa Malayu, ^l^ 
jjiX* The Malay language. Bhasa J&wi, 
^^^ O^^ The vernacular dialects of 
Malay unmixed with Arabic. 
dalam, ^t^ ^^ High flown language. 
BMsa Mlus, ^*^ ^^^ Refined speech. 
Bh&sa kasar, j^^ j^^ Rude and coarse, 
or common dialects. Bh&sa men-chdrut, 
f>;V^ c^W^ ^oul language. BhS^a 
China, ^jjft^ ^l^ The Chinese language. 
. Bh&sa balek, ^l^ ^\^ An intrigue or 
thieves dialect which consists in turning 
all the words backwards. Bh&sa Sin, 
^^(P^ ^l^ A similar jargon, which is 
spoken with a letter s interposed between 
and after every vowel. Maka &da-lah 
hik&yat ini ^al-nya deri-pd,da bh^sa 
Hindu mdka di - pindah - kan Mih pakir 
Abdullah ka-dd,lam bh&sa Malayu, <^L^ 
i^X^j^Xj^ ^l^ JJy^ ^1 ^] 2i\<^ Jlol 

Bh&sa, ^l^ 

ji^ cr"^ r"*^ ^lj^ ^ jy J^^^y^^ 

This tale was originally in the Hindu 
language and was translated into Malay 
by Abdullah the faJcir. M&ka aku usah^ 
kan-lah diri-ku men-terjemah-kan bhd^a 
itu ka-d&lam bhfisa MaMyu, ^) ctL—^ 

>l^ i/^Wi I busied myself in translating 
that language into Malay. S'6rang seh&^ 
bat-ku iang bijak-sd,na di-dalam bhftsaitu, 

*-^' O^^ fJ'^^ O^"'-^ ^ <^l*<5 ^^y^ 
One of my friends who was thoroughly 
versed in that tongue. Jikdlau &da Mra- 
nya khilap &tau ter-sdlah deri-p&da 
bhasa &tau hflrup-nya me-lain-kan telah 
h&rap-lah hamba akan ampun dan maaf 
tftan-tAan, JUyyl «-ftl^6. ^^1^ a I ^^^ 

t*^ly «.JijL^ ^b ^^y^l ^^\ If there are any 

mistakes or errors in the language or in 
the letters, I trust that ye my masters 
will pardon and forgive them. Note : 
Several of the above examples are from 
the Hikdyat AbdullaJif and the style is not 
what a Malay scholar desires to imitate. 
"Maka &ku usah^-kan-lah diri-ku," is 
not an expression that a Malay would 
generally use, he might rather say, 
" M4ka aku ber-tekun-lah men-terjemah- 
kan, etc." ^^jXp^^^aju* dJj^^ ^] <^L-^ 

The meaning is the same in both cases. 
Orang iang ti&da bhftsa, *^^ M ^j»jl 
^l^ j^\S An ill-bred, ill-mannered, or 
coarse man. Kiirang patut bh&sa-nya, 
^LoL^ JJli ^j^ His behaviour was some- 
what improper. 

Iang per-taraa 6rang ber-bangsa, 
Iang ka-dCla bfldi dan bh&sa. 

Firstly let her be a girl of good family, 
and secondly let her be one who is 
intelligent and refined. Kena sd^ngat 
bh^sa dan l&ku-nya, ^^lo ^^ ^U Uf 

^^^^ His conduct and behaviour were 

most appropriate. Dan d,da-kah angkau 
tahu aadat bh^sa ugama 6rang di-laut 
ini, ^;y Ul ^l^ 5oloybljya>l a^b) ^to 

^\ &^i^ And are you acquainted with 

the customs, manners and beliefs of the 
inhabitants of this sea ? M&ka di-pan- 

dang Mih inang tiia ka - l&ku - an Tflan 
Petri itu sudah ber-{lbah l&yu-l&yu bh&sa 


Bh&sa» ^^ 

tAboh-nya dan ber-sri pAohat wema 
mdka-nya, ^|/^ V ^1 J^l 4jul*o caL* 

^^^-^• ^^-^ *5i>* s?>^->^ The old nurse 
saw that the princess's behaviour was 
altered, that her manner of carriage 
was nerveless, and that the colour of 
her face was uniformly pale. Sabar-lah 
dahMu jangan kita tikam di-atas bd,lai- 
rong r&ja itu s'6Iah-61ah kita ti^da t&hu 
bhasa, ^b ^ «^ ^lc^ J^o ^j^ 
^l^ ^U ^gr 3^ t>dJyuo 4i) eb ^^^li Be 
patient, and let us not fight in the royal 
hall of state, or it will appear as though 
we were imacquamted with good breed- 
ing. Gila bhasa, ^i^ ^^ Eccentric, 
one who has no regard for the conven- 
tionalities of life. Bhasa -nya, ^L»l^ 

As it were ; as the saying is. Note : 
This expression is, in colloquial Malay, 
often inserted whenever the speaker is 
temporarily at a loss for a word or 
phrase, much as the expression* Don't you 
know ? ' is sometimes used in English. 
Note :• The word Bh&sa, ^l^ is fre- 
quently tacked on to an adjective which 
means weak, feeble, gentle, indistinct, 
etc., and in such phrases it is merely an 
idiomatic intensitive. M^ka hiijan p&nas 
tArun rentek-rentek bh&sa, ^J^^ <-s^ 
^Wi V^^j ^y o^^ The rain which 
denotes the presence of evil spirits f eU 
gently. Di-pandang ka-atas sampei 
tftjoh pet&la langit maka di-ant&ra &wan 
iang pAteh meng-andong m6ga iang biru 
ber - bakat kilning angksLsa di - Ungit 
s&yup - sfi-yup bh&sa, ^q*-*--* ^r^*^ 6Js*i^ 

•V>* S c>'^' ^^'^ ^ ^^ J^ ^^ 

-c^Wi V^-^jl^ ^J^^^ He looked aloft, 
even into the seventh sphere of the 
heavens, and between the white clouds 
which held blue rain clouds in their 
wombs, he saw, but indistinctly, the 
yellow ether of heaven. Di-pandang ka- 
bd^wah £Lda-lah tampak sdyup-stlyup bhasa 
s'btlah prdhu ter-&pong-llpong di-tengah 
laut itu, f<-i>>iLe ^5&jr isJIj) &^[^ i^xjj^ 

«^) Byi <iAJj t'^yly yt^ly ^l^-^ ^l^ He 

looked down and beheld, indistinctly, a 
boat rising and falling with the waves 
in the middle of the sea. M&ka &da-lah 
ka-p&da su&tu m&lam &ngin pun baik 
s^oi-sepoi bhd^a dan bCdan pun trang 

Bian-bian, t^^l^^ 
chAacha, ^) ^U &\^^ jJlS JIj) ^ 

^jj oy c?-^ c)'*^ c;-^ v^/^ ^'^ oy 

gl^ One night the wind was favourable, 
blowing in gentle gusts, £md the moon 
was very bright. tTsul men-Anjok-kan 
asal bhd^a men-iinjok-kan bangsa, J^^l 
LJq ^g^u,^ j-»l^ J-ol ^i^^jL* A man's 

whole conduct shews his origin, and man- 
ners shew his breeding — Prov. Noblesse 
oblige. Bh&sa tidda di-jtlal bli, Jl^^^ ^l^ 
^^ 1^^ Good manners cannot be bought 
or sold. 

, Hind., ^g^H Danger, peril; injury, 
evil ; mischief ; the occasion of fear. (See 
B&hia, ^ danger, etc.) 

Bhdnai Pbks., ^^tr^ Peculiarly, singularly ; 
excellent; exceedingly excellent; good; 
very; exceedingly. 

Bi, Ab., <^ The preposition In. Bismi, ^ 
In the name of. Bihi, ^ Within. Note : 
This word is not used by Malays except 
in a few wholly Arabic phrases. 

Biadab, Pers., «^al<>i Unmannerly, rude, 
uncivil, discourteous. (See Adab, <^*s\ 
Polite, etc.) 

BTak, ^ Prolific ; having many young ; 
to increase and multiplv. Biak sd.ngat 
kerbau ini, ^^\ y^ ap^L^ ^ These 

buffaloes are very prolific ; these buffa- 
loes increase and multiply rapidly. 

Btak, ^ The cud. Mamah biak, ^ d^U 

To chew the cud. Note : The word O'gu, 
j^^\ and its compound form, Meng-iigu, 

yjyL* are also used, meaning ' To chew 

the cud.' 

Btak, ^ A tree the leaves of which are 

used for making an infusion which is 
druuk to supplement the smoking of 
opium by those who cannot afford but 
a very small quantity of the drug. 

Btan-btan, f^Lsi A place where all passers 
by are bound to stop in going up or 
down river, under pain of a fine. In 
Pahang such places are marked by a 
Tfili bawar, j^^ ^J^ or rope stretched 
across the river, and in Kelantan, by a 
diamond shaped piece of plaited bam- 
boo and rattan at the end of a long 
pole stuck upright in the ground. This 

is called an Anchak, ^5-^) 


Biang, ^ 

BTang, ^ A oat's mew ; the cry of a oat ; 
to mew, to cry (as a oat). Jerit-jerit 
bfigai kAching btang, ^/ ^l^ f"^^ 

^ Squalling and crying like a noisy 

Btang, ^ Mother ; dam. Note : This word 

may be used either of human beings or 
of animals. It is not often used by the 
Malays of the Peninsula. Biang jS,ri 
tangan, ^U y^j\e^ ^ The thumb. 

Biani, Ae., ^L^ Rice prepared for eating 

in a peculiar manner with meat, fish or 
prawns, and pulse and maize. Note: 
This term is in common use among the 
Malays. Rice prepared in the Malay 
fashion with ghiy etc., is called Nasi 
kebMi, Jj^ ^b 

Biapri, Hind., v^y L^ A merchant, a trader. 
Note : In the colloquial dialects the term 
Sudagar, ^b^ is generally employed 
to the exclusion of all others. 

BTar, ^^ To permit, to let, to sufEer, to 
allow ; to let be, to leave alone. Jfingan- 
lah tAan pergi biar-lah ayah&nda ptnang- 
kan finak r&ja iang lain m&na iang ber- 
kenan pMa tAan, d)^ Jy ^ly dL£>l^ 

cJ^^ 6-^ 1^^ c>i* 6^ eb i5^' o^^^ ^Wi' 
^ly Jci Go not, my son ; permit thy 

father to betroth thee to some other 
princess whom thou mayest select. Maka 
Sembah-lah LaksamAna, * Biar-lah tAan- 
ku ia dtldok me-lthat termdaa,' d)L^.^«^ c^ 

^Uy a^ jj^a ^) yoiy d)^ ^UJi) 

The Laksamana said to the king, * Permit 
them, king, to sit and watch the fes- 
tivities. Biar-lah dahAlu, Jy»»^ <0^ Let 
it be ; let it alone for the present. Biar 
&ku mem-bAat, Sl^^^.^^ yl ^ Let me do 
it. Biar pAteh tdlang jangan pAteh mAta, 
5U d-^y ^U ^y dJfy ^ Let there be 

white bones rather than white eyes — 
Prov.y which means that it is better that 
a quarrel should come to a head, even if 
it ends in bloodshed, than that ill-feeling 
should rankle endlessly. Pergi-lah tAan- 
tAan sekelian mAsok mem-bAnoh Si- Jebat 
itu jika dApat kita tangkap hidup jika 
tiftda dapat biar-lah hamba men-angkap 
dia kalau-kAlau ia ka-lAar lepas lari itu, 
«^t 5^^i-^ ^y^j^ *^U ^^yt)^ t'^^ly ^ji 
3J]6 jLJ c£^ <^J^ c.ft5CAJ 3^ a^la <^ 

Bi&sa, Hind., ^\ti 

4i1 ^g;S Go' all of ye into the palace and 
kill Si- Jebat ; if possible catch him alive, 
if ye fail let me catch him if by any 
chance he should escape and run out. 
triar biar mati tanah jangan lekok bAloh 
jangan p6kah, jy3 ^W ^\S ^U ^ ^^1 

^y o^^ ^y^ ^®* *^® snake die but let 
not the ground be dented nor the bam- 
boo bent — Prov.y meaning, do the deed 
but make no noise and leave no sign. 
Biar m&ti &nak jangan m&ti aadat, j^ 
SjIp ^U ^Uk ^1 ^U Let our children 

die rather than our customs. Proverbial 
saying. Biar-kan, ^..^^ To permit, to 

let, to sufEer, etc. Maka k&mu sekelian 
ber-diam-kan diri kamu biar-kan b&pa- 
mu dMok di-dalam astd^na kita, <-&L^ 

2^ ^^l:ux)l ^laa ^3^j»^ Ye all remain doing 

nothing and suffer this father of yours 
to continue to dwell in my palace. 

BTar-btar, Yj-i:^ Intestinal worms. Biar- 
biar naik ka-m^ta, uoU^ csAi'^lX YjiA The 
intestinal worms ascend even unto the 
eyes. — Prov. Note : This proverbial say- 
ing contains a play upon the words Biar- 
biar, Yyt^ Intestinal worms, and Biar, ^ 
To permit, etc. It is generally used in 
answer to anyone who says * Biar-lah 
dahMu,' Jy»a d)^ *Let it be for the 

present,' in reply to an order bidding 
him do anything. 

Btas, ^^ Wild ; shy, timid. Kftlau pr&hu 
kita ber-bau &yer tAba tidak-kah men- 
jadi bias segala ikan? y\ij^ ^y>iy >3lf 

c>^' y^ O^^ v^*^^ ^^ V^ J^^ K 
our boat smells of the juice of the iilba 
root will not the fish become shy ? 

Btas, ^j^ Wind - driven ; driven by the 
wind ; driven before the wind ; driven 
ashore by the wind. The penetration 
of the sun's rays into a chamber or 
through foliage. The divergence of 
the direction in which the sun strikes at 
different hours. 

Biasa, Hind., ^^ Accustomed, wont, 
inured ; accustomed to, acquainted, ac- 
quainted with, known to ; skilled in ; 
familiar with ; usual. Takut tidak seh&ja 

ta' biasa, ^W '^^ cW-* J^ ^/^ I am 
not afraid, only unaccustomed. Dia ta* 
bifida aadat 6rang pAteh, ^l<rf *to ^^a 


Biawak, j^ltrf 

d^Jy ij^) Salp He is not accustomed to 
white men's customs. Hilang btsa di- 
bAat bi&sa, ^W *l>^ o^ i^ Poison 
loses its effect through one being accus- 
tomed to it. 

Prahu bh&ru tembfirang bh&ru, 
Bh&ru s'k^i m&sok Malaka, 
TAan pun bh8,ru sahya pun bh&ru, 
Bh&ru s'k^b' kenal biclsa. 

A new ship with a new shroud, has 
newly arrived in Malacca. You are new 
and I am new, and ^ newly have we 
become acquainted. Aku bi&sa sftngat 
dengan 6rang tAa itu, ^^^ ^L» ^\f^ ^\ 

^1 ly 4yl I am very well known to that 
old man. Aku ta' bifida ber-galah, *lJ ^\ 
dll?^ U^^ ^ ^™ ^^^ skilled at poling a 

Billwak, ^^\t\ A generic name for the 
Iguana lizards. Note : The Malays dis- 
tinguish between five kinds of Iguana, 
Biftwak gftbok, ^^ ^^W , Bi&wakpong- 
gor, /£>^ ^)^ , Biawak riang-nang, 
P^^ c3-^W , Biawak serAnei, ^^^ j^Uj 
aiid Biawak tembaga, <— f Lj-^ <3^W ^ote : 
The forms B6wak, ^^ , Jawak, ^j!^ 
and J6wak, ^yt^ are also met with. 
Lldah ber-chabang bagai bifi-wak, 5J^ 
^jW ^/^ ^^j^ ^ tongue forked like 
that of an iguana — Prov. Said of one 
who breaks faith with another. 

BiSya, Hind., s^\^ Expense, expenditure ; 
disbursement of money. Mem - bi&ya- 
kan, ^L«u^ To spend on anything; 
to make a payment for anybody; to 
pay anyone's expenses; to support or 
maintain anyone. Note : This word as 
used in the Archipelago corresponds 
to the word Blanja, ^ which is em- 
ployed in its stead in the Malay Penin- 

BTbl, ^«ti Aunt; the younger sister of 
one's father or mother. 

j^ The lips; the edge; the border; 
the brim; the brink. Btbir drang per- 

Btchu, y^ 

ampA-an itu mfirah tAa, ^^^j^y Aa>' y^ 
V ^^^ ^ ^^^ woman's lips were of a 
deep red. Mfirah btbir, j^ ^ytr^ The 
red inner part of the lips. Bibir mslta, 
SU j^ The lower eyelid. Bibir tel&ga^ 
^XS j^ The brink of a well. Bibir 
blanga, ^ y^ The rim of an earthen- 
ware vessel. Bibir kapal, Ji l^ yt^ The 
gunwale of a ship. Meng-atup bibir, 
yi^ 4-JjU^ To close the lips. Bibir iang 
nipis men-jadi tebal, ^gul^ j-*^ ^ y^ 
J-J Her thin lips became swollen (through 

Btbit, l^^ To carry with the fingers; 
to lift with the finger tips. Ada iang 
di-gantong di-bahu-nya &da iang di- 
bibit-nya, ,^i^i^^ ul ^^yt>l^a ^^j^ a I 

Some he hung on his shoulder, and some 
he carried in his fingers. Di-bibit-nya 
Ajong kangkong itu, ^/^ ^y\ ^^s^^ 

^1 He took up the end of the Ipomcea 
reptans in his fingers. Note : The com- 
pound forms, Mem-bibit, <L ^ ; .*.^ , Bibit- 
kan, ^^As^ and Mem-bibit-kan, ^^sl^^ 
also occur. 


Btbit, ISift^ The name of a very small bird 

of yellowish plumage which moves its 
wings rapidly at its sides while it chirps. 
Its note is supposed, by the Malays, to 
pronounce its own name. Note : The 
Malays say that the Chendrawasih, 
d^f^\yys^jj^ the oriental cookoo or Koil^ 

the cry of which is constantly heard 
during February and March, calls to 

this bird :—' Bibit ! Btbit ! Asoh anak 
aku,'/l ^1 6^1 a,^ a«^ 'Bibit! Bibitl 

Nurse my offspring ! ' 

Btbit, Jav., &tf^ Young plants in a nursery, 

Bich&ra, Hind., ^l^ Business; matter; 
affair ; discourse, conference, converse ; 
consultation, advice, counsel ; idea; opin- 
ion ; plan, scheme, device, stratagem ; 
suit, cause, case, law-suit; a business; 
an interview; a business interview; to 
hear a case, cause, or law-suit. (See 

BTchu, y^ A clown ; a booby. Note : This 

word, which is given on the authority 
of Dr. Pijnappel, is not in use among 
the Malays of the Peninsula. 


Bida, J^ 

Btda, J^ A tricky a prank, a practical 

joke. Note : The term Asa, Ul is more 
commonly employed by the Malays of 
the Peninsula in this sense. 

Bidaah, Ae., dOJg or Bidaat, ^Jg Heresy, 
schism; a lie, an untruth, a falsehood; 
lying, untrue; to lie. (See Bedaah, 

Btdak, ^J^ A pawn at chess. Note : For 
the names of the other pieces see Chator, 
j^\^ Chess. Bidak di-lantik, ^5ftaJa ^J^ 

To move a pawn into the last square, 
when it can be exchanged for another 
piece {lit.f "to make the pawn into,*' 
and then is named the piece for which 
it is exchanged). 


BTdal, Jj^ Split bamboos, hSrtam^ rattans, 
etc., for making blinds or flooring; a 
splint used for bandaging a broken bone. 
Note: These splints, which are also 
termed TAar, ^ly are usually n^ade of 
bamboo laths. 

Btdal, Poet., \s^ A thimble. Note : This 
word is a corruption of the Portuguese 

Btdan, Hind., ^j^ A midwife. Jik&lau 
ktta ber-&nak ikut kata bidan, ^ ^^-e^ 

^J^ uolS" S^l ^35!^ If we are in child- 
birth we should do what the midwife 
tells us. Proverbial saying used to in- 
culcate the wisdom of following the ad- 
vice of experts in matters of which we 
know but little. Balas bidan, ^J^ ^l^ 

The name given by Malays to the feast 
which is given at the expiration of the 
forty days of purification which follow 
child-birth. Also called Ber-limau bldan, 
^j^ y^ji Elemu bidan, ^^ ^^lo The 

' science of midwifery. Blanja bidan, ^ 

^J^ or tJpah bidan, ^^J^ d^^l The fees 

paid to a midwife. Pen-empah bidan, 
^j^ dJujj The retaining fee paid in 
advance as a sign that the midwife is 
engaged to attend a certain confine- 
ment whenever she may be called upon 
to do so. This fee usually consists of 
Sirih s*ch6pir timah s'sAku, j l^ -^ ^jtr^ 
^y^^ &j^ A saucer full of siriih leaves 

and 25 cents in cash. The ceremony of 

?aying this retaining fee is spoken of as 
'&roh sirih si-&nu,y 1<h» ^jtt^ ^^^ Placing 
so and so's strife — ^the name mentioned 

Bidar, j J^ 

being that of the w;oman who is about 
to be confined. The actual fees paid to 
a midwife are from $4 to $2 in case of a 
first confinement, $2 to $1 for a second, 
and from 50 cents to 25 cents for subse- 
quent confinements. These are the 
prices for poor people; those who are 
wealthy or of rank pay much more and 
not in accordance with any recognised 
scale. Bidan tarek, ^^IJ ^J^ A midwife 

summoned without previous arrange- 
ment. B{ldak ini {ipah bidan pun ta^ 
ter-bAyar, ^l^/U ^J^ Ai^l ^1 ^ This 

child is not worth the midwife's fee, i.e., 
had better never have been bom. 

BTdang, ^J^ Spreading ; spacious. A nu- 
meral coefficient used with flat objects, 
and with spreading objects, such as cloth, 
etc. Pinggang-nya ramping d&da-nya 
bidang, ^ ^bb ^^^ .^^^^ Her 
waist was slender and her bosom wide. 
Tel&tap s'bidang, ^J^t«-* <-^^ One small 
raft. Khfimah s'pffloh bidang, d)yLo ^u^f^ 
^^ Ten tents. Kd,jang d(!la bidang, 
^j^ 1^ J ^ IS" Two sheets of pa^hyrrhi^us 

angulatus leaves sewn together to form 
a boat-covering, etc. Mem-bidang-kan, 
^j<6wV^,»,^ To spread out. Pem-bidang, 

&Xef».*» y Pem-bidang-an, ^ X (g ^ or more 

coTwnwnly Pem-idang, ^ J^» i A frame 

on which anything is spread or stretched. 
Pem-bidang-an t^mpat men-ekat, ^^^^^ 

J5Cjl^ ^UU An embroidery frame. Pem- 
idang beWQang, ^^ £ ^v>^ » A frame on 

which a raw hide is stretched while 
being cured. Kain sa' bidang, ^J-^sue ^IS" 

A cloth in one piece in contradistinction 
to those where two lengths are stitched 
together to give greater width. Singkar 
bidang, ^J^ ^^^^ A broad plank standing 

on its edge and fixed from one side to 
the other in the interior of a boat so as 
to divide it into two partitions. Note : 
In Kelantan this board is called Kuh, &^ 

Btdang, $J^ Polanisia, which is eaten as a 
vegetable by the natives. 

Btdar, ^j^ A pleasure boat; a boat which 
is used by a rdja or chief, and which is 
propelled by paddles, but never poled. 
Note : Dr. Pijnappel says that this name 
is -applied to a single masted sailing 
vessel used as a state ship by the native 


Bid&rai Hind., ^Ijsj 

chiefs, in the Malay Peninsula, how- 
ever, this name is applied to pleasure 
boats built for use on the rivers. 

Bidllra, Hind., ^Ij^ The name of a tree 
Zizyphis jujuba. (See Bed&ra,^1Jii). 

Btdei, i^^ Venetians; Venetian blinds. 
Bidei btlah, ^ ^^J^g Venetians made of 
thin laths of bamboo. GMong bidei, 
^^j^ ^j^ To roll up Venetian blinds. 

This is the common but less correct form 
of the word Bidal, Jj^ 

Bidiadllrt, Hind., «^^Wj^ A fairy; a 
celestial nymph ; mythological beings 
answering to the Hiki of the Muham- 
madan Paradise. (See Bediadari, ^^^W^)- 

BTdlk, ^J^ and Mem-btdik, ^5iJtw-^ To 
aim, to aim at, to take aim at. Mem- 
btdik ka-m&ta aal&mat, 2U^ SU^ ^^^k'^^ 
To aim at the bulls-eye of the target. 

Btdo', »^J^ A common name for small 
fishing boats. 

Btdo', '^J^ A protuberance of skin, often 
pendent, sometimes seen on the necks or 
under the ears of animals. 

BTdor, jJ^ A slab of tin ; a pig of smelted 
tin ; a weight equal to 2 hdtis or 2f lbs. 
Note : This weight is not in use in the 
Malay Peninsula, and the term J6ng- 
kong, ^^y^ is generally applied by the 
natives to a pig of smelted tin. 

Btdor, ^^J^ An ancient expression for 
a sum of money equal to one quarter 
of a dollar. Sa' ribu bidor, yyXf^ y^r^ 
A thousand hidor^ i.e., 250 dollars, the 
dowry for a rajahs daughter in P6rak. 

Wdu, y^ The chorus which chants the 
* LAgu p&m-cmggil ' or exhortation to the 
spirits at the BUr-hantu or B^r-hlian 
ceremonies. Note : The term Beduan, 
^\y^ is occasionally applied to the mem- 
bers of this chorus. In Kelantan, Petani, 
and Trengg&nu the word Minduk, j^^u.^^ 

is usually employed in this connection. 

BTduan, Hind., ^jJ^ A singing or dancing 
boy or girl; a professional singer or 
dancer; a minstrel; an actor; an actress; 
The individuals who form the chorus of 
exhortation calling upon the spirit to 
descend at the Bjir-hantu ceremony. 
(See Beduan, ^^). 

Bijak-sana, ^UW * 

BTduanda, Hind., Ji>>4 A slave; members 
of the aboriginal tribes who have become 
Muhammadans, and their descendants; 
a halberdier ; a page ; a member of the 
body-guard ; the fighting youths of a 
Malay rdja. (See Beduanda, JJ>)^). 


Biduri, ^^jy^y^ The name of a precious 
stone, said to be the cat's-eye. (See 
BedAri, ^gA>^)- 

Bthush, Pees., J^^i^ Intoxicating; an 
anaesthetic; insensible, unconscious; in- 
toxicated, drunk. Note: Though this 
is the more philologically correct form, 
the Malays, both in the written and the 
colloquial language, almost invariably 
employ the contracted form. Bins, ^^ 
Blus-kan, ^^^^ To apply an anaes- 
thetic, as in the case of an operation. 
Note : Robberies are sometimes com- 
mitted by stupifying the people of a 
house with some noxious drug the smell 
of which is inhaled. To be so stupified 
is called Kena bins, ^^ ^ Where the 
stupifying agent is mixed with food and 
swallowed it is called, Piikau, ^ji and 
this term usually implies robbery effected 
or attempted by this means. 

, Hind., ^^ Wise, shrewd ; prudent; 
discreet; circumspect ; cautious. Mentri 
iang bijak lagi aarip, ^i ^^n^^ ^ ^y^^ 
«^^lc> Ministers who are wise and intelli- 
gent. Karana pad(ika kakanda itu 6rang 
iang aadil serta bijak, 4il Jo^ -sJaU ^l^ 

<5^ 6^ J»^^ ^ ^JL>' ^or your brother 
is both just and prudent. 

B?jak-8^na, ^^l-Ji^hj^ Wise, shrewd; expert, 
skilful; penetrating; sagacious; prudent; 
discreet; circumspect; cautious. Jangan- 
lah Tiian Petri ber-kata damikian karana 
ia itu 6rang bijak-sana d^tang j{lga ia 
sekarang, ,^t^^ uolS"^ <^^ ^^y dL^LeK 

^^l^ Say not so, princess, for he is 
a wise man, and presently he will come. 
Sabar-lah dahMu kar&na padflka kak- 
anda drang t{la - tiia p&da elemu dan 
bijak-sana, Ju^ •JaU ^^l^ J^ <J>?-o 
^Ux^ ^1j ^Ar> j^ t'ly ^^^1 Have 

patience, for thy brother is one who has 
grown old in the study of magic lore, 
and he is very sagacious. M&ka sembah- 
nya, ' Dolat tClan-ku pada bech&ra patek 
Laksamd^oa ini drang bijak-s&na £lda jfiga 


Bijan, Jav., ^^^^ 

bechara-nya,* *xi ^ly ^^a <5^-e-*** 

^\)\^ He said to the king, * Your High- 
ness, in your slave's opinion the Laksa- 
mana is a prudent man, and he has some 
design (in acting as he is doing)/ 

Btjan, Jay., ^^^ The name of an oleaginous 

plant. Sesamum indicum. Note: This 
word is a corruption of the Javanese 
Wijen. The forna Bijin, y^y:^ also 
occurs. The term Lenga, UJ is also 
applied to this plant by Malays. T&bor 
bijan di-ft,tas tasek tiMa akan tflmboh, 
ii^y ^1 aUf ^5^U ^la ^^yx^ y\s Seed 

sown upon a lake will not sprout — Prov., 
said of one who * Wastes his sweetness 
on the desert air.' Note : It is quite 
possible that in this case Bijan is a con- 
traction for Biji-an, ^^e^ Seed. (See 
Biji, ,^). 

U'"> i^9^ -^ seed; a pip; a kernel; a grain; 
the stone of a fruit ; the gist, the pur- 
port, the meaning. Biji-biji-an, t'^jj-^^ 
Seeds. Biji rAmput, ^^x> ^g^ Grass 
seed. Biji bAah delima, ^a ^^ The 
pips of the pomegranate. Biji dArian, 
d^J^"^ s?^^ ^^^ stones of the dUrian 
fruit. Biji mft,ta, cadL. ^^^ The eye- 
ball {lit, the kernel of the eye). Note : 
The expression Biji m&ta, SU ^^s^ is 

used idiomatically to express having 
sufl&cient courage to do anything. ThuSy 
TiSda biji mata-nya handak me-lawan, 
^^^^ JJ^Jt> J^ ^^ ^^ He had not 
the eye-balls to resist; means, he had not 
the courage to resist. Cheh angkau mana 
btji-m8.ta-nya iang handak mem-b<inoh 

aku, dj^^^ j.v^ ^ ^u ^^^ ^uy:i>i d^ 

^\ fie upon ye ! Who of you has the 
courage to try and kill me. H6 anak-ku 
biji m&ta-ku dan bAah hcLti-ku, cs^l ^ 

4xVlit> &^^ o'^ c^L. ^^^ my child, 
apple of my eyes and core of my heart ! 
Maka ia pun rhaib di-m£lta men-jadi-kan 
diri-nya s'biji pclsir di-tengah chior, v-sA^ 

jff^ ^JJa jif^\>^ She vanished from sight, 

turning herself into a grain of sand 
lying in the middle of the cushion. 
Telah di - dengar akan biji r&tap dan 
t&ngis TAan Petri itu, ^j^. ^\ j£>^^ aj 

Bljih, 6^ 

had listened to the purport of the prin- 
cess's lamentations and tears. Ta' p&yah 
di - bacha sArat itu di - khabar biji - nya 
sudah-lah, ,^,<,^ j^^ <k^ &jy^ glja djiU "U 
4jifi>J^ It is not necessary to read the 
letter aloud, if you tell me its gist it w ill 
be sufficient. Note : In some parts of 
the Peninsula, and notably on the Eastern 
slope, the word Biji, ^^s^ is used exclu- 
sively in referring to the testicles ; where 
this is the case the use of the word, either 
as a noun or as a numeral coefficient is 
considered indelicate, its place being 
supplied by BAtir, ^^\ 

Btjl, ^eskfti A numeral coefficient used, for 
the most part, with small or round ob- 
jects. S'biji nylor, ^^ s?*^<«-^ ^^^ 
coconut. Telor Itek s'pMoh biji, ^^ 
^e^ dJyL^ Ten duck's eggs. ChAba 
bawa' plnggan mangkok s'biji dAa, c^a^ 

b^ sP*'^*«^ ^3-^ sj^ "b^ Bring one or 
two plates and cupg ; bring a few plates 
and cups. Tiga biji bantal, ^^^ *— ^ 
J^uuj Three pillows. TAjoh biji krfeta^ 
"W^ ^e^ ^y Seven carriages. Note : 
It is worthy of remark that Biji, ^^s^ is 
the numeral coefficient most commonly 
used by Malays to qualify carriages, and 
not Bfliah, &\ji as might have been ex- 
pected. Seperti telor s's&rang pichah 
s'biji pichah ka-samAa, S>L^ j^^J ^^L-^ 

^)^ d^ S?^^<«-^ V Like eggs in a 
nest; if one is broken all will be broken — 
Prov.j used of friends who will stand by 
one another. M^ka di-ambil Iram dfta 
biji di-bAboh-nya Abat blus dan tempat 
bras s'tempat, ^^s^ )^^ |»^l Ji-^i^ csA_^ 
Ji4A-^ jAji aiJ ^la ^^ a^y ^^a He 

took two vessels and put intoxicating 
liquor into them, and he also took a 
receptacle for husked rice. (See Note 
above, under Biji, ^as^ A seed, ete.) 

Btjih, d^ Ore; unsmeltedore. Bljih tlmah, 
&4^ A,^ Tin-ore. Bljih pfirak, ^^ M^ 
Silver -ore. Kerja bljih, ^^ ^jS To 
work ore. Piiput bljih, d^ Iky^ To 
smelt ore. Relau tempat mem - Aput 
bljih tlmah, &^ d_^ 2^y^ i-i*J y^j 

A smelting house where tin-ore is 
smelted. Note : This term is applied by 
Malays to any ore in its unsmelted state, 
and not, as has been erroneously stated, 
to tin-ore only. As, however, tin ia 


Bijin, Jav., ^^y,^ 

more common than any other metal in 
Malay countries, when a Malay speaks 
of Bijih, d^ Ore, he may usually be 
supposed to be speaking of tin-ore, and 
he does not, therefore, always think it 
necessary to make use of the adjectival 
substantive, Timah, ^^ Tin. 

BTjin, Jav., ^^(s^ The name of an oleag- 
inous plant. Semmum indirum, (See 
Bijan, ^j^). 

BTkang, ^^ Hard, but only of something 

originally soft that has become hard, as 
a hard swelling or hard muscles. 

BTkang, ^ or Bikang-bikang, r^ The 
name of a sort of thin cake. (See Bekang, 
aC| and Bengkaug, ^^^)* 

Btkar, ^^ A rim; a raised edge. Ber- 
bikar, j^^ Bimmed; having a raised 
edge or rim. Liika-nya ber-bikar, ^IS^ 
j<«j^ The wound has a raised edge to it. 

Btkat, S^ A pin; a brooch. Ber-bikat, 
c,.^ ^ Filmed ; fastened by means of a 
pin or booch. Note : This word is given 
on the authority of Dr. Pijnappel. 

Btkin, ^jje^ei To do, to make, to build, to 
construct. Note : This word is not Malay, 
and though it is well understood, is to 
be avoided, since it is only used in the 
bastard dialects of Malay which have 
resulted from contact with Europeans. 
The origin may be a foreign mispro- 
nunciation of Baik-i, ^^l^ 

Bikir, Ar., y^ A maid; a virgin ; a youth 
of tender age, under the rule of parents 
or guardians; one who is not yet emanci- 
pated from the rule of parents or guard- 
ians. Jik&lau ada d,nak per-amptl-an itu 
bikir m&ka ti&da-lah jadi isharat p&da 
ber-tdnya retha-nya itu ada-pun jikalau 
bikir -ny a itu besar iaani aakil b&lirh 
mfika sAnat di-tanya retha-nya, ul ^^KLc^ 
ijAl ^pal^ dJblftJ caU ^ ii\ ^^|>4-y ^1 

^^; ^^^ a*-o ctU ^li J^Jio ^^ In the 
case of a girl-child of tender age it is not 
necessary to ask her consent (to her 
marriage), but if the girl is full grown, 
that is to say has reached the age of 
puberty, it is right to ask her consent. 

Btku, ^^ Jagged; cut away; notched; 
indented; a frill, frills, fnlled. Baju 

Bllah, A^ 

ber-tekat tepi-nya btku, ^^ ^y^ ^\^ 

^<trf An embroidered coat with a frilled 
{or lace) edge. Note: Probably this 
word is a contraction of Ber-slku, ^^Ji 

Btku, Hind., ^^ A hermit, an anchorite, 
Orang biku dan 6rang ber-tApa, ^^ 4)^1 

<-3lJ^ Aa>' v^'*^ Hermits and recluses. 

Btku, ^^ The name of a kind of small 

Btia, ^ When; whenever; time; a point 

of time; at what time? Bila &kan datang? 
^la ^\ J^ When will he arrive ? Bila 

senang? ^^ ^ When will you be at 
liberty ? When will it suit you ? Bila- 
bila, t* J«i At any time ; whenever. Bila- 
bila tiian-ku handak ber-angkat Ma-lah 
patek fledia me-nanti, ^JJ^l^ ^y t*J-ri 
^aju^ ^^j^ <-sVl^ J'»^t 2^\^ Whenever 
1 our Highness wishes to go I, thy slave, 
am waiting in readiness to accompany 
you. Bila m&sa iang tiian me-lihat-nya, 
idrH^ o'y t^ kJ^^ ^ When (at what 
time) did you see it ? Bila-kah, <i^iw 
When, etc. Bila mana ^^*-* Jd at what 
time ? Apa - bila, J-i«^1 When, when- 
ever, etc. M&ka ^pa-bila di-dengar Alih 
duli iang-di-per-tAan ber-istri ta' d&pat 
tiada &kan duli iang - di - per - tiian di- 
sambut-nya jiiga ka - Manjapelhit, <^\-^ 

l^\^^ When he hears that Your 

Majesty has married he will not fail 
to invite Your Majesty to Manjapahit. 
M&ka apa-bila di-dengar Mih TAan. 
Petri sembah bArong Iang itu, <^\_-» 
4il ^ ^jy d-^ ^y^ ^ly d)y ^aj ^) 

When the princess heard what the kite 
said. BArang-bila, Jf«^^li Whenever, 
at any time. Barang - bila di - ka - 
handak-i, ^Jo-^J J<«A?^ Whenever it 
is wanted. Bila-m^na, ^L*^ Whenever. 

BtIa, ^ The Indian B61 tree. 

BtIa, Ab., Jg Without. 

Btlah, dL^ A lath of bamboo ; a piece of 
split bamboo. S'piintong bilah ter- 
ch&chak di-atap, <JiJb ^i^y ^ ^yu 

A piece of split bamboo protruding from 
the thatch. Pfi.gar bilah, ^ ^ U A fence 
made with laths of bamboo. Bidei bilah, 
^ sp*^ Venetian blinds made of laths 


Bilah, dlL^ 

of bamboo. Blali bilah bAat bengk&wan. 
^^K^ &y dkfti dl^ To split bamboos into 

pieces in order to make laths upon which 
leaves for thatching are to be sewn. 

Btlah, <Jl^ a numeral coefficient used, for 
the most part, to qualify short, straight 
objects, such as knives, daggers, boat- 
paddles, etc. M^ka di-bri-nya tdmbak 
s'batang dan kris s'bilah dan pedang 
s'bentok, ^U ^W— S^^ ^ji^ ^ — • 
^^ajLj-*A 6vX3 ^1j <il»<-^ \j^j^ He gave 
him a spear and a kris and a sword. 
M&ka di-pileh pAla ampat pftloh 6rang 
baik - baik mslka di - bri mem - Akai kris 
pandak pada s'6rang s'bilah, AgJ^ csA-^ 

dLw-%« A-»*^ *^ c5*^^ uri^^ They selected 
forty armed men of repute, and gave 
them each a dagger to wear. Peng- 
ftyuh tAjoh btlah, i^ d^^ &>il*-i Seven 
boat-paddles. DAa bllah pisau, dL^ I^J 

j.^ Two knives. Note : Bilah, ^ is 
occasionally used to qualify spears, but 
Bd,tang, ^\^ is more correct in this 
connection. The following instance of 
this use of Bilah, ^ occurs in the 
Hikdyat Hang Tilah. Pedang ber-ikat 
dan be-rantei amas dan per-m&ta dfla 
bilah lembing dan iang ber-sampak amas 

ampat bilah, ^1 J ^jw*1 ^^ ^la ^^ji ^ 

dLfti ai-*l Swords girt with gold and 
jewelled chains, two plain spears, and 
four mounted with gold hasps. 

BTIak, ^^ The name of a tree, Gratceva sp. 

Btlal, JJg The title of the officer of the 
mosque whose duty it is to sotmd the 
call to prayers. Note : The following are 
the officers of a mosque. The Imam, 
^) or priest who reads the prayers. 

The Khatib, h- ih^ who is the preacher ; 
his office is inferior to that of the Imam, 
iMi' and his duty is to expound the 

Kur&n. The Bilal, Jli and the Siak, 

^5-^ (of whom there are always two or 

more), who perform the menial offices 
of the mosque, carry water for the ab- 
lutions, and keep the place in order. 
Maka bilal pun ber-bang di-masjid, c&U 
j,^,M,^j ^ji ^y JXi The officer of the 

mosque sounds the call to prayers from 
the mosque. 

Bilang, ^ 

Bil&lang^ ^Jg A grasshopper, a locust,. 
(See Beiaiang, ^Aj). 

Bilalei, ^Jg A proboscis; a trunk. (See 

Btla-m&na, ^^UA^ When, whenever; at 
what time ? (See Bila, ^ When, etc.) 

BTIan, Bat., ^J^ Spun, woven. Mem-bilan, 
^jjlW^ To spin, to weave. (See Tenun, 
^^ To spin, etc.) 

Btlang, ^ To count ; to tell ; to enume- 
rate ; to account ; every ; each. M&ka 
di-titah-kan Alih baginda sdroh bilang- 
kan md^ka ti&da-lah <i&pat di- bilang 
b&nyak-nya, &jj^ Jj^ <jJ^1 ^^^^^ cM-^ 

^\i ^j JUb d)bUr caU ^^jiil^ The 

monarch ordered them to be counted^ 
but they were unable to tell their num- 
ber (i.e., they were innumerable). Ta' 
ter-bilang, ^l^y 'IJ Innumerable. Ka- 
r&na ia pun, jika di-bilang, &nak r&ja 
]<iga asal-nya, ^1 ^a c^ ^y ^^1 ^l^ 

J^) cSy^ el; For she, if it be reckoned, 
is also of royal descent. Mem-bilang, 
^if^,,»^ , Mem-bilang-kan, ^w^iitn^^^ ojid 
Bilang-kan, ^^^ to coimt, to enume- 
rate, etc. 

B&ma-reLma terbang ka-Bftsau, 
Sampei ka-Rasau mem-bilang j&ri, 
Ber-eLpa l&ma &bang me-rantau, 
Adek iang tinggal mem-bilang h&ri. 

1^ ^^ Y^]j 

sa>W» ^^^^ j^^j^ ^^^ 



The butterflies fly to B&sau, and arriv- 
ing there count their fingers. For how 
long a time, brother, hast thou been 
wandering? Thy little sister who remains 
at home is counting the days. Seperti 
membang iang k4nak-k&nak ti&da mem- 
bilang-kan lawan-nya, V^^^ ^ ^t-^ ^j^ 
^^J ^ <Alcf.,4,^ jl^^T Like unto infant im-